Molecular Action of Toxins and Viruses - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444804006, 9780444600974

Molecular Action of Toxins and Viruses, Volume 2

1st Edition

Editors: P. Cohen S. Van Heyningen
eBook ISBN: 9780444600974
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1982
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Table of Contents

Editors' Foreword

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Diphteria Toxin; Biological Activity

1. Introduction

2. Biosynthesis of Diphtheria Toxin

2.1. Toxin Gene

2.2. Synthesis, Secretion and Regulation

3. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Diphtheria Toxin

3.1. Susceptible Cells to Diphtheria Toxin

3.2. Attachment of ADP-Ribose to EF-2

3.3. Structure and Activity of Diphtheria Toxin

3.4. Mutant Proteins (CRMs) of Diphtheria Toxin

3.5. EF-2 of Diphtheria Toxin-Resistant Mutant Cells

4. Entry of Diphtheria Toxin Into Cells

4.1. Receptor and Binding

4.2. Passage through the Membrane

4.3. Fragment A in Cell Cytoplasm

5. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 2. Cholera Toxin Action and the Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase

1. Introduction

2. Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase

2.1. Components of Adenylate Cyclase

2.2. Cassel and Selinger Hypothesis

2.3. Site of Action of Guanine Nucleotides

3. Action of Cholera Toxin on Adenylate Cyclase

3.1. Site of Cholera Toxin Action

3.2. Radiolabeling of the G-Protein Using Cholera Toxin

3.3. Cholera Toxin as a Probe to Study the G-Protein

4. Future Uses of Cholera Toxin


Chapter 3. Toxic Lectins and Related Proteins

1. Introduction

2. Purification of Toxic Lectins

3. Structure and Physical Properties

3.1. Primary Structure

3.2. Crystal Studies

3.3. Immunochemistry

3.4. Resistance to Physical Treatments

3.5. Chemical Modifications

4. Toxicity

4.1. Animals and Man

4.2. Cultured Cells

5. Mechanism of Action

5.1. The Function of the A-Chain

5.2. Function of the B-Chain

5.3. Internalization of the Toxins

6. Hybrid Toxins

7. Cell Agglutination and Lymphocyte Stimulation

8. Uses in Protein and Cell Fractionation and Characterization

9. Anticancer Properties

9.1. Effect of Abrin and Ricin on Animal Tumours

9.2. Effect of Abrin and Ricin on Human Tumours

10. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 4. Bacterial Cytolysins (Membrane-Damaging Toxins)

1. Introduction

2. Phospholipases

2.1. Cl. perfringens α-Toxin (Phospholipase C)

2.2. Staphylococcal β-Toxin (Sphingomyelinase C)

2.3. Cl. perfringens α-Toxin and S. aureus β-Toxin as Membrane Probes

3. Thiol-Activated Cytolysins

3.1. Mode of Action of Thiol-Activated Cytolysins

3.2. Thiol-Activated Cytolysins as Probes

4. Staphylococcal α-Toxin

5. Staphylococcal δ-Toxin

6. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 5. The Mechanism of Action of Colicin E2, Colicin E3 and Cloacin DF13

1. Introduction

1.1. Resistance and Receptors

1.2. Col Factors

1.3. Immunity

1.4. Tolerance

1.5. Biochemical Targets

1.6. Effect of Trypsin on Colicin Killing

2. Colicin E3 and Cloacin DF13

2.1. Effects on Sensitive Cells in Vivo

2.2. Action of Colicin E3 in Vitro

2.3. Apparant Conformational Effects on the Inactivation of Ribosomes by Colicin E3

2.4. Specific Effects of Colicin E3 or Cloacin Df13 Treatment on Protein Synthesis

2.5. Mechanism of Immunity to Colicin E3 and Cloacin DF13

3. Colicin E2

3.1. Effects in Vivo and in Vitro

3.2. Mechanism of Immunity to Colicin E2

4. Structure-Function Relationships for Colicins E2 and E3 and Cloacin DF13: Molecular Topography

5. Possible Role of in Vivo Cleavage of Colicin or Cloacin in Biological Activity

6. Model for Lethal Action of Colicins E2 and E3 and Cloacin DF13 on Sensitive Cells


Chapter 6. Similarities in the Action of Different Toxins

1. Proteins with a Binding Component and an Active Component

1.1. Cholera Toxin and Others Like it

1.2. Diphtheria Toxin and Others Like it

1.3. Plant Toxins

1.4. Colicins

1.5. Tetanus Toxin

1.6. Botulinum Toxin

1.7. The Toxins of Shigella dysenteriae

1.8. The Glycoprotein Hormones

1.9. Conclusions

2. ADP-Ribosylation

3. Binding to Ganglioside


Chapter 7. The Role of Cell Membranes in Infection with Bacterial Viruses and Colicins

1. Introduction

2. The Action of Colicins on Membranes

3. The Interactions of Bacterial Viruses with Cell Membranes

3.1. Membrane Alterations Caused by Viral Infection

3.2. Membrane-Related Biological Phenomena

4. Conclusions


Chapter 8. Bacteriophage T4 Infection Mechanisms

1. General Introduction

2. T4 and the Other T-Bacteriophages

3. The T4 Genome

3.1. The Genomic Map

3.2. Restriction Map and Cloned Segments of the T4 Genome

3.3. Transcription Units

4. Growth Cycle

4.1. Latent Period, Productive Period, and Burst Size

4.2. Overview of T4 Development

5. Infection

5.1. Adsorption

5.2. DNA Penetration

5.3. Shut-Off of Host Macromolecular Synthesis and Adaption of the Host Machinery for Phage Reproduction

6. Regulation of Prereplicative Gene Expression: Early and Middle Genes

6.1. Messenger RNA and Protein Synthesis in T4-Infected Cells

6.2. Gene Classes

6.3. Appearance and Disappearance of Early and Middle Proteins

6.4. Switch-On and Switch-Off of Prereplicative RNA Synthesis

6.5. Shut-Off of Prereplicative Proteins

6.6. Transcriptional Regulation

6.7. Changes of Host RNA Polymerase

6.8. Fate of the Host Sigma Subunit and Possible New Initiation Factors

6.9. Translational Regulation

6.10. Supplementations and Modifications of the Host Translational Machinery

7. T4 DNA Replication

7.1. Overview

7.2. Synthesis of DNA Precursors

7.3. T4 DNA Synthesis in Vitro

7.4. T4 DNA Synthesis in Vivo

8. Regulation of Postreplicative Gene Expression

8.1. True Late And Quasi-Late RNA and Proteins

8.2. Regulation of True Late Gene Expression


Chapter 9. Protein Kinases and Viral Transformation

1. Introduction

2. Protein Kinases Associated with Viral Transforming Proteins

2.1. RNA Tumor Viruses

2.2. DNA Tumor Viruses

3. Tyrosine Protein Kinases

4. How does Phosphorylation of Tyrosine Lead to Transformation?


Subject Index


Molecular Action of Toxins and Viruses investigates the molecular action of bacterial toxins and viruses and its striking similarity to the mechanisms by which many neural and hormonal stimuli control normal cell functions. Topics covered include the biological activity of diphteria toxin; the role of cholera toxin in the regulation of hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase; toxic lectins and related proteins; and bacterial cytolysins (membrane-damaging toxins).

Comprised of nine chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the biosynthesis and biological activity of diphtheria toxin, toxin-resistant mutant cells, and the entry of toxin into cells and fragment A in the cytoplasm of living cells. The reader is then systematically introduced to the use of cholera toxin as a probe to study the regulation and interaction of adenylate cyclase components; the toxic action of lectins and related proteins such as abrin, ricin, and modeccin; and the ability of bacterial cytolysins to damage cell membranes. The remaining chapters focus on the mechanism of action of colicin E2, colicin E3, and cloacin DF13; similarities in the action of different bacterial toxins; the role of cell membranes in infection with bacterial viruses and colicins; and the life cycle and infection mechanisms of bacteriophage T4. The book concludes with an analysis of the involvement of protein kinases in viral transformation.

This monograph will be of interest to students, practitioners, and researchers in fields ranging from molecular biology and biochemistry to cell biology, bacteriology, and physiology.


© Elsevier Science 1982
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

P. Cohen Editor

S. Van Heyningen Editor