Models of the Ecological Hierarchy - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444593962, 9780444594051

Models of the Ecological Hierarchy, Volume 25

1st Edition

From Molecules to the Ecosphere

Series Volume Editors: Ferenc Jordan Sven Erik Jørgensen
eBook ISBN: 9780444594051
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444593962
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st October 2012
Page Count: 594
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Table of Contents

Series Title




1 Hierarchy Theory

2 Interactions between the Hierarchical Levels

3 Models with Two or More Hierarchical Levels

4 The Frequency of Disturbances Follow the Hierarchical Organization

5 An Overview of the Models Presented in this Book

1 Quantum Chemical Modeling in the Molecular Ecology

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Pheromone Molecules and Their Interaction With the Environment

1.3 Structure of the Active Center and Luminescence in the Photoprotein Obelin

1.4 Conclusions

2 Evolution before Life

3 Dealing with Spatial Autocorrelation in Gene Flow Modeling

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Modeling Method: Spatially Aware Predicting Clustering Trees

3.3 Results and Discussion: Modeling Gene Flow from GM to Non-GM Fields

3.4 Conclusion

4 Modeling In Vitro Cell-Based Assays Experiments

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Methods and Approach

4.3 Results and Discussion

4.4 Conclusions




5 “Keystone Species” of Molecular Interaction Networks

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Materials and Methods

5.3. Results

5.4. Conclusion

6 Evolutionary Transition to Complex Population Dynamic Patterns in an Age-structured Population

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Discrete Models of Changes in a Local Population Size

6.3 Density-Independent Selection in Limited Populations

6.4 Population Dynamics with F-Selection

6.5 Modeling of Natural Selection in Population with Age Structure

6.6 Conclusion

7 The Maximum Economic Yield Management of an Age-Structured Salmon Population

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Population Model

7.3 The Maximum Sustainable Economic Yield Harvesting Program

7.4 Nonselective Fishing Pattern

7.5 Numerical Illustration

7.6 Concluding Remarks

8 Use of Tracking System Data for Individual-based Modeling of Sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis) Behavior

9 Formation of the Mosaic Structure of Vegetative Communities due to Spatial Competition for Life Resources

9.1 Plant Community Dynamics Model based on Integral–Differential Equation System

9.2 Simulation Computer Model of Forest Tree Community Dynamics

9.3 Conclusion

10 Complex Dynamic Modes in a Two-Sex Age-Structured Population Model

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Mathematical Model

10.3 Equality of Female and Male Survival Rates

10.4 Population Dynamic Modes at Different Survival Rates of Immature Males and Females

10.5 Development of the Two-Sex Population at the Maximum Equilibrium Size of Mature Females or Males

10.6 Dynamic Modes at Different Survival Rates of Mature Females and Males

10.7 Conclusions

11 Influence of Intra-Seasonal Variability of Metabolic Rates on the Output of a Steady-State Food Web Model

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Methods

11.3 Results

11.4 Discussion

11.5 Conclusions

12 Trophic Network Analysis

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Materials and Methods

12.3 Results

12.4 Discussion and Conclusions

13 An Individual-Based Approach for Studying System-Wide Properties of Ecological Networks

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Network Environ Analysis

13.3 Network Particle Tracking: An Individual-Based Methodology

13.4 Cycling Index

13.5 Throughflow Analysis

13.6 Storage Analysis

13.7 Dynamic Network Environ Analysis

13.8 Conclusion

14 Trophic Interactions in Lake Tana, a Large Turbid Highland Lake in Ethiopia

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Materials and Methods

14.3 Results and Discussion

14.4 System Statistics

14.5 Conclusion

15 Modeling the Mercury Cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Material and Methods

15.3 Results and Discussion

15.4 Conclusion


16 Impact of Global and Local Pressures on the Ecology of a Medium-Sized Pre-Alpine Lake

16.1 Lake Ecosystems Between Global and Local Pressures

16.2 A Case Study for Long-Term Impacts

16.3 Integrated Modeling Tools

16.4 Results

16.5 Discussion and Concluding Remarks

17 Biogeochemical 1D ERSEM Ecosystem Model Applied to Recent Carbon Dioxide and Nutrient Data in the North Sea

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Methods

17.3 Results and discussion

17.4 Conclusions

18 Cities as Ecosystems

18.1 Cities and Ecosystems

18.2 Cities as Water Flow Networks

18.3 Network Analysis and System Level Indices

18.4 Patterns of Growth and Development in City Networks

18.5 Cities as Ecosystems?

18.6 The Quest for Sustainability

19 Three-Dimensional Modeling of Pollutant Dispersion in Lake Garda (North Italy)

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Study Site

19.3 TRIM Hydrodynamic Model

19.4 Results and Discussion

19.5 Conclusion

20 DLES: A Component-Based Framework for Ecological Modeling

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Modular Design

20.3 DLES Description

20.4 Exemplary Applications

20.5 Conclusion

21 Understanding Forest Changes to Support Planning

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Study Area

21.3 Materials and Methods

21.4 Markov Chain: Cellular Automata

21.5 Results

21.6 Discussion and Conclusions


22 Development of a Program Tool for the Determination of the Landscape Visual Exposure Potential

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Viewshed Analysis

22.3 Development of a Toolkit for Modeling the Visual Exposure

22.4 Visual Exposure Modeling using Parallel Computations

22.5 Testing of the Algorithm

22.6 Results and Discussion

22.7 Conclusion


23 Spatial Algorithms Applied to Landscape Diversity Estimate from Remote Sensing Data

23.1 Introduction: Why Measuring Landscape Heterogeneity?

23.2 Open Source Software Philosophy for a Free Calculation of Landscape Diversity

23.3 Spatial Algorithms Available for the Quantification of Landscape Heterogeneity from Remote Sensing Data

23.4 Coda

24 Offsetting Policies for Biodiversity Conservation

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Methods

24.3 Results

24.4 Discussion

25 Combining Habitat Suitability Models and Fluvial Functionality Data for a Multilayer Assessment of Riverine Vulnerability

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Methods

25.3 Results and Discussion

25.4 Conclusions

26 Carbon Cycle Modeling and Principle of the Worst Scenario

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Difficulties of Carbon Cycle Modeling

26.3. Principle of the Worst Scenario and Minimal Model of Biosphere

26.4 Minimal Model in Describing Past and Future Dynamics of Biosphere

26.5 Discussion and Conclusion

27 The Worst Scenario Principle and the Assessment of the Impact of Quality of Life for Biosphere Dynamics

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Results of the Simulation of the Minimal Model of Biosphere

27.3 Discussion

27.4 Conclusion

28 Modeling and Evaluating the Global Energy Flow in Ecosystems and its Impacts on the Ecological Footprint

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Modeling Energy Flow Theoretical Approach

28.3 Ecological Footprint (EF) and Energy Ecological Footprint (EEF)

28.4 Scientific Approach and Methodologies of Measuring Energy Ecological Footprint

28.5 Analysis of Global Energy Ecological Footprint and Impacts of Human Population on the Energy Resources

28.6 Global Energy Model Design and Concept

28.7 Discussion

28.8 Conclusions


29 The Dynamics Linking Biological Hierarchies, Fish Stocks and Ecosystems

29.1 Resource Management, Stability and Change

29.2 Population Level of Organization

29.3 Ecosystem-Level Organization

29.4 Implications for Management

29.5 Population to Ecosystem Dynamics

30 A Network Model of the Hierarchical Organization of Supra-Individual Biosystems

30.1 Introduction

30.2 A Network Approach: Networks at All Levels

30.3 Methods

30.4 Results

30.5 Conclusions

31 Hierarchical Energy Dissipation in Populations

31.1 Introduction to Populations as Thermodynamic Systems

31.2 Demography and Thermodynamics

31.3 Body Size and Metabolic Rate

31.4 Going Further: Thermodynamic Regime of Populations

31.5 Symmetry Breaking and Hierarchical Responses of Population

31.6 Concluding Remarks

32 Conclusive Remarks About Hierarchy Theory and Multilevels Models

Subject Index


In the application of statistics to ecological inference problems, hierarchical models combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are applied in this book to a wide range of problems ranging from the molecular level, through populations, ecosystems, landscapes, networks,  through to the global ecosphere.

Key Features

  • Provides an excellent introduction to modelling
  • Collects together in one source a wide range of modelling techniques
  • Covers a wide range of topics, from the molecular level to the global ecosphere


Environmental managers, ecologists and biologists


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© Elsevier 2012
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Hardcover ISBN:

About the Series Volume Editors

Ferenc Jordan Series Volume Editor

Affiliations and Expertise

The Microsoft Research – University of Trento, Center for Computational and Systems Biology, Trento, Italy

Sven Erik Jørgensen Series Volume Editor

Sven Erik Jørgensen was the professor emeritus in environmental chemistry at the University of Copenhagen. He received a master of science in chemical engineering from the Danish Technical University (1958), a doctor of environmental engineering (Karlsruhe University) and a doctor of science in ecological modelling (Copenhagen University). He was the honourable doctor at Coimbra University, Portugal and at Dar es Salaam University (Tanzania). In 1975 he founded the journal Ecological Modelling and in 1978 the ISEM (International Society of Ecological Modelling). He has received several awards, the Ruder Boskovic Medal, the Prigogine Prize, the Pascal Medal, the Einstein professorship at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Santa Chiara Prize for multidisciplinary teaching and the very prestigious Stockholm Water Prize. He has published 366 papers of which 275 were published in peer-reviewed international journals and he has edited or authored 76 books, of which several have been translated to other languages (Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese). He has authored a successful textbook in ecological modelling “Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling”, which was published as a fourth edition together with Brian Fath in 2011. It has been translated into Chinese and Russian (third edition). He authored a well received textbook in system ecology entitled “Introduction to Systems Ecology”. It was published as an English edition in 2012 and as a Chinese edition in 2013. He was editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of Ecology, published in 2008, and of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, published in December 2012. He has taught courses in ecological modelling in 32 different countries. He is the editorial board member of 18 international journals in the fields of ecology and environmental management. He was the president of ISEM and he also was elected member of the European Academy of Sciences, for which he was the chairman of the Section for Environmental Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Copenhagen University, Denmark