Models of the Ecological Hierarchy

Models of the Ecological Hierarchy

From Molecules to the Ecosphere

1st Edition - October 1, 2012

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  • Editors: Ferenc Jordan, Sven Erik Jorgensen
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444593962
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444594051

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In the application of statistics to ecological inference problems, hierarchical models combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are applied in this book to a wide range of problems ranging from the molecular level, through populations, ecosystems, landscapes, networks,  through to the global ecosphere.

Key Features

  • Provides an excellent introduction to modelling
  • Collects together in one source a wide range of modelling techniques
  • Covers a wide range of topics, from the molecular level to the global ecosphere


Environmental managers, ecologists and biologists

Table of Contents

  • Series Title




    1 Hierarchy Theory

    2 Interactions between the Hierarchical Levels

    3 Models with Two or More Hierarchical Levels

    4 The Frequency of Disturbances Follow the Hierarchical Organization

    5 An Overview of the Models Presented in this Book

    1 Quantum Chemical Modeling in the Molecular Ecology

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Pheromone Molecules and Their Interaction With the Environment

    1.3 Structure of the Active Center and Luminescence in the Photoprotein Obelin

    1.4 Conclusions

    2 Evolution before Life

    3 Dealing with Spatial Autocorrelation in Gene Flow Modeling

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Modeling Method: Spatially Aware Predicting Clustering Trees

    3.3 Results and Discussion: Modeling Gene Flow from GM to Non-GM Fields

    3.4 Conclusion

    4 Modeling In Vitro Cell-Based Assays Experiments

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Methods and Approach

    4.3 Results and Discussion

    4.4 Conclusions




    5 “Keystone Species” of Molecular Interaction Networks

    5.1. Introduction

    5.2. Materials and Methods

    5.3. Results

    5.4. Conclusion

    6 Evolutionary Transition to Complex Population Dynamic Patterns in an Age-structured Population

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Discrete Models of Changes in a Local Population Size

    6.3 Density-Independent Selection in Limited Populations

    6.4 Population Dynamics with F-Selection

    6.5 Modeling of Natural Selection in Population with Age Structure

    6.6 Conclusion

    7 The Maximum Economic Yield Management of an Age-Structured Salmon Population

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Population Model

    7.3 The Maximum Sustainable Economic Yield Harvesting Program

    7.4 Nonselective Fishing Pattern

    7.5 Numerical Illustration

    7.6 Concluding Remarks

    8 Use of Tracking System Data for Individual-based Modeling of Sweetfish (Plecoglossus altivelis) Behavior

    9 Formation of the Mosaic Structure of Vegetative Communities due to Spatial Competition for Life Resources

    9.1 Plant Community Dynamics Model based on Integral–Differential Equation System

    9.2 Simulation Computer Model of Forest Tree Community Dynamics

    9.3 Conclusion

    10 Complex Dynamic Modes in a Two-Sex Age-Structured Population Model

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Mathematical Model

    10.3 Equality of Female and Male Survival Rates

    10.4 Population Dynamic Modes at Different Survival Rates of Immature Males and Females

    10.5 Development of the Two-Sex Population at the Maximum Equilibrium Size of Mature Females or Males

    10.6 Dynamic Modes at Different Survival Rates of Mature Females and Males

    10.7 Conclusions

    11 Influence of Intra-Seasonal Variability of Metabolic Rates on the Output of a Steady-State Food Web Model

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Methods

    11.3 Results

    11.4 Discussion

    11.5 Conclusions

    12 Trophic Network Analysis

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Materials and Methods

    12.3 Results

    12.4 Discussion and Conclusions

    13 An Individual-Based Approach for Studying System-Wide Properties of Ecological Networks

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Network Environ Analysis

    13.3 Network Particle Tracking: An Individual-Based Methodology

    13.4 Cycling Index

    13.5 Throughflow Analysis

    13.6 Storage Analysis

    13.7 Dynamic Network Environ Analysis

    13.8 Conclusion

    14 Trophic Interactions in Lake Tana, a Large Turbid Highland Lake in Ethiopia

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Materials and Methods

    14.3 Results and Discussion

    14.4 System Statistics

    14.5 Conclusion

    15 Modeling the Mercury Cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Material and Methods

    15.3 Results and Discussion

    15.4 Conclusion


    16 Impact of Global and Local Pressures on the Ecology of a Medium-Sized Pre-Alpine Lake

    16.1 Lake Ecosystems Between Global and Local Pressures

    16.2 A Case Study for Long-Term Impacts

    16.3 Integrated Modeling Tools

    16.4 Results

    16.5 Discussion and Concluding Remarks

    17 Biogeochemical 1D ERSEM Ecosystem Model Applied to Recent Carbon Dioxide and Nutrient Data in the North Sea

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Methods

    17.3 Results and discussion

    17.4 Conclusions

    18 Cities as Ecosystems

    18.1 Cities and Ecosystems

    18.2 Cities as Water Flow Networks

    18.3 Network Analysis and System Level Indices

    18.4 Patterns of Growth and Development in City Networks

    18.5 Cities as Ecosystems?

    18.6 The Quest for Sustainability

    19 Three-Dimensional Modeling of Pollutant Dispersion in Lake Garda (North Italy)

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Study Site

    19.3 TRIM Hydrodynamic Model

    19.4 Results and Discussion

    19.5 Conclusion

    20 DLES: A Component-Based Framework for Ecological Modeling

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Modular Design

    20.3 DLES Description

    20.4 Exemplary Applications

    20.5 Conclusion

    21 Understanding Forest Changes to Support Planning

    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 Study Area

    21.3 Materials and Methods

    21.4 Markov Chain: Cellular Automata

    21.5 Results

    21.6 Discussion and Conclusions


    22 Development of a Program Tool for the Determination of the Landscape Visual Exposure Potential

    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Viewshed Analysis

    22.3 Development of a Toolkit for Modeling the Visual Exposure

    22.4 Visual Exposure Modeling using Parallel Computations

    22.5 Testing of the Algorithm

    22.6 Results and Discussion

    22.7 Conclusion


    23 Spatial Algorithms Applied to Landscape Diversity Estimate from Remote Sensing Data

    23.1 Introduction: Why Measuring Landscape Heterogeneity?

    23.2 Open Source Software Philosophy for a Free Calculation of Landscape Diversity

    23.3 Spatial Algorithms Available for the Quantification of Landscape Heterogeneity from Remote Sensing Data

    23.4 Coda

    24 Offsetting Policies for Biodiversity Conservation

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Methods

    24.3 Results

    24.4 Discussion

    25 Combining Habitat Suitability Models and Fluvial Functionality Data for a Multilayer Assessment of Riverine Vulnerability

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 Methods

    25.3 Results and Discussion

    25.4 Conclusions

    26 Carbon Cycle Modeling and Principle of the Worst Scenario

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Difficulties of Carbon Cycle Modeling

    26.3. Principle of the Worst Scenario and Minimal Model of Biosphere

    26.4 Minimal Model in Describing Past and Future Dynamics of Biosphere

    26.5 Discussion and Conclusion

    27 The Worst Scenario Principle and the Assessment of the Impact of Quality of Life for Biosphere Dynamics

    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 Results of the Simulation of the Minimal Model of Biosphere

    27.3 Discussion

    27.4 Conclusion

    28 Modeling and Evaluating the Global Energy Flow in Ecosystems and its Impacts on the Ecological Footprint

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Modeling Energy Flow Theoretical Approach

    28.3 Ecological Footprint (EF) and Energy Ecological Footprint (EEF)

    28.4 Scientific Approach and Methodologies of Measuring Energy Ecological Footprint

    28.5 Analysis of Global Energy Ecological Footprint and Impacts of Human Population on the Energy Resources

    28.6 Global Energy Model Design and Concept

    28.7 Discussion

    28.8 Conclusions


    29 The Dynamics Linking Biological Hierarchies, Fish Stocks and Ecosystems

    29.1 Resource Management, Stability and Change

    29.2 Population Level of Organization

    29.3 Ecosystem-Level Organization

    29.4 Implications for Management

    29.5 Population to Ecosystem Dynamics

    30 A Network Model of the Hierarchical Organization of Supra-Individual Biosystems

    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 A Network Approach: Networks at All Levels

    30.3 Methods

    30.4 Results

    30.5 Conclusions

    31 Hierarchical Energy Dissipation in Populations

    31.1 Introduction to Populations as Thermodynamic Systems

    31.2 Demography and Thermodynamics

    31.3 Body Size and Metabolic Rate

    31.4 Going Further: Thermodynamic Regime of Populations

    31.5 Symmetry Breaking and Hierarchical Responses of Population

    31.6 Concluding Remarks

    32 Conclusive Remarks About Hierarchy Theory and Multilevels Models

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 594
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: October 1, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444593962
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444594051

About the Series Volume Editors

Ferenc Jordan

Affiliations and Expertise

The Microsoft Research – University of Trento, Center for Computational and Systems Biology, Trento, Italy

Sven Erik Jorgensen

Sven Erik Jorgensen
Sven Erik Jørgensen was the professor emeritus in environmental chemistry at the University of Copenhagen. He received a master of science in chemical engineering from the Danish Technical University (1958), a doctor of environmental engineering (Karlsruhe University) and a doctor of science in ecological modelling (Copenhagen University). He was the honourable doctor at Coimbra University, Portugal and at Dar es Salaam University (Tanzania). In 1975 he founded the journal Ecological Modelling and in 1978 the ISEM (International Society of Ecological Modelling). He has received several awards, the Ruder Boskovic Medal, the Prigogine Prize, the Pascal Medal, the Einstein professorship at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Santa Chiara Prize for multidisciplinary teaching and the very prestigious Stockholm Water Prize. He has published 366 papers of which 275 were published in peer-reviewed international journals and he has edited or authored 76 books, of which several have been translated to other languages (Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese). He has authored a successful textbook in ecological modelling “Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling”, which was published as a fourth edition together with Brian Fath in 2011. It has been translated into Chinese and Russian (third edition). He authored a well received textbook in system ecology entitled “Introduction to Systems Ecology”. It was published as an English edition in 2012 and as a Chinese edition in 2013. He was editor in chief of the Encyclopedia of Ecology, published in 2008, and of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Management, published in December 2012. He has taught courses in ecological modelling in 32 different countries. He is the editorial board member of 18 international journals in the fields of ecology and environmental management. He was the president of ISEM and he also was elected member of the European Academy of Sciences, for which he was the chairman of the Section for Environmental Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, Copenhagen University, Denmark

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