Modern Metallography

Modern Metallography

The Commonwealth and International Library: Metallurgy Division

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Authors: R. E. Smallman, K. H. G. Ashbee
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483180946

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Modern Metallography focuses on the defects in the properties of metals, such as precipitates, cracks, grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults, and impurity atoms. The publication first offers information on reflected light microscopy and high temperature microscopy. Discussions focus on specimen preparation, defects of lenses, methods of increasing the resolving power of an objective, long working distance objectives, and typical hot-stage experiments. The text then elaborates on surface topography and polarizing microscope, including oblique illumination, interferometry, examination of anisotropic surfaces, and other uses of polarized light microscopy. The text takes a look at X-ray metallography and specialized X-ray diffraction techniques. Topics include Laue method and orientation, structure factor, powder method and the accurate measurement of lattice parameters, Bragg law, sheet textures, and preferred orientation. The publication further elaborates on electron microscopy and metallography at the atomic level. The manuscript is a valuable reference for students and readers interested in modern metallography.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    I. Reflected Light Microscopy


    Specimen Preparation

    The Reflected Light Microscope

    Defects of Lenses

    Methods of Increasing the Resolving Power of an Objective

    Examples of the Contrast Observed with Reflected Light

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    II. High Temperature Microscopy


    Long Working Distance Objectives

    Typical Hot-Stage Experiments

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    III. Surface Topography

    The Importance of Surface Topography Observations

    Oblique Illumination

    Opaque Stop and Phase Contrast


    Examples of Surface Topography

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    IV. The Polarizing Microscope

    Polarized Light

    Examination of Anisotropic Surfaces

    Other Uses of Polarized Light Microscopy

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    V. X-Ray Metallography


    White and Characteristic Radiation

    The Laue Conditions

    The Bragg Law

    The Structure Factor

    The Laue Method and Orientation Determination

    Powder Method and the Accurate Measurement of Lattice Parameters

    Appendix to Chapter V

    The Reciprocal Lattice and the Reflection Sphere

    Vector Notation


    Suggestions for Further Reading

    VI. Specialized X-Ray Diffraction Techniques


    Preferred Orientation

    Wire Textures

    Sheet Textures

    Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Micro-Probe Analyzer

    The Observation of Dislocations by X-Ray Diffraction Contrast

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    VII. Electron Microscopy—I. Electron Microscope

    Electron Wavelength

    The Electron Microscope

    The Electron Gun and Condenser Lens System

    Specimen Assembly

    Lens Defects

    Control of Focusing and Magnification

    Bright- and Dark-Field Images

    Selected Area Diffraction


    Recording the Image

    Microscope Attachments

    Preparation of Specimens

    Replica Techniques

    Thin Metal Foil Techniques

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    VIII. Electron Microscopy—II. Contrast Theory


    Diffraction of Electrons by Perfect Crystals

    Electron Diffraction by an Imperfect Crystal

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    IX. Electron Microscopy—III. Interpretation


    Analysis of Selected Area Diffraction Patterns

    Interpretation of Additional Features on S.A.D. Patterns

    Indexing Crystallographic Features on Micrographs

    Contrast from Dislocations and the g. b Analysis

    Stacking Fault Contrast and the Displacement Vector

    Measurement of the Stacking Fault Energy

    Nature of Prismatic Dislocation Loops

    Dislocation Densities

    Precipitation Phenomena

    Heating-Stage Experiments

    Cooling-Stage Experiments

    Suggestions for Further Reading

    X. Metallography at the Atomic Level

    Field-Ion Microscope


    Neutron Diffraction

    Suggestions for Further Reading


Product details

  • No. of pages: 224
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483180946

About the Authors

R. E. Smallman

After gaining his PhD in 1953, Professor Smallman spent five years at the Atomic Energy Research

Establishment at Harwell before returning to the University of Birmingham, where he became Professor

of Physical Metallurgy in 1964 and Feeney Professor and Head of the Department of Physical

Metallurgy and Science of Materials in 1969. He subsequently became Head of the amalgamated

Department of Metallurgy and Materials (1981), Dean of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and

the first Dean of the newly created Engineering Faculty in 1985. For five years he wasVice-Principal

of the University (1987-92).

He has held visiting professorship appointments at the University of Stanford, Berkeley, Pennsylvania

(USA), New SouthWales (Australia), Hong Kong and Cape Town, and has received Honorary

Doctorates from the University of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia), University ofWales and Cranfield University.

His research work has been recognized by the award of the Sir George Beilby Gold Medal of the

Royal Institute of Chemistry and Institute of Metals (1969), the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of

Metals for contributions to Physical Metallurgy (1972), the Platinum Medal, the premier medal of

the Institute of Materials (1989), and the Acta Materialia Gold Medal (2004).

Hewas elected a Fellowof the Royal Society (1986), a Fellowof the RoyalAcademy of Engineering

(1990), a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Engineering (2005), and

appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1992. A former Council Member of the

Science and Engineering Research Council, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Materials

and President of the Federated European Materials Societies. Since retirement he has been academic

consultant for a number of institutions both in the UK and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, UK

K. H. G. Ashbee

About the Editors

W. S. Owen

D. W. Hopkins

Affiliations and Expertise

University College of Swansea, UK

H. M. Finniston

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