Modern Gear Production - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080158358, 9781483157344

Modern Gear Production

1st Edition

Authors: H J Watson
eBook ISBN: 9781483157344
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1970
Page Count: 376
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Modern Gear Production focuses on the processes and methods in gear making. The book first gives information on the history of gear making and types of gears. Topics such as the classification of gears based on the disposition of their shafts; shafts lying in the same plane with axes intersecting; and shafts lying in parallel planes but with axes inclined to one another are then discussed. The text describes gear groups, tooth forms, and gear materials. Heat treatment of steels, casehardening, nitriding, induction hardening, sulfinuzing, and flame hardening are explained. The book takes a look at blank manufacture, gear milling, and gear shaping and planning. The text further examines gear hobbing. Topics include precision of hobbing machines, worm-wheel hobbing, hob setting, control of accuracy of gears, and hobbing gears for general purposes. The different kinds of hobs, profile grinding, and shaving and lapping are also discussed. The book also focuses on other manufacturing methods, such as thread whirling, broaching gear teeth, tooth rounding, work hardening, and electrochemical machining. The text is a vital source of data for readers interested in gear making.

Table of Contents



1. Brief History of Gear Making

2. Types of Gear

2.1. Classification of Gears Based on The Disposition of Their Shafts

2.1.1. Shafts Lying in Same Plane and Parallel—Spur Gears

2.1.2. Helical Gears

2.2. Shafts Lying in Same Plane with Axes Intersecting—Bevel Gears

2.2.1. Straight Bevel Gears

2.2.2. Spiral Bevel Gears

2.2.3. Conical Bevel Gears

2.3. Shafts Lying in Parallel Planes But with Axes Inclined to One Another

2.3.1. Hypoid Gears

2.3.2. Spiroid Gears

2.3.3. Worm Gears

2.3.4. Crossed Helical Gears

3. Gear Groups and Tooth Forms

3.1. Grouping of Gears

3.1.1. Cylindrical Gears

3.1.2. Conical Gears

3.1.3. Double-Enveloping and Parallel Worm Gears

3.2. Tooth Forms

3.2.1. Cycloidal Teeth

3.2.2. Teeth Based on Circular Arcs

3.2.2(A). Circular Arc Pump Rotors

3.2.2(B). Wildhaber-Novikov Gears

3.2.2(C). Arc-Contact and Niemann Worm Gears

3.2.3. Enveloping Gears

3.2.3(A). Vickers-Bostock-Bramley Enveloping Gears

3.2.3(B). Double-Enveloping Worm Gears

3.2.4. Involute Teeth

4. Materials

4.1. Gear Materials

4.1.1. Cast Iron

4.1.2. Inoculated Irons

4.1.3. Spheroidal Graphite Or Nodular Cast Iron

4.1.4. Alloy Cast Irons

4.2. Steels

4.2.1. Carbon Steels

4.2.2. Forged Carbon Steels

4.2.3. Cast Carbon Steels

4.3.1. Forged Alloy Steels

4.3.2. Through-Hardening Alloy Steels

4.3.3. Casehardening Alloy Steels

4.3.4. Cast Alloy Steels

4.4.Non-Ferrous Metals

4.4.1. Copper Alloys

4.4.2. Aluminum Alloys

4.5. Plastics

5. Heat Treatment

5.1. Heat Treatment of Steels

5.1.1. Normalizing

5.2. Direct Or Through-Hardened Steels

5.3. Casehardening

5.3.1. Work Support During Casehardening

5.3.2. Preventing Carbon Penetration

5.3.3. Pack Carburizing

5.3.4. Gas Carburizing

5.3.5. Scale Prevention

5.3.6. Casehardening Large Gears

5.3.7. Salt-Bath Casehardening

5.4. Nitriding

5.4.1. Gas Nitriding

5.4.2. Salt-Bath Nitriding

5.5. Induction Hardening

5.5.1. Power Generators

5.5.2. Inductors

5.5.3. Induction Hardening Machines For Large Gears

5.5.4. Induction Hardening Machines For Small Gears

5.6. Flame Hardening

5.6.1. Flank Hardening

5.6.2. Spin Hardening

5.7. Sulfinuzing

6. Methods of Manufacture

6.1. Casting

6.1.1. Investment Casting

6.1.2. Die Casting

6.1.3. Shell Molding

6.1.4. Centrifugal Casting of Bronze

6.1.5. Centrifugal Casting of Steel

6.2. Powder Metallurgy Applied to Gear Production

7. Blank Manufacture

7.1. Blank Manufacture

7.1.1. Helical and Spur Gears

7.1.2. Solid Forgings

7.1.3. Wheel Rims

7.2. Welded Wheels

7.2.1. Electron Beam Welding

7.3. Cast Steel Wheel Blanks

7.4.1. Turning Blanks For Cylindrical Gears

7.4.2. Bevel Gear Blanks

7.5.1. Worm-Wheel Blank Manufacture

7.5.2. Cast-On Rims

7.5.3. Small Worm-Wheel Blanks

7.6.1. Lathes For Blank Manufacture

7.6.2. Numerical Control

8. Gear Milling

8.1. Milling

8.1.1. Circular Milling Cutters

8.1.2. End Milling

8.2.1. Spiral Bevel Gear Production— The Gleason Process

8.2.2. Oerlikon Spiromatic Spiral Bevel Gear Milling Process

8.2.3. Fiat Spiral Bevel Gear Milling Process

8.2.4. Klingelnberg Bevel Gear Cutting Process

8.2.5. Gleason Epicurv Method of Bevel Gear Cutting

8.2.6. Hypoid Gear Cutting

9. Gear Planing and Shaping

9.1. Gear Planing

9.1.1. The Sunderland Process

9.1.2. The Maag Planing Process

9.2. Straight Bevel Gear Cutting

9.2.1. Straight Bevel Gear Planing

9.2.2. Heidenreich and Harbeck Method

9.2.3. Gleason Coniflex Method

9.2.4. Gleason Revacycle Method

9.3. Gear Shaping

9.3.1. The Fellows Process

9.3.2. The Sykes Process

9.3.3. Gear Shaper Cutters

9.4. Internal Gear Cutting

10. Gear Hobbing

10.1. Hobbing

10.1.1. The Conventional Hobbing Process

10.1.2. Creep Hobbing Machines

10.2. Precision Hobbing Machines

10.2.1. Precision Gear Hobbing

10.2.2. Hobbing Precision Pinions

10.3. Control of Accuracy of Gears

10.4. Hobbing Gears For General Purposes

10.5. Hob Setting

10.6.1. High-Speed Hobbing Machines

10.6.2. Automatic Control of Hobbing Machines

10.7. Worm-Wheel Hobbing

10.8. Klingelnberg Bevel Gear Hobbing

11. Gear Hobs

11.1. Gear Hobs

11.1.1. Materials

11.1.2. Design

11.1.3. Manufacture

11.1.4. Heat Treatment

11.1.5. Finishing Processes

11.2. Multiple-Start Hobs

11.3. The Klingelnberg Roughing Hob

11.4. Worm-Wheel Hobs

11.4.1. Serrated Hobs

11.4.2. Hobs For Double-Enveloping Worm Gears

11.4.3. Fly Hobs

11.5. Protuberance Hobs

12. Profile Grinding

2.1. Gear Profile Grinding

12.1.1. The Maag Gear Grinding Process

12.1.2. The Reishauer Method of Gear Grinding

12.1.3. The Niles Method of Gear Grinding

12.2. Form Grinding

12.2.1. The Orcutt Method of Gear Grinding

12.3. Worm Grinding

13. Shaving and Lapping

13.1. Gear Shaving

13.1.1. Worm-Wheel Shaving

13.1.2. Crossed-Axis Shaving

13.1.3. Shaving Cutters

13.1.4. Crossed-Axis Angle

13.1.5. Application of Load

13.1.6. Shaving of Larger Gears

13.2. The Fellows Fini-Shear Process

13.3. Lapping

13.3.1. Lapping Bevel and Hypoid Gears

13.3.2. The Mechanical Lapping Process

13.3.3. Lapping Spur and Helical Gears

13.3.4. Gears Lapped in Their Cases

13.4. Running-In Materials

13.5. Gear Honing

14. Other Manufacturing Method

14.1. Thread Whirling

14.2. Gear Rolling

14.2.1. Cold Rolling

14.2.2. Hot Rolling

14.2.3. Cold Extrusion of Gears

14.2.4. Hot Forging of Gears

14.3. Broaching Gear Teeth

14.4. Tooth Rounding

14.5. Electrochemical Machining

14.6. Work Hardening

14.6.1. Shot Peening

14.6.2. Fillet Rolling

15. Surface Finishing Processes

15.1. Vapour Blasting

15.2. Electrochemical and Chemical Finishing

15.3. Gear Surface Treatments

15.3.1. Phosphating

15.3.2. Molybdenum Disulphide and Graphite

15.4. Electroplating

15.4.1. Hardfacing

15.5. Metal Spraying

16. Accuracy, Quality and Inspection of Gear-Making Machines

16.1. Accuracy of Gear Generating Machines

16.1.1. Machine Table and Bed

16.1.2. Truth of The Column in Hobbing and Grinding Machines

16.1.3. Master Worms

16.1.4. Feed Screw Accuracy

16.1.5. Hob Saddle

16.1.6. Hob Spindle and Hob Arbor

16.1.7. Hob Spindle Drive

16.1.8. Table Bearings

16.1.9. Thermal Equilibrium

16.2. Automatic Correcting Devices

16.2.1. Temac System of Measurement and Correction

16.2.2. Inductosyn System of Correction

16.2.3. The National Engineering Laboratory Portable Grating Method of Measuring Transmission Errors

16.2.4. Seismic Method of Error Measurement

16.3. Accuracy of Index Plates

16.4. Foundations for Hobbing Machines

16.4.1. Foundations for Other Gearmaking Machines

16.5. General Comments on Gearcutting-Machine Accuracy

17. Measurement of Gear Accuracy

17.1. Accuracy of Gears

17.1.1. Measurement of Gear Blanks

17.1.2. Setting Gear Blanks and Tools in Gear-Cutting Machines

17.2. Measurement of Pitch Errors

17.2.1. Manually Operated Pitch-Measuring Instruments

17.2.2. Cumulative Pitch Measurement

17.2.3. Adjacent Pitch Measurement

17.2.4. Base Pitch Measurement

17.2.5. Automatic Pitch-Measuring Instruments

17.3. Double Flank Testing Fixture

17.4. Helix Modification and Measurement

17.5. Profile Measurement

17.5.1. Profile Measurement By Coordinates

17.6. Determination of Undulations

17.7. Phasing Errors in Double Helical Gears

17.8. Measurement of Journal Roundness

17.9. Inspection Methods

17.10. Measurement of Surface Texture

17.11. Accuracy of Meshing


British Standard Specifications



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About the Author

H J Watson

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