- Ideal reference for scientists and for those without extensive scientific backgrounds
- Written by one of the pioneers in forensic DNA typing and interpretation of DNA profiling results
- Ideal format for travel, court environments, or wherever easy access to reference material is vital
Practicing forensic scientists; lawyers; judges; criminal justice; legal; criminology; sociology; policy-makers; regulators; graduate and undergraduate forensic science courses; and anyone with a general interest in forensic science issues
Table of Contents
- About the Author
- Chapter 1: Definitions: Contamination and Interpretation
- 1.1 Historical
- 1.2 Definition of “Trace-DNA”
- 1.3 A Discussion on Contamination
- 1.4 Why Do Miscarriages of Justice Occur?
- 1.5 Some Fallacies and Errors of Thinking
- 1.6 The Likelihood Ratio
- 1.7 The Role of the Forensic Scientist
- Chapter 2: A Deep Analysis of the Basic Causes of Interpretation Errors
- 2.1 An Exemplar Case: Adam Scott
- 2.2 The Miscarriage of Justice in R. v. Jama
- 2.3 Characterization of Error
- 2.4 Determination of Error Rates
- 2.5 Reporting DNA Profiles at Sub-Source Level
- 2.6 Reporting DNA Profiles at Source Level
- 2.7 Activity Level Reporting
- 2.8 The Role of the Prosecution Authorities
- 2.9 The Role of the Accreditation/Regulatory Authorities
- 2.10 The Database Trawl Problem
- 2.11 The Lessons of History
- 2.12 The Essentials of Statement Writing
- 2.13 Summary
- Chapter 3: A Framework to Interpret “Trace-DNA” Evidence Transfer
- 3.1 The Statement Structure
- 3.2 When and How Did the “Foreign” DNA Transfer to Underneath the Victim’s Fingernails?
- 3.3 Base Levels of Foreign DNA Transfer from Experimental Studies
- 3.4 Will a DNA Profile That is Transferred by Either “Passive” or Physical Means (Scratching) Persist for 7 Days?
- 3.5 Persistence of a DNA Profile Transferred to Fingernails 7 Days Prior to Its Recovery
- 3.6 Converting Possibilities into Broad Probabilistic Ranges: A Model for Reporting Officers
- 3.7 Summary
- Chapter 4: National DNA Databases, Strength of Evidence and Error Rates
- 4.1 The Testing Strategy Used by National DNA Databases
- 4.2 There are Two Kinds of DNA Databases
- 4.3 How the Pitchfork Case Led to the First National DNA Database
- 4.4 Defining the “Target Population”
- 4.5 Databases are Not Always Needed to Solve Crimes
- 4.6 Misconceptions
- 4.7 The Strength of Evidence Expressed as a Match Probability
- 4.8 Conclusion
- 4.9 Searching Entire Databases (Effectiveness Linked to the Adventitious Match)
- 4.10 How Does a Search of a NDNAD Affect the Strength of Evidence?
- 4.11 Focussing the Investigation (Eliminating More Suspects from the Target Population): Introducing the Concept of “Weights”
- 4.12 The Case of R. v. Adams
- 4.13 Calculation Using the Weight of Evidence Formulation
- 4.14 How Does the Weighting Alter P(G|Eo) If the Suspect Is Taken from Outside the Target Population?
- 4.15 Relevance to Miscarriages of Justice Relating to the Naïve Investigator Effect
- 4.16 The Effect of Updating the Evidence Using DNA Profiling (Suspect Chosen from Within the Target Population)
- 4.17 The Swamping Effect
- 4.18 Is There a Scientific Basis to Define “Weights” Using “Geographic Profiling”?
- 4.19 The Effect of a Database Search on the Strength of the Evidence
- 4.20 Appeal-Court Rulings on the Use of Bayes Theorem
- 4.21 How Far Have the Courts Adopted This Thinking?
- 4.22 The Defendant’s Fallacy is Not Necessarily a Fallacy
- 4.23 Reconciling the Non-DNA Evidence with the DNA Evidence
- 4.24 The False Positive Error (the Elephant in the Room)
- 4.25 Putting It All Together: A Simple Method for the Investigator to Follow
- 4.26 Conclusion
- 4.27 The Way Forward?
- 4.28 Complex DNA Profiles: The Worrying Case of R. v. Dlugosz—An Example of a Dubious Appeal-Court Decision
- 4.29 R. v. Dlugosz
- 4.30 Can Expert Opinion Replace Peer Review?
- 4.31 A Reminder of the “Scientific Method”
- 4.32 False Positive Results
- 4.33 Conclusion
- Chapter 5: Concluding Remarks: Illustrated by the Case of the Death of Meridith Kercher
- 5.1 The Dynamic Background DNA Environment
- 5.2 Laboratory Environmental Monitoring
- 5.3 On the Limitations of the Information that can be Used to Assess the Relevance of DNA Profiling Evidence
- 5.4 Background to the Case “Death of Meredith Kercher”
- 5.5 An Outline of the Case Circumstances
- 5.6 The Knife (Item 36)
- 5.7 The “Trace-DNA” Evidence
- 5.8 Brief Summary of the Other “Trace-DNA” Profiles on the Knife
- 5.9 The Bra-Clasp (Item 165)
- 5.10 How Robust is the Answer?
- 5.11 Further Evaluation of DNA Profiling Evidence: The Limitations
- 5.12 Modes of Transfer: Limitations of the Information that can be Used to Assess the Relevance of DNA Profiling Evidence
- 5.13 How Was the Evidence Interpreted by the Judges?
- 5.14 A Targeted Protocol to Assess the Prosecution Propositions
- 5.15 Final Remarks
- No. of pages: 100
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
- Published: June 12, 2014
- Imprint: Academic Press
- eBook ISBN: 9780124172203
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