Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128007730, 9780128010037

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition

1st Edition

A Volume in the Molecular Nutrition Series

Editors: Vinood Patel
eBook ISBN: 9780128010037
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007730
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th November 2015
Page Count: 400
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Description

Molecular Aspects of Alcohol and Nutrition is a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study or treat alcohol-related diseases. Experts from across the field of alcohol research explain how alcohol disrupts normal fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolic processes occurring in the liver as well as other parts of the body.

The book discusses how this can lead to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as contribute to the onset of Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. It also explores how alcohol affects nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to anemia and reduced amounts of fat soluble vitamins.

This book explores both the primary and secondary consequences of alcohol consumption. Chapters in the first section investigate the basic science of alcohol metabolism – focusing on how alcohol and its toxic metabolites disrupt and impair normal nutrient regulation at the molecular level. Further chapters explore how alcohol affects many extra-hepatic organs and tissues as well as the secondary consequences of alcohol consumption such as reduced levels of minerals like magnesium, calcium, and trace elements like zinc.

Key Features

  • Offers a valuable resource for nutrition researchers and nutritionists who study alcohol-related diseases and attempt to treat them through nutritional strategies
  • Explores how alcohol and its toxic metabolite acetaldehyde disrupt and impair normal macro and micro nutrient regulation at the molecular level
  • Investigates how alcohol affects and interferes with cell signaling, cell death pathways, calcium homeostasis leading to osteoporosis, oxygen balance, as well as the pathophysiology of alcohol consumption and abuse

Readership

Researchers in nutrition, diet, and metabolism, and alcohol; graduate students in nutrition, epidemiology and public health; and practicing nutritionists and endocrinologists

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Section I: General and introductory aspects
    • Chapter 1: Nutrients and Liver Metabolism
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Hepatic carbohydrate metabolism
      • Hepatic fat metabolism
      • Hepatic amino acid metabolism
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 2: Alcohol Metabolism: General Aspects
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Alcohol metabolism
      • The epigenetic changes of alcohol
      • Conclusions
  • Section II: Molecular biology of the cell
    • Chapter 3: Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases: Molecular Aspects
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Overview of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases
      • Human ALDH superfamily
      • Modifications of ALDH and biomedical implications
      • Genomics of the ALDH superfamily
      • ALDH polymorphism in alcohol-related diseases
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 4: Alcohol Intake and Apoptosis: A Review and Examination of Molecular Mechanisms in the Central Nervous System
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Molecular profiling of the effects of ethanol consumption in adolescent rats
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 5: Pathogenic Mechanisms in Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD): Emerging Role of Osteopontin
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • General mechanisms of ALD
      • ALD fibrosis – pathogenic mechanisms (Figure 5.1)
      • Role of OPN in ALD
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: The Role of CD36 in the Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Related Disease
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • The structure-function relationship of CD36
      • CD36 and FA uptake
      • CD36 and Ca2+ signaling
      • CD36 as a pattern recognition receptor
      • CD36 in the brain
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 7: Thiamine Deficiency and Alcoholism Psychopathology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Biochemistry of thiamine pyrophosphate
      • Secondary effects of thiamine deficiency
      • Thiamine deficiency, mood and behavior
      • Thiamine analogs
      • Benfotiamine trial
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 8: Vitamin B Regulation of Alcoholic Liver Disease
      • Abstract
      • Effects of chronic alcoholism on the availability of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6
      • Interactions of selected B vitamins in hepatic methionine metabolism with implications for alcoholic liver injury
      • Effects of chronic alcohol exposure on methionine metabolic pathways
      • Epidemiology and pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease
      • Regulatory effects of altered reactions in methionine metabolism and its metabolites on mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease
      • The ethanol-fed micropig model for the interaction of ethanol with methionine metabolism, and induction of alcoholic liver disease
      • Effects of SAM in clinical trials of treatment of ALD
      • Relationships of altered methionine metabolism to epigenetic regulation of gene expression in alcoholic liver injury
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 9: Interactions Vitamin D – Bone Changes in Alcoholics
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Vitamin D metabolism
      • Vitamin D among alcoholics
      • Vitamin D deficiency and bone metabolism
      • Effects of therapy
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 10: Antioxidant Treatment and Alcoholism
      • Abstract
      • Importance of the antioxidant systems to the organism
      • Antioxidant status in alcoholism
      • Antioxidant treatment for alcoholism
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Selenium Dietary Supplementation and Oxidative Balance in Alcoholism
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Alcohol and malnutrition: selenium supplementation
      • Alcohol and selenium tissue distribution: selenium supplementation
      • Alcohol and oxidative balance: selenium supplementation
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 12: Role of Zinc in Alcoholic Liver Disease
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Zinc metabolism and function
      • Occurrence of zinc deficiency in ALD
      • Mechanisms of zinc dyshomeostasis in ALD
      • Beneficial effects of zinc on ALD
      • Molecular mechanisms of zinc protection against ALD
      • Zinc supplementation in human ALD
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 13: Interactions Between Alcohol and Folate
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 14: Effects of Acetaldehyde on Intestinal Barrier Function
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The intestinal epithelial barrier and apical junctional complex
      • Generation and metabolism of acetaldehyde in the gastrointestinal tract
      • Role of intestinal microbiota in production and metabolism of acetaldehyde
      • Effects of acetaldehyde on intestinal barrier epithelial integrity
      • Mechanisms of acetaldehyde-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction
      • Modulation of acetaldehyde-induced intestinal epithelial barrier function
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Cholesterol Regulation by Leptin in Alcoholic Liver Disease
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Alcohol metabolism
      • Effects of alcohol on lipid metabolism
      • Triglycerides
      • Fatty acids
      • Hepatic lipid metabolism is controlled by several master transcription factors
      • Cholesterol
      • Obesity, leptin, and ALD
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 16: The Corticotropin Releasing Factor System and Alcohol Consumption
      • Abstract
      • Introduction: alcohol and the brain
      • CRF, urocortins, and the HPA-axis
      • Function of CRF system components revealed by genetic knockouts
      • Effects of EtOH on the HPA-axis
      • Effects of EtOH on the extrahypothalamic CRF system
      • Effects of CRF receptors on EtOH drinking
      • Ucn1 and EtOH drinking
      • Interactions of CRF system, stress, EtOH drinking and dependence
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Metabolic Profiling Approaches for Biomarkers of Ethanol Intake
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Metabolic profiling
      • Analytical technologies for global metabolic profiling
      • Ethanol exposure studies on animal models
      • Ethanol exposure studies in man
      • Conclusions
  • Section III: Genetic machinery and its function
    • Chapter 18: Gene Expression in Alcoholism: An Overview
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Brain serotonin and alcoholism
      • NMDA receptor and alcoholism
      • Fetal alcohol syndrome
      • Sweet preference and alcohol dependence
      • Stem cell therapy and alcoholism
      • Genetic risks of alcoholism
      • MicroRNA and alcoholism
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 19: Cytochrome P4502E1 Gene Polymorphisms and the Risks of Ethanol-Induced Health Problems in Alcoholics
      • Abstract
      • The polymorphisms of CYP2E1 gene and the nomenclatures of CYP2E1 alleles
      • The polymorphisms of CYP2E1 gene and individual susceptibility to alcohol dependence (AD)
      • CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease (ALD)
      • CYP2E1 gene polymorphism and risks of alcoholic pancreatitis (AP)
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 20: Genes Associated with Alcohol Withdrawal
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Candidate gene studies
      • Genome-wide association study
      • Limitations
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 21: Alcohol and Epigenetic Modulations
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epigenetics
      • Alcohol effects on epigenetic mechanisms
      • Alcohol metabolism influences nutritional status via epigenetic mechanisms
      • Future directions
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 22: The miRNA and Extracellular Vesicles in Alcoholic Liver Disease
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Extracellular vesicle-associated miRNAs as potential biomarkers for ALD
      • miRNA-targeted therapies for ALD
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 23: Alcohol Metabolism and Epigenetic Methylation and Acetylation
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Alcohol metabolism and epigenetic acetylation
      • Alcohol and methyl metabolism
      • Alcohol affects epigenetic converting enzymes
      • Epigenetic footprint of alcohol induced dysfunction and disease
      • Treatment and biomarkers of alcohol diseases through epigenetic pathway
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 24: Molecular Mechanisms of Alcohol-Associated Carcinogenesis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Effect of ethanol on DNA
      • Effect of ethanol on epigenetics
      • Alcohol, retinoids, and cancer
      • The role of estrogens in ethanol mediated breast cancer
      • Summary and conclusions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 25: Molecular Link Between Alcohol and Breast Cancer: the Role of Salsolinol
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Salsolinol derived from alcohol, as a novel causative substance of breast cancer
      • DNA damage capability of salsolinol
      • Proposed mechanisms of oxidative DNA damage induced by salsolinol
      • Cell proliferating ability of salsolinol
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 26: Ethanol Impairs Phospholipase D Signaling in Astrocytes
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Astrocytes
      • Phospholipase D
      • Transphosphatidylation
      • Isoforms of phospholipase D
      • Regulation of phospholipase D
      • Functions of Phospholipase D
      • Interruption of the PLD signaling pathway by ethanol
      • Conclusions
      • Summary
    • Chapter 27: Metabolic Changes in Alcohol Gonadotoxicity
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Metabolic changes in males’ alcohol gonadotoxicity
      • Metabolic changes in females’ alcohol gonadotoxicity
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 28: Molecular Effects of Alcohol on Iron Metabolism
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Introduction
      • Overview of iron metabolism
      • Alcohol and iron: clinical observations and molecular events
      • Exploring the iron-alcohol link for diagnosis and therapeutics
      • Conclusions
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
400
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128010037
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128007730

About the Editor

Vinood Patel

Vinood Patel

Dr Vinood B. Patel BSc PhD FRSC is currently a Senior Lecturer in Clinical Biochemistry at the University of Westminster and honorary fellow at King’s College London. He presently directs studies on metabolic pathways involved in liver disease, particularly related to mitochondrial energy regulation and cell death. Research is being undertaken to study the role of nutrients, antioxidants, phytochemicals, iron, alcohol and fatty acids in the patho-physiology of liver disease. Other areas of interest include identifying new biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and prognosis of liver disease, understanding mitochondrial oxidative stress in Alzheimers disease and gastrointestinal dysfunction in autism. Dr. Patel graduated from the University of Portsmouth with a degree in Pharmacology and completed his PhD in protein metabolism from King’s College London in 1997. His post-doctoral work was carried out at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical School studying structural-functional alterations to mitochondrial ribosomes, where he developed novel techniques to characterize their biophysical properties. Dr. Patel is a nationally and internationally recognized liver researcher and was involved in several NIH funded biomedical grants related to alcoholic liver disease. Dr. Patel has edited biomedical books in the area of nutrition and health prevention, autism, biomarkers, and has published over 150 articles and in 2014 he was elected as a Fellow to The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Westminster, London, UK