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Modern Metallography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080115702, 9781483180946

Modern Metallography

1st Edition

The Commonwealth and International Library: Metallurgy Division

Authors: R. E. Smallman K. H. G. Ashbee
Editors: W. S. Owen D. W. Hopkins H. M. Finniston
eBook ISBN: 9781483180946
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 224
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Modern Metallography focuses on the defects in the properties of metals, such as precipitates, cracks, grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults, and impurity atoms. The publication first offers information on reflected light microscopy and high temperature microscopy. Discussions focus on specimen preparation, defects of lenses, methods of increasing the resolving power of an objective, long working distance objectives, and typical hot-stage experiments. The text then elaborates on surface topography and polarizing microscope, including oblique illumination, interferometry, examination of anisotropic surfaces, and other uses of polarized light microscopy. The text takes a look at X-ray metallography and specialized X-ray diffraction techniques. Topics include Laue method and orientation, structure factor, powder method and the accurate measurement of lattice parameters, Bragg law, sheet textures, and preferred orientation. The publication further elaborates on electron microscopy and metallography at the atomic level. The manuscript is a valuable reference for students and readers interested in modern metallography.

Table of Contents


I. Reflected Light Microscopy


Specimen Preparation

The Reflected Light Microscope

Defects of Lenses

Methods of Increasing the Resolving Power of an Objective

Examples of the Contrast Observed with Reflected Light

Suggestions for Further Reading

II. High Temperature Microscopy


Long Working Distance Objectives

Typical Hot-Stage Experiments

Suggestions for Further Reading

III. Surface Topography

The Importance of Surface Topography Observations

Oblique Illumination

Opaque Stop and Phase Contrast


Examples of Surface Topography

Suggestions for Further Reading

IV. The Polarizing Microscope

Polarized Light

Examination of Anisotropic Surfaces

Other Uses of Polarized Light Microscopy

Suggestions for Further Reading

V. X-Ray Metallography


White and Characteristic Radiation

The Laue Conditions

The Bragg Law

The Structure Factor

The Laue Method and Orientation Determination

Powder Method and the Accurate Measurement of Lattice Parameters

Appendix to Chapter V

The Reciprocal Lattice and the Reflection Sphere

Vector Notation


Suggestions for Further Reading

VI. Specialized X-Ray Diffraction Techniques


Preferred Orientation

Wire Textures

Sheet Textures

Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

Micro-Probe Analyzer

The Observation of Dislocations by X-Ray Diffraction Contrast

Suggestions for Further Reading

VII. Electron Microscopy—I. Electron Microscope

Electron Wavelength

The Electron Microscope

The Electron Gun and Condenser Lens System

Specimen Assembly

Lens Defects

Control of Focusing and Magnification

Bright- and Dark-Field Images

Selected Area Diffraction


Recording the Image

Microscope Attachments

Preparation of Specimens

Replica Techniques

Thin Metal Foil Techniques

Suggestions for Further Reading

VIII. Electron Microscopy—II. Contrast Theory


Diffraction of Electrons by Perfect Crystals

Electron Diffraction by an Imperfect Crystal

Suggestions for Further Reading

IX. Electron Microscopy—III. Interpretation


Analysis of Selected Area Diffraction Patterns

Interpretation of Additional Features on S.A.D. Patterns

Indexing Crystallographic Features on Micrographs

Contrast from Dislocations and the g. b Analysis

Stacking Fault Contrast and the Displacement Vector

Measurement of the Stacking Fault Energy

Nature of Prismatic Dislocation Loops

Dislocation Densities

Precipitation Phenomena

Heating-Stage Experiments

Cooling-Stage Experiments

Suggestions for Further Reading

X. Metallography at the Atomic Level

Field-Ion Microscope


Neutron Diffraction

Suggestions for Further Reading



No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1966
1st January 1966
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

R. E. Smallman

After gaining his PhD in 1953, Professor Smallman spent five years at the Atomic Energy Research

Establishment at Harwell before returning to the University of Birmingham, where he became Professor

of Physical Metallurgy in 1964 and Feeney Professor and Head of the Department of Physical

Metallurgy and Science of Materials in 1969. He subsequently became Head of the amalgamated

Department of Metallurgy and Materials (1981), Dean of the Faculty of Science and Engineering, and

the first Dean of the newly created Engineering Faculty in 1985. For five years he wasVice-Principal

of the University (1987-92).

He has held visiting professorship appointments at the University of Stanford, Berkeley, Pennsylvania

(USA), New SouthWales (Australia), Hong Kong and Cape Town, and has received Honorary

Doctorates from the University of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia), University ofWales and Cranfield University.

His research work has been recognized by the award of the Sir George Beilby Gold Medal of the

Royal Institute of Chemistry and Institute of Metals (1969), the Rosenhain Medal of the Institute of

Metals for contributions to Physical Metallurgy (1972), the Platinum Medal, the premier medal of

the Institute of Materials (1989), and the Acta Materialia Gold Medal (2004).

Hewas elected a Fellowof the Royal Society (1986), a Fellowof the RoyalAcademy of Engineering

(1990), a Foreign Associate of the United States National Academy of Engineering (2005), and

appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1992. A former Council Member of the

Science and Engineering Research Council, he has been Vice-President of the Institute of Materials

and President of the Federated European Materials Societies. Since retirement he has been academic

consultant for a number of institutions both in the UK and overseas.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, UK

K. H. G. Ashbee

About the Editors

W. S. Owen

D. W. Hopkins

Affiliations and Expertise

University College of Swansea, UK

H. M. Finniston

Ratings and Reviews