Mining Geophysics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444410771, 9780444601858

Mining Geophysics

2nd Edition

eBook ISBN: 9780444601858
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1973
Page Count: 414
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Mining Geophysics, Second Revised and Up-dated Edition serves as an introduction to the methods of ore mining and prospecting in the perspective of geophysics. The book explains the role of geophysics in ore prospecting; the collection and presentation of related data; and the location of ores through different methods such as the self-potential method, electromagnetic methods, induced polarized methods, seismic, and radioactive methods. The book also details the concepts and procedures behind said methods. The monograph is recommended for those in the mining industry who would like to know more about the methods of locating ores, as well as for geologists and geophysicists who aim to understand more and make studies about this phenomenon.

Table of Contents


Preface to the First Edition

Preface To the Second Edition

Chapter 1. The Role of Geophysics in Ore Prospecting

Chapter 2. General Aspects of the Collection and Presentation of Geophysical Data

Classification of Geophysical Methods


Collection of Preliminary Information

Trial Surveys

Staking An Area

Field Measurements

Geophysical Maps

Isoanomaly Curves Or Contours

Profile Drawing


Chapter 3. Magnetic Methods


Recalling Some Fundamental Concepts

Induced and Permanent Magnetism

General Magnetic Properties of Rocks

Susceptibilities of Rocks

Permanent Magnetization (Remanence) of Rocks

Measurement of Susceptibility and Remanence

The Geomagnetic Field


Field Work

The Zero Level

An Orebody As A Magnet

Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies

A Simple Example of A Magnetic Survey (U-Dal, Central Sweden)

Magnetic Survey In the E-o Orefield (Central Sweden)

Transverse Magnetization

A Simple Geometrical Construction For Determining the Position Of An Ore Sheet

Magnetic Effects of Broad Zones

The Greenstone Area of Loos (Sweden)

Vector Measurements

Example of Vector Measurements

Borehole Measurements

Note On Reverse Magnetic Anomalies

Chapter 4. the Self-Potential Method


Origin of Self-Potentials

Measurement of Self-Potentials

Field Procedure

Examples of Sp Surveys

Chapter 5. Electromagnetic Methods


Geometry of the Electromagnetic Field

The Tilt-Angle Method

Amplitude and Phase

The Phase Angle and the Vector Diagram

Real and Imaginary Components

Measurement of the Real and Imaginary Components

Classification of Electromagnetic Methods

Fixed-Source Methods

Loop Layouts

Moving Source—Receiver Methods

Examples of Moving Source—Receiver Surveys

Use of Two Frequencies In Electromagnetic Prospecting

Depth Penetration of Electromagnetic Methods



Distortion of Anomalies Due To Magnetic Permeability

Chapter 6. Electrical Methods



Resistivity of Rocks and Minerals


Commutation of Current

Classification of Electric Methods

Equipotential Method

Earth-Resistivity Methods

Apparent Resistivity

Electrode Configurations In Resistivity Methods

Electric Sounding

Electric Mapping

Mapping By Linear Current Electrodes (Theory)

Field Examples of Line-Electrode Mapping

The Mise-À-La-Masse Method

Potential-Drop Ratio and A.C. Potential Methods

Resistivity Measurements In Boreholes

Chapter 7. Induced Polarization Methods


Origin of Induced Polarization

The Condenser Model

Effect of Alternating Current

Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain IP Methods

Measures of the IP Effect

Polarizability of Minerals and Rocks

Examples of IP Surveys

Interpretation of IP Results

Concluding Remarks Concerning the IP Method

Chapter 8. Gravity Methods


Scope of the Gravity Method In Ore Prospecting

Some Difficulties

Absolute and Relative Gravity Measurements


Field Procedure

Corrections To Gravimeter Observations

The Bouguer Anomaly

Density Determination

Interpretation of Gravity Anomalies

Key Variables of Gravity Interpretation

Gravity Profiles Across Simple Structures

Regional and Local Gravity Anomalies

Gravity Measurements On the Udden Sulphide Body (Sweden)

Effect of Overburden On Gravity Anomalies

Mass Estimates

A Further Example of A Gravity Survey

Underground and Shaft Measurements of Gravity

Second Vertical Derivatives of Gravity Anomalies

Chapter 9. Seismic Methods


Types of Elastic Waves

Scope of Seismic Measurements In Ore Prospecting

Generation, Detection and Registration of Seismic Waves

The Reflection Method

The Refraction Method

Illustrations of Seismic Measurements In Ore Prospecting

Chapter 10. Radioactive Methods


Scope of the Method

Radioactive Decay and Radioactive Equilibrium

Radioactivity of Rocks

Instruments and Field Procedure

Airborne Radioactive Prospecting

Chapter 11. Airborne Magnetic and Electromagnetic



Limitations of Airborne Surveys

Magnetic Airborne Work


Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Maps

Airborne Electromagnetic Methods

Classification of Airborne E.M. Systems

Fixed-Separation Systems

Phase-Measuring Or Quadrature Systems

Input 3

Passive Airborne E.M. Systems

Depth-Penetration and Efficiency of Airborne E.M. Systems

Interpretation of Airborne Electromagnetic Anomalies

Example of An Airborne Survey

Chapter 12. Combination of Geophysical Methods


The Location of Geophysical Indications

Examples of the Combination of Geophysical Methods

Appendix 1. Simple Method of Determining the Magnetic Susceptibility and Remanence of Approximately Spherical Rock and Ore Samples

Appendix 2. Magnetic Anomaly of Pole Systems

Appendix 3. the Magnetic Field of A Large Rectangular Loop Carrying An Electric Current

Appendix 4. Semi-Absolute Calculation of the Electromagnetic Field Components From Turam Reduced Ratios and Phase Differences

Appendix 5. Electric Potential Due To A Point and A Line Current Electrode Placed On the Surface of A Homogeneous Ground

Appendix 6. Method of Images

Appendix 7. Gravity Anomalies

Appendix 8. Depth Estimates of Some Simple Mass Shapes

Appendix 9. Notes On the Master Curves In Fig. 117 For Total Field Magnetic Anomalies

Appendix 10. Elliptic Polarization of the Electromagnetic Field

Appendix 11. Fortran Source-Programs For Calculating the Vertical Field Magnetic Anomaly Due To An Inclined Prism and the Gravity Anomaly of A Two-Dimensional Feature of Arbitrary, Uniform





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