Mineral Scales and Deposits - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444632289, 9780444627520

Mineral Scales and Deposits

1st Edition

Scientific and Technological Approaches

Editors: Zahid Amjad Konstantinos Demadis
eBook ISBN: 9780444627520
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444632289
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 22nd May 2015
Page Count: 784
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Description

Mineral Scales and Deposits: Scientific and Technological Approaches presents, in an integrated way, the problem of scale deposits (precipitation/crystallization of sparingly-soluble salts) in aqueous systems, both industrial and biological.

It covers several fundamental aspects, also offering an applications’ perspective, with the ultimate goal of helping the reader better understand the underlying mechanisms of scale formation, while also assisting the user/reader to solve scale-related challenges.

It is ideal for scientists/experts working in academia, offering a number of crystal growth topics with an emphasis on mechanistic details, prediction modules, and inhibition/dispersion chemistry, amongst others. In addition, technologists, consultants, plant managers, engineers, and designers working in industry will find a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation.

Key Features

  • Provides a unique, detailed focus on scale deposits, includes the basic science and mechanisms of scale formation
  • Present a field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options for their mitigation
  • Correlates chemical structure to performance
  • Provides guidelines for easy assessment of a particular case, also including solutions
  • Includes an extensive list of industrial case studies for reference

Readership

For scientists/experts working in academia, it offers a number of crystal growth topics with emphasis on mechanistic details, prediction modules, inhibition/dispersion chemistry, etc. For technologists, chemists, chemical engineers, water technologists, consultants, plant managers, plant engineers, plant designers working in industry, it provides a more field-friendly overview of scale-related challenges and technological options to mitigate them.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Biographies
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section I. Fouling and Scaling Fundamentals
    • Chapter 1. Water-Formed Scales and Deposits: Types, Characteristics, and Relevant Industries
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Calcium Carbonate
      • 1.3. Calcium and Barium Sulfates
      • 1.4. Magnesium-Based Scales
      • 1.5. Silica Scales
      • 1.6. Examples of Other Scales
      • 1.7. Summary
    • Chapter 2. Water Chemistry and Its Role in Industrial Water Systems
      • 2.1. Water as the Universal Solvent
      • 2.2. Thermodynamics of Solubility
      • 2.3. Dissolved, Scale-Forming Cations and Anions
      • 2.4. The Formation of Ion Pairs
      • 2.5. Suspended Solids and Their Effect on Deposit Formation
      • 2.6. The Nucleation Process
      • 2.7. Factors that Affect Crystal Growth
      • 2.8. Scale Deposition and Adhesion
      • 2.9. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 3. Mechanisms of Scale Formation and Inhibition
      • 3.1. Scale: Definition and Influence on Industrial Processes
      • 3.2. Theoretical Background of Scaling
      • 3.3. Scaling in Flow Systems
      • 3.4. Factors Affecting the Nucleation Rates
      • 3.5. Scale Inhibition by Chemical Additives
      • 3.6. Scale–Inhibitor Interface
      • 3.7. How Is Inhibition Performance Quantified?
      • Nomenclature
    • Chapter 4. Corrosion Inhibitors in Cooling Water Systems
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Inorganic Corrosion Inhibitors
      • 4.3. Organic Corrosion Inhibitors
      • 4.4. Industrial Aspects of Corrosion Inhibitors
      • 4.5. Conclusion
      • Nomenclature
    • Chapter 5. The Mineralogy of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Passive Alloys
      • 5.3. Active Metals
      • 5.4. Case Studies
      • 5.5. Summary
    • Chapter 6. Biofouling in Industrial Water Systems
      • 6.1. Industrial Water Systems: An Overview
      • 6.2. Types of Cooling Systems
      • 6.3. Industrial Implications of Biofilms and Biofouling
      • 6.4. Fundamentals of Biofilm Formation
      • 6.5. What Is Biofouling?
      • 6.6. Biofouling at a Coastal Power Plant
      • 6.7. Biofouling Control in Industrial Systems
      • 6.8. Conclusion
    • Chapter 7. Particulate Matter: Interfacial Properties, Fouling, and Its Mitigation
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Fouling
      • 7.3. The Fouling Process
      • 7.4. Effects of Fouling
      • 7.5. Conditions Influencing Fouling
      • 7.6. Particle Transportation, Adhesion, and Fouling Interface
      • 7.7. Heat Exchanger Type, Geometry and Process Fluid Influencing Fouling
      • 7.8. Fouling Models
      • 7.9. Cost Imposed due to Fouling
      • 7.10. Fouling Mitigation
      • 7.11. Summary
      • Nomenclature
    • Chapter 8. Water Treatment Chemicals: Types, Solution Chemistry, and Applications
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Role of Antiscalants
      • 8.3. Antiscalant Selection
      • 8.4. Scale Formation and Growth
      • 8.5. Case Studies
      • 8.6. Summary
      • Nomenclature
    • Chapter 9. Nonchemical Methods to Control Scale and Deposit Formation
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Mechanism of PWT—Bulk Precipitation
      • 9.3. Magnetic Water Treatment
      • 9.4. Laboratory Tests
      • 9.5. Field Tests
      • 9.6. Water Treatment Using Solenoid Coils
      • 9.7. Laboratory Tests
      • 9.8. Field Tests
      • 9.9. Water Treatment Using RF Electric Fields
      • 9.10. Water Treatment Using High-Voltage Capacitor System
      • 9.11. Validation Field Tests
      • 9.12. Water Treatment Using Catalytic Metals
      • 9.13. Validation Studies
      • 9.14. Conclusions
      • Nomenclature
    • Chapter 10. New Product Development for Oil Field Application
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Experiment Procedures
      • 10.3. Results and Discussion
      • 10.4. Summary
      • 10.5. Conclusions
      • Nomenclature
    • Chapter 11. Patent Review Related to Scale and Scale Inhibition
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • Patent 1
      • Patent 2
      • Patent 3
      • Patent 4
      • Patent 5
      • Patent 6
      • Patent 7
      • Patent 8
      • Patent 9
      • Patent 10
      • Patent 11
      • Patent 12
      • Patent 13
      • Patent 14
      • Patent 15
      • Patent 16
      • Patent 17
      • Patent 18
      • Patent 19
      • Patent 20
      • Patent 21
      • Patent 22
      • Patent 23
      • Patent 24
      • Patent 25
      • Patent 26
      • Patent 27
      • Patent 28
      • Patent 29
      • Patent 30
      • Patent 31
      • Patent 32
      • Patent 33
      • Patent 34
      • Patent 35
      • Patent 36
      • Patent 37
      • Patent 38
      • Patent 39
      • Patent 40
      • Patent 41
      • Patent 42
      • Patent 43
      • Patent 44
      • Patent 45
      • Patent 46
      • Patent 47
      • Patent 48
      • Patent 49
      • Patent 50
      • Patent 51
      • Patent 52
      • Patent 53
      • Patent 54
      • Patent 55
      • Patent 56
      • Patent 57
      • Patent 58
      • Patent 59
      • Patent 60
      • Patent 61
      • Patent 62
      • Patent 63
      • Patent 64
      • Patent 65
      • Patent 66
      • Patent 67
      • Patent 68
      • Patent 69
      • Patent 70
      • Patent 71
      • Patent 72
      • Patent 73
      • Patent 74
      • Patent 75
      • Patent 76
      • Patent 77
  • Section II. Biological, Environmental and Home Care
    • Chapter 12. Scaling Problems in Home Care Applications
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Fundamentals of Scaling
      • 12.3. Methods for Avoiding Scale Formation
      • 12.4. Examples of Scaling and Control in Home Care Applications
      • 12.5. Recent Trends in Environmental Considerations
      • 12.6. Summary
    • Chapter 13. Tartar and Plaque Control
      • 13.1. Oral Cavity
      • 13.2. Dental Plaque
      • 13.3. Dental Calculus
      • 13.4. Plaque Control
      • 13.5. Summary
    • Chapter 14. Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease
      • 14.1. Physiological and Pathological Mineralization in the Human Body
      • 14.2. The Nature and Composition of CPPD
      • 14.3. Mechanism of CPPD Calcification
      • 14.4. Pathological Deposition of CPPD in the Human Body
      • 14.5. In vitro Synthesis and Characterization of CPPD Crystals
    • Chapter 15. Importance of Calcium-Based Scales in Kidney Stone
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Crystallization Kinetics
      • 15.3. Effect of Additives on Calcium Oxalate Crystallization, Results of In vitro Studies
      • 15.4. Calcium Oxalate in Kidney Stones
      • 15.5. Composition and Structure of Stones
      • 15.6. Crystallization Modulators
      • 15.7. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 16. Calcification of Biomaterials
      • 16.1. Introduction: Implants—Problems of Their Functionality
      • 16.2. Phase Changes in Solutions. The Formation of Crystals of Minerals from Aqueous Solutions. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation
      • 16.3. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Formation of Mineral Phases. Experimental Methods for the Investigation of Implants Mineralization
      • 16.4. The Case of Calcium Phosphates
      • 16.5. Mineralization of Calcium Phosphates of Heart Valve Tissues
      • 16.6. Calcification of Biocements
      • 16.7. Encrustation of Catheters by Calcium Oxalates
      • 16.8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 17. Removal of Toxic Materials from Aqueous Streams
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Toxic Materials
      • 17.3. Removal Methods
      • 17.4. Disposal Issues
      • 17.5. Selected Case Studies—Applications
  • Section III. Scaling and Fouling Issues by Industry
    • Chapter 18. Membrane-Based Desalination Processes: Challenges and Solutions
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. The RO Process
      • 18.3. Permeate Recovery Rate (Conversion Ratio)
      • 18.4. Net Driving Pressure
      • 18.5. Salt-Water Separation in RO Process
      • 18.6. Water Transport
      • 18.7. Salt Transport
      • 18.8. Salt Passage and Salt Rejection
      • 18.9. Temperature Effect on Transport Rate
      • 18.10. Average Permeate Flux
      • 18.11. Specific Water Permeability of a Membrane
      • 18.12. Commercial RO/Nanofiltration Membrane Technology
      • 18.13. CA Membranes
      • 18.14. Composite Polyamide Membranes
      • 18.15. Membrane Module Configurations
      • 18.16. Spiral Wound Elements
      • 18.17. Spiral Wound Element Categories
      • 18.18. RO System Configuration
      • 18.19. Membrane Assembly Unit
      • 18.20. Concentrate Staging
      • 18.21. Permeate Staging (Two-Pass Systems)
      • 18.22. Membrane Elements Fouling
      • 18.23. Membrane Performance Restoration
      • 18.24. Challenges and Potential for Improvement of the RO Process
    • Chapter 19. Cooling Water Systems: An Overview
      • 19.1. Context and Paradigms
      • 19.2. Cooling Systems and Cooling Tower
      • 19.3. New Technologies and Projects
      • 19.4. Audit in Cooling Towers
      • 19.5. Cooling System: Capability, Control and Performance
      • 19.6. Guidelines for Control of Cooling Towers
    • Chapter 20. Fouling in Dairy Processes
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. Mechanism of Fouling by Milk and Milk Components
      • 20.3. Composition, Types, and Structures of Fouling
      • 20.4. The Measurement of Fouling
      • 20.5. Factors Affecting Fouling by Milk
      • 20.6. Equipment Fouling in Milk Powder Plants
      • 20.7. How to Limit Fouling
      • 20.8. Cleaning-in-Place
      • 20.9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 21. Scaling in Alkaline Spent Pulping Liquor Evaporators
      • 21.1. The Kraft Chemical Recovery Process
      • 21.2. Types of Scale Deposits in Alkaline Spent Pulping Liquor Evaporators
      • 21.3. Why Does Scale Form?
      • 21.4. Mitigation Methods, Including Scale Inhibition
      • 21.5. Modeling Fouling Processes and Case Studies
      • 21.6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 22. Control of Silica-Based Scales in Cooling and Geothermal Systems
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Impacts on Geothermal Scale Deposition
      • 22.3. Geothermal Scale Types and Formation Mechanisms
      • 22.4. Control of Silica-Based Scales
      • 22.5. Review of Silica Inhibitors Tested
    • Chapter 23. Thermal Desalination: Current Challenges
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. Thermal Desalination Processes
      • 23.3. Seawater Chemistry
      • 23.4. Scale Characterization
      • 23.5. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Scale Formation
      • 23.6. Control of Scale Formation
      • 23.7. Inhibitor Mixtures
      • 23.8. Future Directions
    • Chapter 24. Oil Field Mineral Scale Control
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Common Oil Field Scales
      • 24.3. Scale Control Strategies
      • 24.4. Scale Inhibition by Use of Scale Inhibitors
      • 24.5. Scale Inhibition Treatment
      • 24.6. Scale Removal Methods
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 25. Scale in Sugar Juice Evaporators: Types, Cases, and Prevention
      • 25.1. Introduction
      • 25.2. Types and Sources of Scale
      • 25.3. Case Studies of Evaporator Scale
      • 25.4. Scale Management
      • 25.5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 26. Boiler Water Treatment
      • 26.1. Introduction
      • 26.2. Silicate Deposits
      • 26.3. Corrosion in Boilers
      • 26.4. Effects of Scale/Deposits in Steam Generating Systems
      • 26.5. Production of High Pure Water
      • 26.6. Pretreatment of Raw/Source Water
      • 26.7. Water Purification Processes
      • 26.8. Types of Boilers
      • 26.9. pH
      • 26.10. Dissolved Oxygen
      • 26.11. Conductivity
      • 26.12. Silica
      • 26.13. Copper
      • 26.14. Iron
      • 26.15. Chloride
      • 26.16. Sodium
      • 26.17. Conclusion
    • Chapter 27. Scale Formation in Tungsten Hydrometallurgical Process
      • 27.1. Introduction
      • 27.2. Purpose
      • 27.3. Experimental Section
      • 27.3. Analytical Methods
      • 27.4. Section 1: Tantalum–Niobium Scale: Na14(Ta0.715Nb0.285)12O37.31H2O and Na3Ta0.715Nb0.285O4 Form in the Filter Press
      • 27.5. Section 2: Magnesium Hydroxide-Type Tungsten-Containing Scale
  • Section IV. Systems Support and Maintenance
    • Chapter 28. Analytical Techniques to Characterize Scales and Deposits
      • 28.1. Introduction
      • 28.2. Analytical Techniques and Analysis
      • 28.3. Case Study 1—Power Plant Scrubber Scale
      • 28.4. Case Study 2—Membrane Technology
      • 28.5. Case Study 3—Blocked Cooling System in Polyethylene Plant
      • 28.6. Case Study 4—Heat Exchangers in the Oil and Gas Industry
      • 28.7. Case Study 5—Sugar Cane Juice Evaporator
    • Chapter 29. Removal/Dissolution of Mineral Scale Deposits
      • 29.1. Introduction
      • 29.2. Scale Removal and Inhibition/Dissolution
      • 29.3. Mechanisms of Dissolution and Inhibition
      • 29.4. Scale Inhibitor Chemistry
      • 29.5. “Green” Solutions
      • 29.6. New Green Alternatives
      • 29.7. Future Prospective
    • Chapter 30. Scaling Indices: Types and Applications
      • 30.1. Introduction
      • 30.2. Applications
      • 30.3. Summary and Recommendations
      • Appendix 1: Derivation of a Simple Index
    • Chapter 31. On-Line Monitoring of Water Treatment Chemicals
      • 31.1. Water Quality
      • 31.2. Complete Water Analysis for Scale Control
      • 31.3. Analysis of Individual Scale Components
      • 31.4. Analysis/Monitoring of Scale Control Product
      • 31.5. Product Monitoring—Individual Component
      • 31.6. Biocide Monitoring and Control
      • 31.7. Corrosion Control Products
      • 31.8. On-line and At-line Analyzes
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
784
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444627520
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444632289

About the Editor

Zahid Amjad

Zahid Amjad received his BSc in Chemistry (Honors) and MSc in Chemistry from the University of the Panjab, Pakistan, and PhD from Glasgow University, Scotland, United Kingdom. He was a lecturer at the Institute of Chemistry of Panjab University and served as an assistant research professor at the State University of New York at Buffalo, New York. He started his professional career as an R & D scientist. During his more than 30 years at Calgon Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, he has worked in various fields, including water treatment, water purification, cosmetics, home care, oral care, and pharmaceutics, and related fields.

Dr. Amjad has presented numerous invited lectures and participated in symposiums around the world. He has published more than 200 papers, has contributed to numerous book chapters, has edited seven books, and holds 30 US patents. His awards include Induction into the National Hall of Corporate Inventors, EDI Innovation Award, and the recipient of the Association of the Water Technologies’ Ray Baum Memorial Water Technologist of the Year Award.

Dr. Amjad is a member of several societies and has organized several symposiums on crystal growth formation and inhibition, physico-chemical processes at solid-liquid interface, adsorption, desorption, and dispersion. He is the owner of Aqua Science and Technology LLC, Columbus, Ohio, which provides consulting services for industrial water treatment, separation processes, and related technologies. Dr. Amjad currently serves as a visiting professor in the School of Arts and Sciences, Walsh University, North Canton, Ohio.

Affiliations and Expertise

School of Arts and Sciences, Walsh University, N. Canton, OH, USA

Konstantinos Demadis

Kostas Demadis was born in Komotini (Thrace, Northern Greece) in 1967. He received his Bachelors Degree from the University of Athens, Greece in 1990 and his Ph.D. in Chemistry at the University of Michigan, USA in 1995. His Ph.D. theme was in bioinorganic chemistry (structural and functional modeling of the active site of nitrogenase enzyme). He then moved to the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (UNC) for post-doctoral, working on the intricacies of Osmium chemistry. In 1998, he was hired by Nalco Chemical Company as a Senior Chemist in their Research & Development Division, switching research gears and “entering” the water treatment world.

In 2003 Kostas started his appointment as Assistant Professor in the Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, in his homeland Greece. He created the Crystal Engineering, Growth & Design Laboratory. Kostas is currently Professor of Chemistry.

Kostas’ research group is interested in a number of projects. Metal phosphonate chemistry (synthesis, characterization and application of metal phosphonate materials), functional hybrid materials, silicon chemistry (modeling of biosilicification mechanisms), water treatment issues (mineral scale inhibition, corrosion control, metal ion absorption), controlled release of active ingredients (in particular phosphonate-based drugs), green chemistry.

Professor Demadis has published over 130 papers in peer reviewed journals, 16 chapters in books, three edited books, and is the inventor of two patents. He has delivered over 50 invited talks and over 100 conference presentations. For more information, see http://www.chemistry.uoc.gr/demadis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece