Millimeter-Wave Digitally Intensive Frequency Generation in CMOS

Millimeter-Wave Digitally Intensive Frequency Generation in CMOS

1st Edition - September 23, 2015

Write a review

  • Authors: Wanghua Wu, Robert Staszewski, John Long
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128022078
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128023617

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF, Mobi, EPub)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


This book describes the digitally intensive time-domain architectures and techniques applied to millimeter-wave frequency synthesis, with the objective of improving performance and reducing the cost of implementation. Coverage includes system architecture, system level modeling, critical building block design, and digital calibration techniques, making it highly suitable for those who want to learn about mm-wave frequency generation for communication and radar applications, integrated circuit implementation, and time-domain circuit and system techniques.

Key Features

  • Highlights the challenges of frequency synthesis at mm-wave band using CMOS technology
  • Compares the various approaches for mm-wave frequency generation (pros and cons)
  • Introduces the digitally intensive synthesizer approach and its advantages
  • Discusses the proper partitioning of the digitally intensive mm-wave frequency synthesizer into mm-wave, RF, analog, digital and software components
  • Provides detailed design techniques from system level to circuit level
  • Addresses system modeling, simulation techniques, design-for-test, and layout issues
  • Demonstrates the use of time-domain techniques for high-performance mm-wave frequency synthesis


University researchers, R&D engineers in industry, RFIC design engineers, and graduate students who want to learn about mm-wave frequency generation for communication and radar applications, integrated circuit implementation, and time-domain circuit and system techniques.

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • List of Abbreviations
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • 1.1 Motivation
      • 1.2 Design Challenges
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizers
      • 2.1 Frequency Synthesizer Fundamentals
      • 2.2 Phase-Locked Loop
      • 2.3 Millimeter-Wave PLL Architectures
      • 2.4 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Circuit Design Techniques for mm-Wave Frequency Synthesizer
      • 3.1 Wideband Oscillator
      • 3.2 High-Frequency Divider
      • 3.3 Frequency Multiplier
      • 3.4 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 4. All-Digital Phase-Locked Loop
      • 4.1 Phase-Domain Operation
      • 4.2 Reference Clock Retiming
      • 4.3 DCO Gain Normalization and Estimation
      • 4.4 Loop Gain Factor and Gear Shifting of the PLL Gain
      • 4.5 PLL Frequency Response
      • 4.6 Noise and Error Sources
      • 4.7 Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Approach
      • 4.8 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Millimeter-Wave Digitally Controlled Oscillator
      • 5.1 From Low-Gigahertz DCOs to mm-Wave DCOs
      • 5.2 Reconfigurable Resonator with Distributed Metal Capacitors
      • 5.3 Fine-Tuning Techniques to Achieve High-Frequency Resolution
      • 5.4 Example Implementation of 60-GHz DCOs
      • 5.5 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Application: A 60-GHz All-Digital PLL for FMCW Transmitter Applications
      • 6.1 Design Specification
      • 6.2 Multi-Rate ADPLL-Based Frequency Modulator
      • 6.3 DCO Interfacing
      • 6.4 Divider Chain Design
      • 6.5 TDC Design and Calibration
      • 6.6 Reference Slicer Design
      • 6.7 Phase Error Generation and Glitch Removal
      • 6.8 Top-Level Floor Plan Considerations for mm-Wave ADPLL
      • 6.9 Experiment Results for 60-GHz ADPLL
      • 6.10 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Digital Techniques for Higher RF Performance
      • 7.1 Frequency Tuning Nonlinearity in a Multibank DCO
      • 7.2 Multibank DCO Gain Calibration and Linearization
      • 7.3 Mismatch Calibration of the Fine-Tuning Bank
      • 7.4 Synchronization in a Multirate System
      • 7.5 Experimental Results of FMCW Transmitter
      • 7.6 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Design for Test of the mm-Wave ADPLL
      • 8.1 Testing Challenges for the RF Synthesizer
      • 8.2 Critical Signals in ADPLL for DFT and DFC
      • 8.3 DFT Techniques for ADPLL
      • 8.4 Measurement Setup and Procedures
      • 8.5 Summary
      • References
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 200
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2015
  • Published: September 23, 2015
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128022078
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128023617

About the Authors

Wanghua Wu

Wanghua Wu
Wanghua Wu finished her PhD at the University of Delft in 2013 where she designed the first-ever 60-GHz all-digital PLL (ADPLL) with programmable wideband frequency modulation capability in 65-nm CMOS (from system modeling to IC implementation and testing software development). In 2013 she won the second-prize award in the Broadcom University Research competition for the Ph.D. work on 60-GHz all-digital PLL. She is currently a design engineer at Marvell Semiconductor Inc.

Affiliations and Expertise

Marvell Semiconductor Inc.

Robert Staszewski

Robert Staszewski
Before becoming a university professor in 2009, Robert Bogdan Staszewski was a design engineer / industrial researcher for over 18 years, working in microelectronics and communication systems. He concentrated on large system-on-chip (SoC) designs for wireless applications and before that was involved in analog, RF, mixed-signal and digital designs. His approach is always to discover novel solutions that offer clear advantages over existing designs. His commitment to innovation and quality has resulted in him developing tens of full-custom mixed-signal complex IC chips. He is an IEEE Fellow for his contributions to the digital RF communications systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

University College Dublin, Ireland

John Long

John R. Long received the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, in 1984, and the M.Eng. and Ph.D. degrees in electronics (with distinction) from Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada, in 1992 and 1996, respectively. He was with Bell-Northern Research for ten years designing ASICs for Gbit/s fibre-optic transmission systems and from 1996 to 2001 as an Assistant and then Associate Professor with the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Since January 2002, he has been Chair of the Electronics Research Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. His current research interests include transceiver circuits for high-frequency, high-speed, and low-power integrated wireless/wireline systems.

Affiliations and Expertise

Delft University of Technology

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Millimeter-Wave Digitally Intensive Frequency Generation in CMOS"