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Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080139586, 9781483152332

Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques

2nd Edition

International Series of Monographs on Electronics and Instrumentation

Authors: I. A. D. Lewis F. H. Wells
eBook ISBN: 9781483152332
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1959
Page Count: 436
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Millimicrosecond Pulse Techniques, Second Edition focuses on millimicrosecond pulse techniques and the development of devices of large bandwidth, extending down to comparatively low frequencies (1 Mc/s). Emphasis is on basic circuit elements and pieces of equipment of universal application. Specific applications, mostly in the field of nuclear physics instrumentation, are considered. This book consists of eight chapters and opens with an introduction to some of the terminology employed by circuit engineers as well as theoretical concepts, including the laws of circuit analysis, Fourier analysis of pulse waveforms, and Laplace transforms. The next chapter is devoted to the theory of transmission lines and covers uniform rectilinear lines, helical lines, and lumped delay lines, along with some applications of transmission-line principles. Subsequent chapters explore transformers, pulse generators, amplifiers, and cathode ray oscilloscopes. Examples of applications of millimicrosecond pulse techniques in nuclear physics and other miscellaneous areas such as radar propagation measurements and high-speed photography are also presented. This monograph will be of interest to physicists and electronics engineers.

Table of Contents

Editor's Preface

Authors' Prefaces


1 Theoretical Introduction

1.1 The Laws of Circuit Analysis

1.2 Sinusoidally Varying Currents

1.3 Fourier Analysis of Pulse Waveforms

1.4 The Unit Step Function

1.5 Laplace Transforms

1.5.1 Basis of Method

1.5.2 Approximations

1.6 Simple Variable Circuit

1.7 Circuits with Distributed Parameters

2 Transmission Lines

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Uniform Rectilinear Lines

2.2.1 Summary of Properties

2.2.2 Analysis

2.2.3 General

2.2.4 Terminations and Discontinuities

2.2.5 Transmission Line as a Circuit Element

2.2.6 Losses

2.3 Helical Lines

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Formula for Inductance per Unit Length

2.3.3 Capacitance per Unit Length

2.3.4 Phase Distortion

2.3.5 General

2.4 Lumped Delay Lines

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.2 Constant-k Filters

2.4.3 Derived Filters

2.5 Some Further Applications of Transmission-Line Principles

2.5.1 General

2.5.2 Transmission-Line Filters

2.5.3 Directional Couplers

2.5.4 A Variable-Length Transmission-Line Section

3 Transformers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Elementary Matching Networks

3.3 Lumped Pulse Transformers

3.3.1 Introduction

3.3.2 Equivalent Circuit

3.3.3 Limitations on Performance

3.4 Tapered Lines

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Quarter-Wave Transformer

3.4.3 Analysis of Smooth Tapered Transmission Lines

3.4.4 Gaussian Line

3.4.5 Exponential Line

3.4.6 Linearly Tapered Coaxial Line

3.4.7 Other Laws of Impedance Variation

3.5 Transformers Composed of Coaxial Cable

3.5.1 Pulse Inverter

3.5.2 Stacked-Line Transformers

3.5.3 A Filament Isolating Transformer

3.6 Coupled-Line Transformers

4 Pulse Generators

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Discharge Line Type Pulse Generators

4.2.1 Analysis

4.2.2 Mechanical Relays

4.2.3 Thyratron Pulse Generators

4.2.4 Spark Gaps

4.2.5 Tapered Discharge Line

4.3 Pulse Generators Employing Secondary Emission Valves

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 Simple Trigger Circuit

4.3.3 Practical Circuit

4.3.4 Other Circuits

4.4 Further Types

4.4.1 Blocking Oscillators

4.4.2 Beam Deflection Tubes

4.4.3 Other Possibilities

4.5 Recycling Pulse Generators

4.5.1 Introduction

4.5.2 Unidirectional Pulses

4.5.3 Microwave Pulses

4.6 Attenuators

4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Limitations of Resistors at High Frequencies

4.6.3 Simple Lumped Attenuators

4.6.4 High Frequency Improvements

4.6.5 Lossy Transmission-Line Types

4.7 Reflex Peak Valve-Voltmeter

4.7.1 Introduction

4.7.2 Principle of Operation

4.7.3 Blocking Oscillator Transformer Construction

5 Amplifiers

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Properties of Valves

5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 High Frequency Limitations

5.2.3 Valve Requirements—Figure of Merit

5.2.4 Some Valve Types

5.3 Interstage Coupling in Cascade Amplifiers

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2 Practical Circuit

5.3.3 Use of Dynode in Secondary Emission Valves

5.3.4 General

5.4 Distributed Amplifiers

5.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2 First Order Theory

5.4.3 Further Considerations

5.4.4 Practical Circuits

5.4.5 Transmission-Line Tubes

5.5 Band-Pass Amplifiers

5.5.1 Introduction

5.5.2 U.H.F. Triodes in Microwave Circuits

5.5.3 Distributed Amplifiers

5.5.4 Traveling-Wave Tubes

6 Cathode Ray Oscilloscopes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Cathode Ray Tube Design

6.2.1 Transit-Time Limitations

6.2.2 Connexions to Deflecting Plates

6.2.3 Overall Frequency Limitations of Normal Deflecting Plate Structures

6.2.4 Methods of Reducing Display Distortions due to Deflecting Plates

6.2.5 Spot Size and Deflexion Sensitivity

6.2.6 Brightness

6.2.7 Beam Acceleration After Deflexion

6.2.8 Sealed vs. Unsealed Cathode Ray Tubes for Photographic Recording

6.2.9 Photographic Technique

6.2.10 Performance of some Cathode Ray Tubes

6.3 Circuit Design for Transient Recording Oscilloscopes

6.3.1 Introduction

6.3.2 Signal Delay Circuit

6.3.3 Time-Base Circuits

6.3.4 Auxiliary Circuits

6.3.5 Camera Equipment

6.4 Oscilloscopes for the Display of Recurrent Waveforms

6.5 Oscilloscopes for Recurrent Pulses Using Pulse-Sampling Techniques

6.5.1 Introduction

6.5.2 Mixing Circuits

6.5.3 Frequency Limitations depending upon Sampling Pulse Duration

6.5.4 Display Circuits

6.5.5 Brightness of the Display

6.5.6 Application to the Display of Pulses Occurring at Irregular Time Intervals

6.5.7 General

7 Applications to Nuclear Physics

7.1 Introduction

7.2 General Measurement Problem

7.3 Scintillation Counters

7.3.1 Introduction

7.3.2 Current Pulse Shape

7.3.3 Performance of Existing Scintillation Counters

7.3.4 Spread of Transit-Time in Photomultiplier Tubes

7.3.5 Spurious Pulse Effects in Photomultipliers

7.3.6 Scintillation Counter Output Circuit

7.3.7 Particle Counting by Čerenkov Radiation

7.3.8 Pulse Testing of Photomultipliers

7.4 Spark Counters

7.5 Amplitude Discriminators

7.5.1 Practical Circuits

7.5.2 Use of Amplitude Discriminators

7.5.3 Pulse Amplitude Analyzers

7.6 Fast Scaling Circuits

7.7 Coincidence Circuits

7.7.1 Introduction

7.7.2 Pulse Limiter with Diode Mixer Circuit

7.7.3 Pulse Amplitude Selection for Coincidence Units

7.7.4 Stability of Coincidence Circuits

7.7.5 Factors Determining the Minimum Possible Resolving Time

7.7.6 Mixer Circuits

7.8 Time Interval Measurements with Delayed Coincidence Circuits

7.8.1 Introduction

7.8.2 Time Sorters

7.8.3 Coincidence Circuit with Multichannel Pulse Amplitude Analyzer

7.8.4 The Chronotron Timing Unit

7.9 Time Interval Measurement by Integration Methods

7.9.1 Introduction

7.9.2 Time to Amplitude Converters

7.10 Recording Oscilloscope Measurements

8 Miscellaneous Applications

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Nanosecond Pulse Generators for Narrow Bandwidth Radio Receiver Measurements

8.3 Waveguide and Cable Testing

8.4 The Use of Nanosecond Pulses for Radar Propagation Measurements

8.5 The Wamoscope

8.6 The Measurement of Time Jitter in Trains of Video Pulses

8.7 The Investigation of Electrical Discharge Phenomena with Transient Recording Oscilloscopes

8.8 Electro-Optical Shutters for High-Speed Photography

8.8.1 Introduction

8.8.2 Kerr Cell

8.8.3 Image Converter

8.9 Analysis of Modulated Electron Beams

8.10 Transistors in the Nanosecond Field

8.10.1 Introduction

8.10.2 Types of High Frequency Transistors

8.10.3 Fast Switching Circuits

8.10.4 Avalanche and Breakdown Effects in Diodes and Transistors

8.11 Conclusion

Appendix I. Guide to Notation

Appendix II. The General Distortionless Transmission Line

Appendix III. Transmission-Line Characteristic Impedances

Appendix IV. Some Valve Data

Appendix V. Gain-Bandwidth Relationship for Amplifiers

Appendix VI. A Figure of Merit for the Overall Performance of Amplifiers





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© Pergamon 1959
1st January 1959
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About the Authors

I. A. D. Lewis

F. H. Wells

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