Mineral Deposits of Finland

Mineral Deposits of Finland

1st Edition - May 23, 2015

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  • Authors: Wolfgang Maier, Raimo Lahtinen, Hugh O'Brien
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124104761
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124104389

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Mineral Deposits of Finland is the only up-to-date and inclusive reference available that fully captures the scope of Finland’s mineral deposits and their economic potential. Finland hosts Europe’s most mature rocks and large cratonic blocks, analogous to western Australia and Southern Africa, which are the most mineralized terrains on Earth.Authored by the world’s premier experts on Finnish mineral exploration and mining, Mineral Deposits of Finland offers a thorough summary of the mineral deposits and their petrogenesis, helping readers to map, explore, and identify Finland’s renewed potential for mineral exploration and extraction.

Key Features

  • Presents a thoroughly inclusive catalogue of Finland’s mineral deposits and their economic potential
  • Features full-color figures, illustrations, working examples and photographs to aid the reader in retaining key concepts to underscore major advances in the exploration of Finland’s mineral resources
  • Offers concise chapter summaries authored by leaders in geological research, which provide accessible overviews of deposit classes


Geologists, economic and petroleum geologists, mineralogists and exploration geoscientists globally as well as mining companies in Finland

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Part 1
      • Chapter 1. A History of Exploration for and Discovery of Finland’s Ore Deposits
        • Introduction
        • Time of Swedish Rule
        • Period of Russian Rule
        • The Years 1945–2013
        • Summary
        • Acknowledgments
    • Part 2
      • Chapter 2. Synthesis of the Geological Evolution and Metallogeny of Finland
        • Introduction
        • Metallogeny of Archean Granite-Greenstone Terranes
        • Metallogeny of the Paleoproterozoic Cratonic Sedimentation and Magmatism
        • Metallogeny of Ophiolitic Complexes
        • Metallogeny of the Svecofennian Arc Complexes and Orogenic Magmatism
        • Metallogeny of the Anorogenic Magmatism
        • Later Mineralization Events
    • Part 3. Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE-Cr-V Deposits
      • Chapter 3.1. Geology and Petrogenesis of Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE-Cr-V Deposits: An Introduction and Overview
        • Introduction
        • Geology of Deposits
        • Location of Deposits
        • Distribution of Deposits in Time
        • Formation of Magmatic PGE-Cr-V-Ni-Cu Deposits
        • Summary
      • Chapter 3.2. Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits in Finland
        • Introduction
        • Nature of Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits
        • Location and Classification of Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) Deposits in Finland
        • Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits of the Suomussalmi Greenstone Belt
        • The Tainiovaara Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit, Eastern Finland
        • Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits of the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt
        • Ni-(Cu) Deposits of the Enontekiö-Käsivarsi Area
        • Geochemistry of the Finnish Komatiite-Hosted Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits
        • Summary
      • Chapter 3.3. PGE-(Cu-Ni) Deposits of the Tornio-Näränkävaara Belt of Intrusions (Portimo, Penikat, and Koillismaa)
        • Introduction
        • The Portimo Complex and its Mineralization
        • Concluding Remarks
        • Reef-Type PGE Mineralization in the Penikat Intrusion
        • Contact-Type Cu-Ni-PGE Mineralization of the Koillismaa Intrusion
        • Compositional Differences between Cyclic Units and Implications for Exploration
      • Chapter 3.4. The Kemi Chromite Deposit
        • Introduction
        • Shape and Layering of the Intrusion
        • The Chromite Mineralization
        • From Chrome Ore to Stainless Steel
        • Summary
      • Chapter 3.5. The Mustavaara Fe-Ti-V Oxide Deposit
        • Introduction
        • History of the Mustavaara Mine
        • Geological Setting of the Mustavaara Deposit
        • Geology of the Mustavaara Ore Deposit
        • Analytical Methods
        • Geochemistry of the Ore
        • Genesis of the Mustavaara Ore Deposit
      • Chapter 3.6. The Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in Finland
        • Introduction
        • Regional Geology
        • Exploration and Development History
        • Mine Geology
        • Comparison to Other Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits
      • Chapter 3.7. The Sakatti Cu-Ni-PGE Sulfide Deposit in Northern Finland
        • Introduction
        • Discovery History
        • Geological Setting
        • Deposit Overview
        • Petrology and Geochemistry
        • Discussion
        • Summary
      • Chapter 3.8. Nickel Deposits of the 1.88 Ga Kotalahti and Vammala Belts
        • Introduction
        • Areal Distribution of Deposits
        • Mode of Occurrence
        • Geotectonic Setting
        • Nickel Ores
        • Type deposits
        • Parental Magma and Crustal Contamination
        • Ore Models
        • Exploration
        • Summary
    • Part 4. Deposits Related to Carbonatities and Kimberlites
      • Chapter 4.1. Introduction to Carbonatite Deposits of Finland
        • Introduction
        • Age and Occurrence
        • Form and Rock Types
        • Mineralogy and Ores
        • Geochemistry and Mantle Sources
        • Carbonatites in Finland
        • Laivajoki, Kortijärvi, and Petäikkö-Suvantovaara Carbonatites
        • 1.8 Ga Carbonatite Dikes
        • Summary
      • Chapter 4.2. The Sokli Carbonatite Complex
        • Introduction
        • Aerogeophysical Survey
        • General Description of the Sokli Complex
        • Rock Types
        • Mineralogy
        • Geochemistry and Isotopes
        • Genesis of the Carbonatite
        • Ore Deposits
        • Summary
      • Chapter 4.3. The Archean Siilinjärvi Carbonatite Complex
        • Introduction
        • Rock Types
        • Structures
        • Mineralogy
        • Age
        • Geochemistry and Isotopes
        • Genesis of the Siilinjärvi Glimmerite-Carbonatite
        • Siilinjärvi Mine
        • Summary
      • Chapter 4.4. Kimberlite-Hosted Diamonds in Finland
        • Introduction
        • Age and Occurrence
        • Definitions
        • Form
        • Mantle Assimilation
        • Diamond Exploration in Finland
        • Diamond Regions of Finland
        • Karelian Craton Mantle Diamond Potential
        • Summary
    • Part 5. Gold Deposits
      • Chapter 5.1. Overview on Gold Deposits in Finland
        • Introduction
        • Genetic Types of Gold Deposits Recognized in Finland
        • Summary: Gold Mineralization in Finland and its Relationship to Supercontinent Evolution
      • Chapter 5.2. The Suurikuusikko Gold Deposit (Kittilä Mine), Northern Finland
        • Introduction
        • Gold Resource and Mine Development History
        • Regional Geological Setting
        • Geology of the Suurikuusikko Area
        • Suurikuusikko Gold Deposit
        • Discussion and Summary
      • Chapter 5.3. Exploration Targeting and Geological Context of Gold Mineralization in the Neoarchean Ilomantsi Greenstone Belt in Eastern Finland
        • Introduction
        • Geologic Outline of the Hattu Schist Belt
        • Exploration Techniques and History
        • Till Geochemistry as an Exploration and Targeting Technique
        • Descriptive Characteristics of Mineral Deposits
        • Descriptions of Individual Gold Occurrences
        • Structural Analysis and Exploration Targeting—Numerical Simulation of Favorable Structural Architecture and Controls on Mineralization
      • Chapter 5.4. The Rompas Prospect, Peräpohja Schist Belt, Northern Finland
        • Introduction
        • Summary
    • Part 6
      • Chapter 6. The Hannukainen Fe-(Cu-Au) Deposit, Western Finnish Lapland: An Updated Deposit Model
        • Introduction
        • Regional Geological Setting
        • Exploration History of the Hannukainen Deposit
        • Geology of the Hannukainen Deposit
        • Geochemistry and Age Determinations
        • Summary
    • Part 7
      • Chapter 7. The Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi VMS Belt
        • Regional Geology of the Vihanti-Pyhäsalmi Belt
        • Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits of the Vihanti Area
        • Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits of the Pyhäsalmi Area
        • Satellite Deposits
        • Summary
    • Part 8
      • Chapter 8. Mineral Deposits Related to Granitic Rocks
        • Overview of the Precambrian Granitoids in Finland
        • Mineralization Related to the Neoarchean Granitoids
        • Mineralization Related to Paleoproterozoic Orogenic Granitoids
        • Sn-Be-W-Zn-In Mineralization Associated with Rapakivi Granites of Finland and Russian Karelia
        • Remarks
    • Part 9. Other Types of Mineral Deposits
      • Chapter 9.1. The Talvivaara Black Shale-Hosted Ni-Zn-Cu-Co Deposit in Eastern Finland
        • Introduction
        • Short Exploration and Mining History
        • Geological Setting
        • Lithostratigraphy of the Talvivaara Area
        • Deformation and Metamorphism in the Talvivaara Area
        • Talvivaara Ore Deposit
        • Discussion
      • Chapter 9.2. High-Tech Metals in Finland
        • Introduction
        • Rare Earth Element Deposits
        • Sokli Carbonatite Veins
        • Titanium Deposits
        • Lithium Deposits
        • Discussion
        • Summary
      • Chapter 9.3. The Taivaljärvi Ag-Au-Zn deposit in the Archean Tipasjärvi greenstone belt, eastern Finland
        • Introduction
        • Regional Geology
        • The Silver Deposit as a Part of the Taivaljärvi Formation
        • Mineralogy of the Deposit
        • Discussion and Summary
      • Chapter 9.4. Uranium deposits of Finland
        • Introduction and Historical Review of Uranium Exploration and Mining in Finland
        • Uusimaa Area
        • Koli Area
        • Kolari-Kittilä Area
        • Kuusamo Schist Belt
        • Peräpohja Schist Belt
        • Uranium Deposits Not Included in Any Specific Uranium Potential Areas
        • Summary
      • Chapter 9.5. Industrial Minerals and Rocks
        • Introduction
        • Calcite and Dolomite
        • Magnesite
        • Talc
        • Quartz
        • Feldspars
        • Wollastonite
        • Apatite and Micas
        • Clay Minerals
        • Graphite
        • Sillimanite Group Minerals
        • Other Nonmetallic Industrial Minerals
        • Metallic Industrial Minerals
        • Summary
    • Part 10. Exploration Methods
      • Chapter 10.1. Surficial Geochemical Exploration Methods
        • Introduction
        • Geochemical Exploration
        • Glaciological Context
        • Till Geochemical Exploration at Different Scales
        • Tills and Glacial Landforms as Indicators of Transportation
        • Transport Distances and Dilution of Mineralized Material in Till
        • Summary
      • Chapter 10.2. The Orogenic Gold Potential of the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, Northern Fennoscandian Shield
        • Introduction
        • General Geological Features of the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt
        • Data and Methods
        • 3D Model of the Kittilä Terrane
        • Discussion
        • Summary
    • Part 11
      • Chapter 11. Finland’s Mineral Resources: Opportunities and challenges for future mining
        • Introduction
        • What are Mineral Resources?
        • Mining History in Finland
        • Metallogeny and Mineral Resources
        • Challenges and Opportunities for Future Mining
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 802
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2015
  • Published: May 23, 2015
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124104761
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124104389

About the Authors

Wolfgang Maier

Wolfgang D. Maier is Professor of Economic Geology at Cardiff University, Wales, UK. He has more than 25 years of experience in the field conducting research on magmatic ore deposits. He has authored more than 100 journal papers and has been a contributing author or editor of several books, monographs, and geological maps.

Affiliations and Expertise

Geochemist and Professor of Economic Geology, University of Oulu, Finland

Raimo Lahtinen

Raimo Lahtinen is Research Professor & Head of the Research Programme Mineral Potential for the Geological Survey of Finland. He is also an adjunct professor in bedrock geology at the University of Helsinki. His research interests include metallogeny and tectonic evolution, volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, and the Archean-Proterozoic boundary.

Affiliations and Expertise

Raimo Lahtinen, Research Professor & Head of the Research Programme Mineral Potential, Geological Survey of Finland, Finland

Hugh O'Brien

Hugh O'Brien is Senior Research Scientist at the Finland Geosciences Research Laboratory at the Geological Survey of Finland. He has also been a consultant for diamond exploration, and has contributed to numerous publications in geology. His research interests include radiogenic and stable isotopes applied to ore deposit studies, and kimberlites and diamonds.

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