Mineral Deposits of Finland is the only up-to-date and inclusive reference available that fully captures the scope of Finland’s mineral deposits and their economic potential. Finland hosts Europe’s most mature rocks and large cratonic blocks, analogous to western Australia and Southern Africa, which are the most mineralized terrains on Earth.

Authored by the world’s premier experts on Finnish mineral exploration and mining, Mineral Deposits of Finland offers a thorough summary of the mineral deposits and their petrogenesis, helping readers to map, explore, and identify Finland’s renewed potential for mineral exploration and extraction.

Key Features

  • Presents a thoroughly inclusive catalogue of Finland’s mineral deposits and their economic potential
  • Features full-color figures, illustrations, working examples and photographs to aid the reader in retaining key concepts to underscore major advances in the exploration of Finland’s mineral resources
  • Offers concise chapter summaries authored by leaders in geological research, which provide accessible overviews of deposit classes


geologists, economic and petroleum geologists, mineralogists and exploration geoscientists globally as well as mining companies in Finland

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Part 1
    • Chapter 1. A History of Exploration for and Discovery of Finland’s Ore Deposits
      • Introduction
      • Time of Swedish Rule
      • Period of Russian Rule
      • The Years 1945–2013
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgments
  • Part 2
    • Chapter 2. Synthesis of the Geological Evolution and Metallogeny of Finland
      • Introduction
      • Metallogeny of Archean Granite-Greenstone Terranes
      • Metallogeny of the Paleoproterozoic Cratonic Sedimentation and Magmatism
      • Metallogeny of Ophiolitic Complexes
      • Metallogeny of the Svecofennian Arc Complexes and Orogenic Magmatism
      • Metallogeny of the Anorogenic Magmatism
      • Later Mineralization Events
  • Part 3. Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE-Cr-V Deposits
    • Chapter 3.1. Geology and Petrogenesis of Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE-Cr-V Deposits: An Introduction and Overview
      • Introduction
      • Geology of Deposits
      • Location of Deposits
      • Distribution of Deposits in Time
      • Formation of Magmatic PGE-Cr-V-Ni-Cu Deposits
      • Summary
    • Chapter 3.2. Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits in Finland
      • Introduction
      • Nature of Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits
      • Location and Classification of Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) Deposits in Finland
      • Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits of the Suomussalmi Greenstone Belt
      • The Tainiovaara Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit, Eastern Finland
      • Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits of the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt
      • Ni-(Cu) Deposits of the Enontekiö-Käsivarsi Area
      • Geochemistry of the Finnish Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits
      • Summary
    • Chapter 3.3. PGE-(Cu-Ni) Deposits of the Tornio-Näränkävaara Belt of Intrusions (Portimo, Penikat, and Koillismaa)
      • Introduction
      • The Portimo Complex and its Mineralization
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Reef-Ty


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About the authors

Wolfgang Maier

Wolfgang D. Maier is Professor of Economic Geology at Cardiff University, Wales, UK. He has more than 25 years of experience in the field conducting research on magmatic ore deposits. He has authored more than 100 journal papers and has been a contributing author or editor of several books, monographs, and geological maps.

Raimo Lahtinen

Raimo Lahtinen is Research Professor & Head of the Research Programme Mineral Potential for the Geological Survey of Finland. He is also an adjunct professor in bedrock geology at the University of Helsinki. His research interests include metallogeny and tectonic evolution, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, and the Archean-Proterozoic boundary.

Hugh O'Brien

Hugh O'Brien is Senior Research Scientist at the Finland Geosciences Research Laboratory at the Geological Survey of Finland. He has also been a consultant for diamond exploration, and has contributed to numerous publications in geology. His research interests include radiogenic and stable isotopes applied to ore deposit studies, and kimberlites and diamonds.