Molecular Basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123072115, 9780323148672

Molecular Basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis

1st Edition

Editors: Barbara H. Iglewski
eBook ISBN: 9780323148672
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1990
Page Count: 484
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Molecular Basis of Bacterial Pathogenesis focuses on the molecular mechanism of disease associated with bacterial pathogens. Topics covered include the population genetics of bacterial pathogenesis; environmental modulation of gene expression in gram-negative pathogens; and bacterial invasion and intracellular growth. Bacterial toxins are also discussed. This volume is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an overview of pathogenesis, paying particular attention to common elements and genetic mechanisms of regulation. The discovery that many bacterial pathogens are clonal, with individual clones often having a greater virulence than others, is then considered. The next section deals with the regulation of synthesis of surface components and their role in colonization of the host and/or evasion of the host immune defense systems; antigenic variation and its role in evasion of the host immune response; and the role of iron acquisition systems in the colonization of the host. Subsequent chapters explore the invasion and intracellular growth of facultative and obligate intracellular parasites. The last section is devoted to studies on the role of bacterial toxic products in pathogenesis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins) and exotoxins are described. This book should be of interest to molecular biologists, physiologists, clinical specialists, pathologists, and geneticists.

Table of Contents


I. Introduction

1. The "Zen" of Bacterial Pathogenicity

I. Introduction

II. The Attributes of Microbial Pathogenicity

III. Corollaries of Microbial Pathogenicity

IV. Concluding Remarks

2. Population Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis

III. Genetic Diversity and Structure in Natural Populations

IV. Host and Disease Specificity in Relation to Subspecific Structure

V. Epidemiology

VI. Systematics of Cryptic Species

VII. Concluding Comments


II. Surfaces and Colonization

3. Polysialic Acid Capsule of Escherichia coli K1

I. Introduction

II. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Escherichia coli K1 Meningitis

III. Biosynthesis of Polysialic Acid and Genetics of K1 Antigen Expression


4. Molecular Studies on N-Methylphenylalanine Pili

I. Introduction

II. Structure of N-Methylphenylalanine Pili

III. Adherence Characteristics of N-Methylphenylalanine Pili

IV. Immunological Properties of N-Methylphenylalanine Pili

V. N-Methylphenylalanine Pilus-Based Vaccine Development


5. Genetics of Adhesion Expression in Escherichia coli

I. Introduction

II. Adherence and Pili

III. Physical Organization of the pap Gene Cluster

IV. Role of Pap Proteins in Ρ Pilus Adhesion

V. Adhesions of Other Pilus Systems

VI. Biogenesis of Ρ Pili

VII. Protein Interactions Essential for Ρ Pilus Biogenesis

VIII. Regulation of Pilus-Adhesin Genes

IX. Concluding Remarks


6. Environmental Modulation of Gene Expression in Gram-Negative Pathogens

I. Introduction

II. Osmoregulation of Porin Expression in Escherichia coli

III. Phenotypic Modulation in Bordetella pertussis

IV. Temperature and the Low Calcium Response in Yersinia Species

V. Oxygen Regulation of Gene Expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

VI. Concluding Remarks


7. Variation of Pilin and Opacity-Associated Protein in Pathogenic Neisseria Species

I. Introduction

II. Pilin Genes

III. Molecular Basis of Pilin Variation

IV. The opa Gene Family

V. Genetic Linkage between pil and opa

VI. Mechanistic Aspects of Antigenic Variation


8. Antigenic Variation in Relapsing Fever Borrelia Species

I. Introduction

II. Virulence Properties of Borrelia

III. Clinical and Experimental Infections

IV. Immunity to Relapsing Fever Borrelia

V. Biology of Antigenic Variation

VI. Variable Antigens

VII. Active and Silent Genes for Variable Antigens

VIII. Linear Plasmids

IX. Models for the Mechanism of vmp Switching

X. Concluding Remarks


9. The Μ Protein of Group A Streptococcus: Evolution and Regulation

I. Introduction

II. Cloning of Μ Protein Genes

III. Relatedness of Μ Proteins

IV. Effect of Μ Protein on Group A Streptococcus Resistance to Phagocytosis

V. The Number of Chromosomal emm Gene Copies

VI. Μ Protein Structure as Deduced from the DNA Sequence

VII. Homologous Recombination Promotes Evolutionary Variation of Μ Protein

VIII. Involvement of Bacteriophage in Μ Protein Expression

IX. Transcript for the emm Gene

X. Positive Regulation of emm Gene Expression

XI. Variation in Expression of Μ Protein in Some Strains

XII. Conclusion


10. Molecular Biology and Regulation of Iron Acquisition by Escherichia coli K12

I. Introduction

II. Background

III. Iron and Iron Transport Systems in Escherichia coli K12

IV. Aerobactin System of pColV-K30

V. Aerobactin System of pColV-K311

VI. Chromosomal Aerobactin Systems

VII. Regulation of Iron Absorption

VIII. Summary


11. Molecular Studies on Iron Acquisition by Non-Escherichia coli Species

I. Role of Iron in Host-Bacteria Interactions

II. Mechanisms of Iron Acquisition by Pathogenic Bacteria

III. Summary


III. Invasion and Intracellular Growth

12. Molecular Biology of Salmonella Pathogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Molecular Biology of Salmonella Pathogenesis

III. Host Resistance to Salmonella

IV. Immunity to Salmonella

V. Salmonella as Vaccines and Carriers

VI. Conclusions


13. Invasion and Intracellular Growth of Chlamydia Species

I. Introduction

II. Chlamydial Species and Biotypes

III. Chlamydial Cell

IV. Chlamydial Virulence Determinants

V. Attachment and Entry

VI. Intracellular Fate of Endocytosed Chlamydiae

VII. Intracellular Differentiation

VIII. Conclusion


14. Interjunctional Invasion of Endothelial Monolayers by Treponema pallidum

I. Introduction

II. Phenomenology of Treponemal Dissemination

III. Attachment

IV. Invasion

V. Relationship of Endothelial Monolayer Invasion to Pathogenesis


IV. Toxins

15. Structure and Function of Lipid A

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Lipid A

III. Structure of Precursors of Lipid A

IV. Biological Activity of Lipid A and Precursors

V. Chemical Synthesis of Lipid A, Analogs, and Precursors

VI. Biological Properties of Synthetic Lipid A and Analogs

VII. Biological Properties of Synthetic Disaccharide Precursor and Analogs

VIII. Biological Properties of Monosaccharide Subunit Structures of Lipid A

IX. Conclusions


16. Role of the O-Antigen of Lipopolysaccharide in Salmonella in Protection against Complement Action

I. Introduction

II. Lipopolysaccharide Structure

III. Complement as an Antibacterial Agent

IV. O-Antigen Structure and Phagocytosis

V. O-Antigen Structure and Alternative Pathway

VI. O-Antigen Side Chains and Protection against Complement Killing

VII. Conclusions


17. Regulation of Chlolera Toxin Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. Cholera Toxin Structure and Activity

III. Environmental Factors Influencing Cholera Toxin Production in the Laboratory

IV. Genetic Studies of Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae

V. Molecular Genetics of the ctx Operon

VI. Transcriptional Regulation of ctxAB

VII. Other ToxR-Regulated Genes of Vibrio cholerae

VIII. Conclusions and Future Considerations


18. The Shiga Toxin Family: Molecular Nature and Possible Role in Disease

I. Introduction

II. Structure and Function

III. Genetic Basis and Regulation

IV Role of Shiga and Shiga-like Toxins in Human Disease

V. Conclusion


19. The Genetics of Staphylococcal Toxins and Virulence Factors

I. Introduction

II. Epidermolytic Toxins

III. Enterotoxins

IV. Membrane Damaging Toxins

V. Other Toxins

VI. Concluding Remarks


20. Molecular Studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin A

I. Introduction

II. Exotoxin A Structure and Activity

III. Environmental Factors Influencing Exotoxin A Yields

IV. Genetic Studies of Toxin Production

V. Characterization of the Genes Responsible for Exotoxin A Synthesis

VI. Regulation of Exotoxin A Synthesis

VII. Summary and Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1990
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Barbara H. Iglewski

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