Molecular Action of Toxins and Viruses investigates the molecular action of bacterial toxins and viruses and its striking similarity to the mechanisms by which many neural and hormonal stimuli control normal cell functions. Topics covered include the biological activity of diphteria toxin; the role of cholera toxin in the regulation of hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase; toxic lectins and related proteins; and bacterial cytolysins (membrane-damaging toxins). Comprised of nine chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the biosynthesis and biological activity of diphtheria toxin, toxin-resistant mutant cells, and the entry of toxin into cells and fragment A in the cytoplasm of living cells. The reader is then systematically introduced to the use of cholera toxin as a probe to study the regulation and interaction of adenylate cyclase components; the toxic action of lectins and related proteins such as abrin, ricin, and modeccin; and the ability of bacterial cytolysins to damage cell membranes. The remaining chapters focus on the mechanism of action of colicin E2, colicin E3, and cloacin DF13; similarities in the action of different bacterial toxins; the role of cell membranes in infection with bacterial viruses and colicins; and the life cycle and infection mechanisms of bacteriophage T4. The book concludes with an analysis of the involvement of protein kinases in viral transformation. This monograph will be of interest to students, practitioners, and researchers in fields ranging from molecular biology and biochemistry to cell biology, bacteriology, and physiology.

Table of Contents

Editors' Foreword

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Diphteria Toxin; Biological Activity

1. Introduction

2. Biosynthesis of Diphtheria Toxin

2.1. Toxin Gene

2.2. Synthesis, Secretion and Regulation

3. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Diphtheria Toxin

3.1. Susceptible Cells to Diphtheria Toxin

3.2. Attachment of ADP-Ribose to EF-2

3.3. Structure and Activity of Diphtheria Toxin

3.4. Mutant Proteins (CRMs) of Diphtheria Toxin

3.5. EF-2 of Diphtheria Toxin-Resistant Mutant Cells

4. Entry of Diphtheria Toxin Into Cells

4.1. Receptor and Binding

4.2. Passage through the Membrane

4.3. Fragment A in Cell Cytoplasm

5. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 2. Cholera Toxin Action and the Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase

1. Introduction

2. Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase

2.1. Components of Adenylate Cyclase

2.2. Cassel and Selinger Hypothesis

2.3. Site of Action of Guanine Nucleotides

3. Action of Cholera Toxin on Adenylate Cyclase

3.1. Site of Cholera Toxin Action

3.2. Radiolabeling of the G-Protein Using Cholera Toxin

3.3. Cholera Toxin as a Probe to Study the G-Protein

4. Future Uses of Cholera Toxin


Chapter 3. Toxic Lectins and Related Proteins

1. Introduction

2. Purification of Toxic Lectins

3. Structure and Physical Properties

3.1. Primary Structure

3.2. Crystal Studies

3.3. Immunochemistry

3.4. Resistance to Physical T


© 1982
Elsevier Science
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About the editors