Mineral Nitrogen In The Plant-Soil System - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123349101, 9780323148160

Mineral Nitrogen In The Plant-Soil System

1st Edition

Authors: R Haynes
eBook ISBN: 9780323148160
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th July 1986
Page Count: 495
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Mineral Nitrogen in the Plant-Soil System provides integrated accounts of the transformations and fate of mineral nitrogen in the plant-soil system. This book emphasizes the understanding of various processes and the factors that affect these processes. It also focuses on the role of biological nitrogen fixation in nitrogen cycling in natural and agricultural systems. The book is divided into seven major chapters and each chapter is further subdivided into various subtopics. The first chapter introduces and outlines the origin, distribution, and cycling of nitrogen in natural and agricultural terrestrial ecosystems. Chapter 2 focuses on the processes of decomposition and mineralization-immobilization turnover. The processes of nitrification are discussed in detail in Chapter 3. The following four chapters discuss topics of retention and movement of nitrogen in soils; gaseous losses of nitrogen; uptake and assimilation of mineral nitrogen by plants; and lastly, the use of nitrogen in agronomic practice. The book will be invaluable to graduate students and researchers in the field of agriculture. This will also cater other parties interested, such as agronomists, soil scientists, plant physiologists, horticulturists, and foresters.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Origin, Distribution, and Cycling of Nitrogen in Terrestrial Ecosystems

I. Introduction

II. The Nitrogen Cycle

A. Geobiological Distribution of Nitrogen

B. Cycling Processes

III. Additions of Nitrogen to Ecosystems

A. Wet and Dry Deposition

B. Biological Nitrogen Fixation

C. Industrial Nitrogen Fixation

IV. Losses of Nitrogen from Ecosystems

A. Gaseous Losses

B. Leaching Losses

C. Soil Erosion

V. Transfers of Nitrogen within Ecosystems

A. Uptake of Nitrogen by Plants

B. Input of Detritus

C. Decomposition of Litter

D. Nitrification

VI. Nitrogen Content of Soils

A. Soil-Forming Factors

B. Plant Succession and Nitrogen Accumulation

C. Ecosystem Disturbance and Recovery

VII. Conclusions


Chapter 2 The Decomposition Process: Mineralization, Immobilization, Humus Formation, and Degradation

I. Introduction

II. Processes of Decomposition

A. Breakdown of Organic Residues

B. Phases of Nitrogen Release and Accumulation

C. Role of Decomposer Organisms

D. Degradation of the Microbial Biomass

III. Humus Formation, Composition, and Degradation

A. Origin and Formation

B. Structure

C. Chemical Forms of Soil Organic Nitrogen

D. Degradation

E. Biochemistry of Nitrogen Mineralization

IV. Factors Affecting Decomposition

A. Substrate Quality

B. Moisture

C. Temperature

D. Soil pH

E. Inorganic Nutrients

F. Additions of Organic Residues

G. Pesticides

H. Growing Plants

I. Cultivation

J. Clay Content

K. Physical Inaccessibility

V. Conclusions


Chapter 3 Nitrification

I. Introduction

II. Processes of Nitrification

A. Chemoautotrophic Nitrification

B. Heterotrophic Nitrification

C. Methylotrophic Nitrification

D. Chemical Nitrification

III. Factors Regulating Nitrification

A. Substrates and Products

B. Soil pH

C. Aeration and Moisture

D. Temperature

E. Allelopathic Substances

F. Limiting Supply of Ammonium under Vegetation

G. Nutrient Deficiencies

H. Trace Element Toxicities

I. Pesticides

J. Specific Inhibitors

IV. Role of Nitrification in Ecosystems

A. Significance of Nitrification

B. Nitrification in Natural Ecosystems

C. Nitrification in Agricultural Ecosystems

V. Conclusions


Chapter 4 Retention and Movement of Nitrogen in Soils

I. Introduction

II. Adsorption and Fixation Processes

A. Adsorption of Ammonium

B. Fixation of Ammonium by Clays

C. Adsorption of Ammonia

D. Fixation of Ammonia by Soil Organic Matter

E. Adsorption of Nitrate

III. Erosion and Surface Runoff

A. Processes of Loss

B. Factors Affecting Losses

IV. Leaching Losses of Nitrate

A. Description of Solute Movement

B. Prediction of Nitrate Leaching

C. Estimation of Leaching Losses

D. Factors Affecting Leaching Losses

V. Significance of Runoff and Leaching Losses

A. Consequence of Losses

B. Methods to Control Losses

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 5 Gaseous Losses of Nitrogen

I. Introduction

II. Ammonia Volatilization

A. Processes

B. Factors Affecting Volatilization

III. Biological Generation of Gaseous Nitrogenous Products

A. Processes

B. Factors Affecting Biological Gaseous Losses

IV. Chemodenitrification

A. Nitrite Accumulation

B. Mechanisms

V. Extent, Significance, and Fate of Losses

A. Ammonia Volatilization

B. Denitrification and Nitrification

C. Chemodenitrification

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 6 Uptake and Assimilation of Mineral Nitrogen by Plants

I. Introduction

II. Processes of Uptake

A. Ammonium Uptake

B. Nitrate Uptake

C. Factors Influencing Uptake

D. Foliar Absorption

III. Processes of Assimilation

A. Reduction of Nitrate to Nitrite

B. Reduction of Nitrite to Ammonium

C. Urea Hydrolysis

D. Ammonia Assimilation

E. Detoxification of Ammonia

F. Reassimilation of Ammonia

G. Sites of Nitrogen Assimilation

H. Regulation of Nitrogen Assimilation

IV. Transportation of Nitrogenous Substances

A. Xylem Transport

B. Phloem Transport

C. Circulation, Storage, and Remobilization of Nitrogen

V. Ecological and Physiological Aspects of Nitrogen Nutrition

A. Preference for Ammonium or Nitrate

B. Reasons for Preferences

C. Responses to a Limiting Supply of Nitrogen

D. Responses to an Oversupply of Nitrogen

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 7 Nitrogen and Agronomic Practice

I. Introduction

II. Nitrogen in Plant Production

A. Nitrogen Uptake and Content of Plants

B. Nature of Plant Responses to Applied Nitrogen

C. Effect of Applied Nitrogen on Crop Quality

III. Factors Affecting Crop Responses to Nitrogen

A. Form, Time, and Method of Nitrogen Application

B. Nitrogen-Supplying Capacity of Soils

C. Available Soil Water

D. Tillage Method

E. Genetic Effects on Crop Residues

F. Leguminous Crops

G. Disease and Pest Incidence

IV. Assessment of Soil Nitrogen Availability

A. Residual Mineral Nitrogen

B. Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen

C. Modeling Approaches

D. Fertilizer Nitrogen Recommendations

V. Nitrogen Supply for Crops

A. Nitrogenous Fertilizers

B. Role of Symbiotic Dinitrogen Fixation

VI. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1986
Academic Press
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R Haynes

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