Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Related Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080114774, 9781483185699

Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Related Systems

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs in Electronics and Instrumentation

Editors: D. W. Fry L. Costrell K. Kandiah
Authors: R. Benjamin
eBook ISBN: 9781483185699
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 196
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Description

Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 35: Modulation, Resolution and Signal Processing in Radar, Sonar and Related Systems presents the practical limitations and potentialities of advanced modulation systems. This book discusses the concepts and techniques in the radar context, but they are equally essential to sonar and to a wide range of signaling and data-processing applications, including seismology, radio astronomy, and band-spread communications.

Organized into 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal developments sought in pulse radar. This text then provides a discussion and analysis of a wide range of various modulation systems. Other chapters consider the intrinsic Doppler resolving power of a radar system. This book discusses as well the power illuminating a radar or sonar target that may be comprised of one or more discrete pulses. The final chapter deals with the transmitter-modulator circuits and valves.

This book is a valuable resource for electronic engineers and scientists.

Table of Contents


Abstract

Acknowledgments

1. Introduction

2. Discriminating and Resolving Power

(a) General

(b) Simple Systems

(i) A Single, Simple Pulse

(ii) "Pure" Continuous Wave

(c) Pulse Trains

(i) A Simple Pulse Train

(ii) Irregularly Spaced Pulses

(d) Long, Modulated Pulses

(i) A Single, Long Pulse

(ii) Trains of Long, Modulated Pulses

3. Generalized Resolving and Discriminating Power in the Range-Doppler and Time-Bandwidth Planes

(a) Review of Examples

(b) Ab Initio Derivation of Resolving and Discriminating Power

(i) Resolving Power

(ii) Relations Between Resolving and Discriminating Power

(iii) General

(c) Limiting Resolving Power

4. Intra-Pulse Modulated Systems

(a) Phase-Modulated Single Pulses

(i) Random Phase-Shift Modulation

(ii) Quantized Phase Shifts

(b) Single, Long, Frequency-Modulated Pulses

(i) Quasi-Random Frequency Steps

(ii) Linear Frequency Modulation

(iii) Hyperbolic Frequency Modulation

(iv) Multiple Linear Frequency Modulation

(c) On-off Modulation of Single Pulses

(d) Relations Between Certain Long-pulse Systems

(i) Single, Long, Modulated Pulses

(ii) Trains of Long, Modulated Pulses

5. Pulse Stretching and Coherent Recompression

(a) General

(b) Pulse Stretching and Recompression by a Common Network

(c) Delay Lines for Pulse Stretching or Compression

(i) Dispersive Lines for Frequency-Modulation Systems

(ii) A Delay-Line Loop to Generate Stepped-Frequency Modulation

(iii) The Number of Elements in a Delay Line

(d) Generalized Signal-Space Transformations

6. Allowing for Target Velocity

(a) The Effects of Target Velocity

(b) Common Features in the Doppler Effect and Pulse Compression

(c) Practical Doppler Requirements

7. Doppler-Determination and Anti-Clutter Techniques

(a) Within-Pulse, Time-shared Doppler Discrimination

(b) A Delay-Line Integrator with Between-pulse, Time-Shared Doppler Discrimination

(c) "Split-Pulse" Velocity Measurement

(i) Time-Spaced Pulses

(ii) Frequency-Spaced Pulses

(d) Moving-Target Indication (M.T.I.)

(e) Non-Linear Interference-Suppression Techniques

8. Interactions Between Modulation, Data Processing and Aerial Design

(a) Aerial Gain

(b) Aerial Response Time

(c) Extension of Resolution Limit to Include Aerial Scan

(d) Combined Resolution in Range, Doppler and Angle

(e) Modulation Scanning of a Linear-Array Aerial

(f ) Modulation Scanning of a Circular Array

(g) Pattern Synthesis from Incomplete Aerial Arrays

(i) Interferometers

(ii) Aperture Synthesis from Limited Samples

(iii) Some Features of Incompletely Filled Apertures

(iv) Sequential Aperture Synthesis

(v) Analogies in the Frequency and Time Dimensions

(h) The Constant-area Coverage Law

(i) General

(ii) The Gain of a "Cosec2" Aerial

(j) "Cosecant" Vertical Taper of Observation Time

9. Ambiguity Functions

(a) The Concept of the Ambiguity Function

(i) Range Side Lobes

(ii) The Range-Doppler Ambiguity Function

(b) Formulation of the Ambiguity Function

(c) The Power in an Ambiguity Function

10. Discrimination and Side-Lobes

(a) Generalized Discrimination

(b) Side-lobes in an Ambiguity Function

(i) The Total Relative Side Lobe Energy

(ii) The Significance of Side Lobes

(iii) Relative Side-Lobe Amplitudes

(c) The Effect of Taper

(i) The Use of Taper

(ii) Variants of Taper

(iii) Tapered, Weighted Phase-Step Modulation

(d) Varying Resolution Requirements

11. The Characteristics of Trains of Modulated Pulses

(a) The Spectrum of a Pulse Train

(b) The Ambiguity Function of a Pulse Train

(c) Limiting Doppler Resolution of a Pulse Train

(i) The Effect of Discrete Sample Pulses

(ii) The Resolution of Multiple Doppler Frequencies

(d) Within-Pulse Coarse Doppler Resolution

12. The Combination and Processing OF "Noisy" Signal Sources

(a) The Optimum Weighted Addition of "Noisy" Signals

(i) The Addition of Signal-to-Noise Ratios

(ii) The Coherent Addition of Signal Power

(iii) The Combination of Noise Powers

(b) The Effects of Power Taper

(i) Pre-Amplifier Taper

(ii) Post-Amplifier Taper

(c) The Effect of Signal Sources with Non-uniform or Unequal Frequency Spectra

(d) Video Signal Processing

(i) Matching Signal Envelopes

(ii) Signal Recognition

(e) Diversity Operation

13. Logical and Non-Linear Processing

(a) The Exploitation of Redundancies

(b) Multiplicative Processing

(c) The Effect of Multiplication on Accuracy

(d) The Practical Effects of Multiplicative Processing

(e) Comparison of Multiplicative and Directly-Generated Ambiguity Functions

(f) Correlation with a "Noise-Free" Reference Signal

(g) Monopulse

14.The Reception of Signals of Large Time-Bandwidth Product via a Varying Propagation Path

(a) General

(b) Doppler Tolerances for Linear f.m. and Pseudo-Random "Noise"

(c) The Effects of Rapid Random Signal Perturbations on Matchedfilter Reception

(d) The "Optimum" Mix of Coherent and Non-Coherent Integration

(e) Tolerances in Direction of Arrival and Further Generalizations

15. Practical Considerations, Future Prospects and Past Results

(a) Network Designs

(b) Transmitter Considerations

(c) Data-Processing Considerations

(d) Practical Examples

(e) Prognosis

Postscript

Appendix I. The Choice of Range Discrimination

(a) The Case for High-Range Discrimination

(b) The Radar Return from a Simple Geometric Body

(c) The Choice of "Optimum" Range Discrimination

(d) Detector Bandwidth

Appendix II. Geometric Derivation of the Response Characteristics of Some Simple Filters, and of the Radiation Patterns of Simple Aerial Arrays

(a) Derivation of the "Sin x/x" Characteristic

(i) The Response of a Correlator or "High-Q" Resonator

(ii) The Far-Field Pattern of a Uniformly Radiating Aperture

(b) Modification of the Lobe Pattern

(i) Emphasis of the Main Lobe

(ii) Reduction of Side Lobes

Appendix III. The Optimum Gain of a Recirculating Intergrator

Other Titles in this Series

Details

No. of pages:
196
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483185699

About the Editor

D. W. Fry

L. Costrell

K. Kandiah

About the Author

R. Benjamin