# Modern Physics

## 1st Edition

### for Scientists and Engineers

**Authors:**John Morrison

**eBook ISBN:**9780123859112

**eBook ISBN:**9780123751133

**eBook ISBN:**9780123851796

**Hardcover ISBN:**9780123751126

**Imprint:**Academic Press

**Published Date:**29th December 2009

**Page Count:**488

## Description

*Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers* provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of modern physics and to the various fields of contemporary physics. The book's main goal is to help prepare engineering students for the upper division courses on devices they will later take, and to provide physics majors and engineering students an up-to-date description of contemporary physics. The book begins with a review of the basic properties of particles and waves from the vantage point of classical physics, followed by an overview of the important ideas of new quantum theory. It describes experiments that help characterize the ways in which radiation interacts with matter. Later chapters deal with particular fields of modern physics. These include includes an account of the ideas and the technical developments that led to the ruby and helium-neon lasers, and a modern description of laser cooling and trapping of atoms. The treatment of condensed matter physics is followed by two chapters devoted to semiconductors that conclude with a phenomenological description of the semiconductor laser. Relativity and particle physics are then treated together, followed by a discussion of Feynman diagrams and particle physics.

## Key Features

- Develops modern quantum mechanical ideas systematically and uses these ideas consistently throughout the book
- Carefully considers fundamental subjects such as transition probabilities, crystal structure, reciprocal lattices, and Bloch theorem which are fundamental to any treatment of lasers and semiconductor devices
- Uses applets which make it possible to consider real physical systems such as many-electron atoms and semi-conductor devices

## Readership

Sophomore-Junior level students in engineering, physics and other science related disciplines taking a modern physics course

## Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1 The Wave-Particle Duality

1.1 The Particle Model of Light

1.1.1 The Photoelectric Effect

1.1.2 The Absorption and Emission of Light by Atoms

1.1.3 The Compton Effect

1.2 The Wave Model of Radiation and Matter

1.2.1 X-Ray Scattering

1.2.2 Electron Waves

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation

2.1 The Wave Equation

2.2 Probabilities and Average Values

2.3 The Finite Potential Well

2.4 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator

2.4.1 The Schrödinger Equation for the Oscillator

2.5 Time Evolution of the Wave Function

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 3 Operators and Waves

3.1 Observables, Operators, and Eigenvalues

3.2 ∗Algebraic Solution of the Oscillator

3.3 Electron Scattering

3.3.1 Scattering from a Potential Step

3.3.2 Barrier Penetration and Tunneling

3.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

3.4.1 The Simultaneous Measurement of Two Variables

3.4.2 Wave Packets and the Uncertainty Principle

3.4.3 Average Value of the Momentum and the Energy

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 4 Hydrogen Atom

4.1 The Gross Structure of Hydrogen

4.1.1 The Schrödinger Equation in Three Dimensions

4.1.2 The Energy Levels of Hydrogen

4.1.3 The Wave Functions of Hydrogen

4.1.4 Probabilities and Average Values in Three Dimensions

4.1.5 The Intrinsic Spin of the Electron

4.2 Radiative Transitions

4.2.1 The Einstein A and B Coefficients

4.2.2 Transition Probabilities

4.2.3 Selection Rules

4.3 The Fine Structure of Hydrogen

4.3.1 The Magnetic Moment of the Electron

4.3.2 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment

4.3.3 The Spin of the Electron

4.3.4 The Addition of Angular Momentum

4.3.5 Rule for Addition of Angular Momenta

4.3.6 ∗The Fine Structure

4.3.7 ∗The Zeeman Effect

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 5 Many-Electron Atoms

5.1 The Independent-Particle Model

5.1.1 Antisymmetric Wave Functions and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

5.1.2 The Central-Field Approximation

5.2 Shell Structure and the Periodic Table

5.3 The LS Term Energies

5.4 Configurations of Two Electrons

5.4.1 Configurations of Equivalent Electrons

5.4.2 Configurations of Two Nonequivalent Electrons

5.5 The Hartree-Fock Method

5.5.1 A Hartree-Fock Applet

5.5.2 The Size of Atoms and the Strength of Their Interactions

Suggestion for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 6 The Emergence of Masers and Lasers

6.1 Radiative Transitions

6.2 Laser Amplification

6.3 Laser Cooling

6.4 ∗Magneto-Optical Traps

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 7 Statistical Physics

7.1 The Nature of Statistical Laws

7.2 An Ideal Gas

7.3 Applications of Maxwell-Boltzmann Statistics

7.3.1 Maxwell Distribution of the Speeds of Gas Particles

7.3.2 Black-Body Radiation

7.4 Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics

7.4.1 The Four Laws of Thermodynamics

7.5 A Perfect Quantum Gas

7.6 Bose-Einstein Condensation

7.7 Free-Electron Theory of Metals

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 8 Electronic Structure of Solids

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Bravais Lattice

8.3 Additional Crystal Structures

8.3.1 The Diamond Structure

8.3.2 The Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure

8.3.3 The Sodium Chloride Structure

8.4 The Reciprocal Lattice

8.5 Lattice Planes

8.6 Blochs Theorem

8.7 Diffraction of Electrons by an Ideal Crystal

8.8 The Band Gap

8.9 Classification of Solids

8.9.1 The Band Picture

8.9.2 The Bond Picture

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 9 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors

9.1 Density of Charge Carriers in Semiconductors

9.2 Doped Crystals

9.3 A Few Simple Devices

9.3.1 The p-n Junction

9.3.2 Bipolar Transistors

9.3.3 Junction Field-Effect Transistors (JFET)

9.3.4 MOSFETs

Suggestions for Further Reading

Summary

Questions

Chapter 10 Semiconductor Lasers

10.1 Motion of Electrons in a Crystal

10.2 Band Structure of Semiconductors

10.2.1 Conduction Bands

10.2.2 Valence Bands

10.2.3 Optical Transitions

10.3 Heterostructures

10.3.1 Properties of Heterostructures

10.3.2 Experimental Methods

10.3.3 Theoretical Methods

10.3.4 Band Engineering

10.4 Quantum Wells

10.4.1 The Finite Well

10.4.2 Two-Dimensional Systems

10.4.3 ∗Quantum Wells in Heterostructures

10.5 Quantum Barriers

10.5.1 Scattering from a Potential Step

10.5.2 T-Matrices

10.6 Reflection and Transmission of Light

10.6.1 Reflection and Transmission by an Interface

10.6.2 The Fabry-Perot Laser

10.7 Phenomenological Description of Diode Lasers

10.7.1 The Rate Equation

10.7.2 Well Below Threshold

10.7.3 The Laser Threshold

10.7.4 Above Threshold

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 11 Relativity I

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Galilean Transformations

11.3 The Relative Nature of Simultaneity

11.4 Lorentz Transformation

11.4.1 The Transformation Equations

11.4.2 Lorentz Contraction

11.4.3 Time Dilation

11.4.4 The Invariant Space-Time Interval

11.4.5 Addition of Velocities

11.4.6 The Doppler Effect

11.5 Space-Time Diagrams

11.5.1 Particle Motion

11.5.2 Lorentz Transformations

11.5.3 The Light Cone

11.6 Four-Vectors

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 12 Relativity II

12.1 Momentum and Energy

12.2 Conservation of Energy and Momentum

12.3 ∗The Dirac Theory of the Electron

12.3.1 Review of the Schrödinger Theory

12.3.2 The Klein-Gordon Equation

12.3.3 The Dirac Equation

12.3.4 Plane Wave Solutions of the Dirac Equation

12.4 ∗Field Quantization

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 13 Particle Physics

13.1 Leptons and Quarks

13.2 Conservation Laws

13.2.1 Energy, Momentum, and Charge

13.2.2 Lepton Number

13.2.3 Baryon Number

13.2.4 Strangeness

13.2.5 Charm, Beauty, and Truth

13.3 Spatial Symmetries

13.3.1 Angular Momentum of Composite Systems

13.3.2 Parity

13.3.3 Charge Conjugation

13.4 Isospin and Color

13.4.1 Isospin

13.4.2 Color

13.5 Feynman Diagrams

13.5.1 Electromagnetic Interactions

13.5.2 Weak Interactions

13.5.3 Strong Interactions

13.6 ∗The Flavor and Color SU(3) Symmetries

13.6.1 The SU(3) Symmetry Group

13.6.2 The Representations of SU(3)

13.7 ∗Gauge Invariance and the Higgs Boson

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Chapter 14 Nuclear Physics

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Properties of Nuclei

14.2.1 Nuclear Sizes

14.2.2 Binding Energies

14.2.3 The Semiempirical Mass Formula

14.3 Decay Processes

14.3.1 Alpha Decay

14.3.2 The β-Stability Valley

14.3.3 Gamma Decay

14.3.4 Natural Radioactivity

14.4 The Nuclear Shell Model

14.4.1 Nuclear Potential Wells

14.4.2 Nucleon States

14.4.3 Magic Numbers

14.4.4 The Spin-Orbit Interaction

14.5 Excited States of Nuclei

Suggestions for Further Reading

Basic Equations

Summary

Questions

Problems

Appendix A Natural Constants and Conversion Factors

Appendix B Atomic Masses

Appendix C Solution of the Oscillator Equation

Appendix D The Average Value of the Momentum

Appendix E The Hartree-Fock Applet

Appendix F Integrals That Arise in Statistical Physics

Appendix G The Abinit Applet

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 488

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Academic Press 2010

- Published:
- 29th December 2009

- Imprint:
- Academic Press

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780123859112

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780123751133

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780123851796

- Hardcover ISBN:
- 9780123751126

## About the Author

### John Morrison

John Morrison received a BS degree in Physics from University of Santa Clara in California. During his undergraduate years, he majored in English, Philosophy, and Physics and served as the editor of the campus literary magazine, the Owl. Enrolling at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, he received a PhD degree in theoretical Physics and moved on to postdoctoral research at Argonne National Laboratory where he was a member of the Heavy Atom Group. He then went to Sweden where he received a grant from the Swedish Research Council to build up a research group in theoretical atomic physics at Chalmers Technical University in Goteborg, Sweden. Working together with Ingvar Lindgren, he taught a graduate level-course in theoretical atomic physics for a number of years. Their teaching lead to the publication of the monograph, Atomic Many-Body Theory, which first appeared as Volume 13 of the Springer Series on Chemical Physics. The second edition of this book has become a Springer classic. Returning to the United States, John Morrison obtained a position in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at University of Louisville where he has taught courses in elementary physics, astronomy, modern physics, and quantum mechanics. In recent years, he has traveled extensively in Latin America and the Middle East maintaining contacts with scientists and mathematicians at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Technion University in Haifa. During the Fall semester of 2009, he taught a course on computational physics at Birzeit University near Ramallah on the West Bank, and he has recruited Palestinian students for the graduate program in physics at University of Louisville. He speaks English, Swedish, and Spanish, and he is currently studying Arabic and Hebrew.

### Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, KY, USA