Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Adaptation to Exercise - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128039915, 9780128039922

Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Adaptation to Exercise, Volume 135

1st Edition

Authors: Claude Bouchard
eBook ISBN: 9780128039922
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128039915
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd September 2015
Page Count: 560
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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter One: Adaptation to Acute and Regular Exercise: From Reductionist Approaches to Integrative Biology
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Fitness
    • 3 Reductionism, Systems Biology, and Integrative Physiology
    • 4 Genomic and ENCODE Facts: A Gold Mine for Exercise Biology
    • 5 About the Content of the Volume
    • 6 Summary and Conclusions
  • Chapter Two: Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Carbohydrate Utilization During Rest and Exercise
    • 3 Muscle Glycogen
    • 4 Glucose Transport
    • 5 Exercise Signals Regulating Glucose Transport
    • 6 Increases in Insulin Sensitivity for Glucose Transport After Exercise
    • 7 Exercise Training: Impact on Healthy People and People with Type 2 Diabetes
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter Three: Exercise and Regulation of Lipid Metabolism
    • Abstract
    • 1 Crossover Concept
    • 2 Fat Metabolism During Exercise
    • 3 Postexercise Lipid Metabolism
    • 4 Dietary Factors Influencing Exercise Fat Metabolism
    • 5 Molecular Programming of Lipid Metabolism
    • 6 Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter Four: Exercise and Regulation of Protein Metabolism
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 The Regulation of Protein Metabolism by Exercise
    • 3 Signal Transduction Regulating Muscle Protein Metabolism Responses to Exercise
    • 4 Conclusions
  • Chapter Five: Exercise and the Regulation of Mitochondrial Turnover
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Overview of Mitochondrial Turnover
    • 3 Mitochondrial Morphology and Changes with Training
    • 4 Exercise-Induced Signaling: A Role for AMPK
    • 5 Exercise-Induced Signaling: A Role for Ca2 +
    • 6 Exercise-Induced Signaling: A Role for p38 MAPK
    • 7 Exercise-Induced Signaling: Activation of PGC-1α
    • 8 Aging and Muscle Mitochondria
    • 9 Alternative Exercise Programs: High-Intensity Interval Training
    • 10 Effect of Training on mtDNA and mtDNA Diseases
    • 11 Exercise and Training on ROS Production and Antioxidant Enzymes
    • 12 Exercise and the Protein Import Pathway
    • 13 Effect of Exercise on Mitochondrially Mediated Apoptosis
    • 14 Autophagy and Mitophagy with Exercise
    • 15 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter Six: Endurance Exercise and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Mitochondrial Biogenesis
    • 3 Mitochondrial Dynamics and Maintenance
    • 4 Mitophagy
    • 5 Multiple Types of Exercise Endurance Tests
    • 6 Type I Fibers Are Related to Human Endurance
    • 7 Regulation of Myosin Heavy Chain Composition by Aerobic Endurance Types of Exercise
    • 8 Blood Flow During Endurance Exercise and Its Effect on Metabolism
    • 9 Angiogenesis
    • 10 Summary and Conclusions
  • Chapter Seven: Exercise and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Resistance Exercise to Enhance Skeletal Muscle Mass
    • 3 Heterogeneity in Response to Resistance Training
    • 4 The Influence of Systemic Hormones
    • 5 The Role of the mTORC1
    • 6 Translational Responses to Resistance Training
    • 7 The Impact of Aging and Unloading
    • 8 Summary
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter Eight: Exercise and the Regulation of Adipose Tissue Metabolism
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Adipose Tissue Localization and Composition
    • 3 Adipocyte Metabolism at Rest and During Exercise
    • 4 Neural and Hormonal Control of Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Exercise
    • 5 Cellular and Molecular Control of Adipose Tissue Metabolism
    • 6 Metabolic and Molecular Adaptations in Adipose Tissue with Exercise Training
    • 7 Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Chapter Nine: Exercise and the Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism
    • Abstract
    • 1 Liver Response to Acute Exercise
    • 2 The Liver Recycles Carbons and Disposes of Excess Metabolites
    • 3 The Liver Detoxifies by Converting Excess Nitrogen to Urea
    • 4 Hepatic Adaptations to Regular Physical Activity
    • 5 Summary
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter Ten: Molecular Mechanisms for Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Vascular Structure and Function: Skeletal Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and the Brain
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 The Skeletal Muscle Vasculature and Exercise
    • 3 The Heart and Coronary Vasculature
    • 4 The Brain and Cerebral Vasculature
    • 5 Summary (see Fig. 4)
  • Chapter Eleven: Exercise and Regulation of Bone and Collagen Tissue Biology
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 IMCT—Training and Detraining
    • 3 Myotendinous Junction—Training and Detraining
    • 4 Tendon and Ligament
    • 5 Cartilage—Training and Detraining
    • 6 Bone
    • 7 Conclusion
  • Chapter Twelve: Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Acute Exercise Hormone Responses
    • 3 Acute Exercise
    • 4 Chronic Exercise
    • 5 Chronic Exercise and Performance
    • 6 Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Exercise Endocrinology
    • 7 Conclusions
  • Chapter Thirteen: Exercise and Regulation of Adipokine and Myokine Production
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Skeletal Muscle as the Source of Myokines and Adipo-Myokines After Acute and Chronic Exercise
    • 3 Exercise and the Production of Adipokines by Adipose Tissue
    • 4 Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter Fourteen: Exercise and the Regulation of Inflammatory Responses
    • Abstract
    • 1 A Brief History of Inflammation and Its Underlying Relationship to Exercise
    • 2 Exercise and Acute Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle
    • 3 The Resolution of Inflammation Within Skeletal Muscle: A Coordinated Inflammatory Response
    • 4 Beyond the Muscle: Acute Exercise and Systemic Inflammation
    • 5 Summary of Acute Exercise and Inflammation
    • 6 Exercise Training and Chronic Inflammation
    • 7 Potential Mechanisms of the Effect of Exercise Training on Anti-Inflammation
    • 8 Summary
  • Chapter Fifteen: Exercise and the Regulation of Immune Functions
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 The Effects of Acute Exercise on Immune Cell Number and Composition
    • 3 Acute Exercise and Immune Function
    • 4 Chronic Exercise and Immune Function
    • 5 Summary
  • Chapter Sixteen: Exercise Regulation of Cognitive Function and Neuroplasticity in the Healthy and Diseased Brain
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Animal Models of Exercise
    • 3 How Exercise Impacts the Physiology of the Brain
    • 4 Exercise-Induced Signaling Pathways in the Brain
    • 5 The Hippocampus Is the Brain Region Most Influenced by Exercise
    • 6 Therapeutic Role of Exercise
    • 7 Conclusion
  • Chapter Seventeen: Exercise, Autophagy, and Apoptosis
    • Abstract
    • 1 Apoptosis
    • 2 Exercise and Apoptosis
    • 3 Autophagy
    • 4 Effects of Exercise on Autophagy
    • 5 Autophagy and Apoptosis: Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter Eighteen: Exercise and Stem Cells
    • Abstract
    • 1 Stem Cell Definition
    • 2 Introduction to Stem Cells and Exercise
    • 3 Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    • 4 Endothelial Progenitor Cells
    • 5 Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    • 6 Conclusion
  • Chapter Nineteen: Exercise and Gene Expression
    • Abstract
    • 1 Exercise Adaptations
    • 2 Exercise and Gene Transcription
    • 3 Exercise and Epigenetic Modifications
    • 4 Exercise, “Omics,” and Systems Biology
    • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter Twenty: Exercise, Skeletal Muscle and Circulating microRNAs
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 The Regulation of miRNA Biogenesis Machinery with Exercise
    • 3 The Regulation of Skeletal Muscle miRNAs by Exercise
    • 4 The Regulation of Circulating miRNAs by Exercise
    • 5 Limitations and Conclusion
  • Chapter Twenty-One: Exercise as a Polypill for Chronic Diseases
    • Abstract
    • 1 Introduction
    • 2 Exercise as a Polypill for Chronic Diseases
    • 3 Concluding Remarks

Description

Molecular Aspects of Exercise Biology and Exercise Genomics, the latest volume in the Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science series includes a comprehensive summary of the evidence accumulated thus far on the molecular and cellular regulation of the various adaptations taking place in response to exercise.

Changes in the cellular machinery are described for multiple tissues and organs in terms of signaling pathways, gene expression, and protein abundance. Adaptations to acute exercise as well as exposure to regular exercise are also discussed and considered.

Key Features

  • Includes a comprehensive summary of the evidence accumulated thus far on the molecular and cellular regulation of the various adaptations taking place in response to exercise
  • Contains contributions from leading authorities
  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of exercise biology and exercise genomics

Readership

Graduate students in exercise physiology and exercise medicine programs, postdoctoral fellows, basic scientists and clinical investigators interested in exercise for the prevention and treatment of common chronic disease associated with a sedentary lifestyle and poor cardiorespiratory fitness.


Details

No. of pages:
560
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128039922
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128039915

About the Authors

Claude Bouchard Author

Claude Bouchard is Professor and Director of the Human Genomics Laboratory at Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He holds the John W. Barton Sr. Endowed Chair in Genetics and Nutrition. His research deals with the genetics of adaptation to exercise and to nutritional interventions as well as the genetics of obesity and its comorbidities. He has authored and coauthored several books and more than 1000 scientific papers. Among other awards, he was the recipient of the Honor Award from the Canadian Association of Sport Sciences in 1988, a Citation Award from the American College of Sports Medicine in 1992 and the Honor Award in 2002, the Benjamin Delessert Award in nutrition from France in 1993, the Willendorf Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity in 1994, the Sandoz Award from the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society in 1996, the Albert Creff Award in Nutrition of the National Academy of Medicine of France in 1997, the TOPS award in 1998, the Friends of Albert J. Stunkard Award in 2004 and the George A. Bray Founders Award from The Obesity Society in 2008, and the EV McCollum Award from the American Society of Nutrition in 2011. He is a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium since 1996. In 2001 he became a member of the Order of Canada as well as Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University. Dr. Bouchard became a Knight in the Ordre National du Quebec and received the Earle W. Crampton Award in Nutrition from McGill University in 2005. He was awarded Honoris Causa Doctorates in Science from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 1998, from the University of South Carolina in 2009, from Brock University in 2011, from the University of Guelph in 2011, and from the University of Ottawa in 2012. Dr. Bouchard is past president of the Obesity Society and past president of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. He served as the Executive Director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center from 1999 to 2010. He is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Epidemiological Society, the Obesity Society, the American Society of Nutrition, the American Heart Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His research has been funded by various agencies in Canada and the USA, but mainly by the National Institutes of Health.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana