Miller's Anesthesia, 2-Volume Set

Miller's Anesthesia, 2-Volume Set

9th Edition - October 7, 2019

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  • Editors: Michael Gropper, Lars Eriksson, Lee Fleisher, Jeanine Wiener-Kronish, Neal Cohen, Kate Leslie
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323612647
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323596046
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323612630

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Description

Covering everything from historical and international perspectives to basic science and current clinical practice, Miller's Anesthesia, 9th Edition, remains the preeminent reference in the field. Dr. Michael Gropper leads a team of global experts who bring you the most up-to-date information available on the technical, scientific, and clinical issues you face each day – whether you’re preparing for the boards, studying for recertification, or managing a challenging patient care situation in your practice.

Table of Contents

  • Instructions for online access
  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Associate Editors
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Video Contents
  • VOLUME 1
  • Section I. Introduction
  • 1. The Scope of Modern Anesthetic Practice
  • Introduction
  • Forces That Will Change Practice (Fig. 1.1)
  • Conclusions
  • 2. Anesthesia and Analgesia in the Global Context
  • Introduction
  • Section 1: Anesthesia and “Global Health”
  • Section 2: Evolution of Anesthesia Care Models and Challenges Around the World
  • Section 3: Essentials for Practice in Resource-Constrained Settings
  • Appendix 1 Links and Useful Resources
  • Conclusions
  • 3. Perioperative Medicine
  • Introduction
  • Perioperative Management
  • Models of Perioperative Care
  • Conclusion
  • 4. Informatics in Perioperative Medicine
  • Introduction
  • Computer Systems
  • Computer Networks
  • The Internet
  • Information Security
  • Standards for Healthcare Data Exchange
  • Regulation of Electronic Data Exchange
  • The Nature of Healthcare Information in the Anesthesia Encounter
  • Development and Deployment of Anesthesia Information Management Systems
  • Integration of Anesthesia Care Information with Operating Room Information Systems
  • Development of Decision Support Tools
  • Integration with the Enterprise Electronic Health Record
  • Billing System Interactions
  • Challenges in Anesthesia Information Management System Implementation
  • Additional Uses for Collected Data
  • Interactions of Electronic Devices with the Delivery of Anesthesia Care
  • Conclusion
  • 5. Quality Improvement in Anesthesia Practice and Patient Safety
  • What Is Quality?
  • Approaches to Quality Assessment
  • Quality Improvement Measures and Tools
  • Sources of Quality Improvement Information
  • Examples of Quality Improvement Programs
  • The Future: Research, Education, and Ethics
  • Summary
  • 6. Avoiding Patient Harm in Anesthesia: Human Performance and Patient Safety
  • What this Chapter is About: An Overview
  • Human Performance and Patient Safety in Anesthesia: Why is this Important?
  • Nature of the Anesthesia Professional’s Operational Domain: A Dynamic and Complex Environment
  • Nature of the Anesthesia Professional’s Work: Task Variation and Workload Management
  • Patient Safety on the Individual and Team Level
  • Patient Safety on the Organizational Level
  • The Bigger Picture: Patient Safety Efforts on the U.S. National and International Level
  • Conclusion and Outlook
  • Appendix 6.1. Online Links and Valuable Public Sources
  • 7. Patient Simulation
  • What This Chapter Is About: An Overview
  • Simulation in Anesthesia: Why Is It Important?
  • Application of Simulation in Anesthesia and Health Care
  • History, Development, and Types of Simulators and Simulation
  • Simulation Fidelity and Classification of Simulators
  • Sites of Simulation
  • Simulation Team Training Participants: Who Should Be Trained and in What Composition?
  • Patient Simulation Timing: Announced in Advance Versus Unannounced in Advance
  • Scopes of Simulation in Health Care: The 12 Dimensions of Simulation
  • Crisis Resource Management (ACRM; CRM): Part of Modern Patient Simulation Team Training
  • Anatomy of a Patient Simulation Team Training Exercise
  • Scenario Design and Execution: Knowing the Learning Objectives and Making It Real
  • Debriefing: Heart and Soul of Patient Simulation
  • Qualification and Certification of Simulation Instructors
  • Accreditation of Simulation Programs, Sites, and Centers
  • Benefits, Effectiveness, and Ecological Validity of Simulation Training
  • Cost of Patient Simulation and Simulation Centers
  • Using Simulation for Assessment of Clinical Performance
  • Simulation Societies and Simulation Journals
  • The Future of Patient Simulation in Anesthesia
  • Appendix 7.1 Online Links and Useful Resources
  • 8. Ethical Aspects of Anesthesia Care
  • Ethical Theory
  • Clinical Ethics
  • Special Issues in Informed Consent and Informed Refusal
  • Ethics of Anesthesia Involving Pregnant Women
  • The Uncooperative Patient—Coercion and Restraint
  • Truth Telling—Disclosure of Errors and Apology
  • Research Ethics
  • Section II. Anesthetic Physiology
  • 9. Consciousness, Memory, and Anesthesia
  • Introduction
  • Consciousness
  • Memory
  • Organization and Function of Normal Memory
  • Effects of Anesthetic Drugs on Declarative Memory Function in Humans
  • Nonhuman Studies of Anesthetic Effects on Memory Processes and Behavior in the Medial Temporal Lobe
  • Human and Nonhuman Studies of Anesthetic Effects on Fear Memory Systems
  • Anesthetic Effects on Implicit Memory Function
  • 10. Sleep Medicine
  • Definition of Sleep
  • Physiology
  • How to Assess Sleep
  • Sleep and Breathing
  • Sleep and Anesthesia: Two Unequal Twins Influencing Perioperative Medicine
  • Sleep and Sedation in the Intensive Care Unit
  • Acknowledgment
  • 11. Cerebral Physiology and the Effects of Anesthetic Drugs
  • The Anatomy of the Cerebral Circulation
  • Effects of Anesthetics on Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Metabolic Rate
  • Other Effects of Anesthetics on Cerebral Physiology
  • Cerebral Physiology in Pathologic States
  • 12. Neuromuscular Physiology and Pharmacology
  • Neuromuscular Transmission
  • Neuromuscular Junction
  • Drug Effects on Postjunctional Receptors
  • Biology of Prejunctional and Postjunctional Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
  • Neuromuscular Junction at Extremes of Age
  • 13. Respiratory Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • Respiratory Physiology Is Central to the Practice of Anesthesia
  • Pulmonary Physiology in Health
  • Ventilation
  • Static Lung Volumes—Functional Residual Capacity
  • Respiratory Mechanics
  • Distribution of Inspired Gas
  • Perfusion
  • Clinical Assessment of Lung Function
  • Intraoperative Respiratory Events
  • Ventilation-Perfusion Matching During Anesthesia
  • Factors that Influence Respiratory Function During Anesthesia
  • Lung Function After Cardiac Surgery
  • Protective Ventilation
  • Postoperative Physiotherapy
  • Intraoperative Hyperoxia
  • Effect of Sleep on Respiration
  • 14. Cardiac Physiology
  • Physiology of the Intact Heart
  • Cellular Cardiac Physiology
  • Control of Cardiac Function
  • 15. Gastrointestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology
  • Introduction
  • Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Function
  • Transit Time in Health and Disease
  • Methods of Evaluating Colonic Motility
  • The Effects of General Anesthesia on Bowel Function
  • Effect of Opioids on Bowel Function
  • Effect of Open Abdominal Surgery, Ischemia, Stomas, and Bowel Anastomosis on Gastrointestinal Physiology and Function
  • Gastrointestinal System Nociception
  • 16. Hepatic Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Anesthetic Considerations
  • Anatomy of the Liver
  • Hepatic Physiology
  • Evaluation of the Liver
  • Hepatic Pathophysiology
  • Strategies for Minimizing Blood Loss
  • 17. Renal Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacology, and Evaluation of Function
  • Introduction
  • Organization of the Kidney
  • Induced Hypotension
  • 18. Basic Principles of Pharmacology
  • Introduction
  • Pharmacokinetic Models
  • Special Interests in Anesthetic Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacodynamic Principles
  • Special Populations
  • Summary
  • 19. Inhaled Anesthetics: Mechanisms of Action
  • History
  • Integrated Effects on Central Nervous System Function
  • Identification of Molecular Sites of Anesthetic Action
  • Cellular Mechanisms
  • Simple Circuits and Complex Networks
  • Research Strategies for the Future
  • Summary
  • 20. Inhaled Anesthetic Uptake, Distribution, Metabolism, and Toxicity
  • Introduction
  • Uptake and Distribution of Inhaled Anesthetics
  • Synthesis of the Model and Inhaled Anesthetic Induction: PK/PD
  • Metabolism and Toxicity of Inhaled Anesthetics
  • 21. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Inhaled Anesthetics
  • Introduction
  • Inhaled Anesthetics
  • Mucociliary Function and Surfactant
  • Nonvolatile Inhaled Agents
  • Summary
  • 22. Inhaled Anesthetics: Delivery Systems
  • Standards and Guidelines for Anesthesia Workstations
  • Functional Anatomy of the Anesthesia Workstation
  • Checking Your Anesthesia Workstation
  • 23. Intravenous Anesthetics
  • Propofol
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Uses
  • Barbiturates
  • Physicochemical Characteristics
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmacology
  • Uses
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Drug Interactions
  • Uses
  • Flumazenil
  • Phencyclidines (Ketamine)
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Etomidate
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Uses
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Effects on the Central Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System Protection and Other Central Nervous System Effects
  • Droperidol
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Summary
  • 24. Opioids
  • Introduction
  • Pharmacology of Opioids
  • Neurophysiologic Effects of Opioids
  • Respiratory Effects of Opioids
  • Cardiovascular Effects of Opioids
  • Endocrinologic Effects of Opioids
  • Renal and Urodynamic Effects of Opioids
  • Effects of Opioids on Digestive Organs
  • Other Opioid Effects
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Opioids
  • Anesthetic Techniques Using Opioids
  • Other Opioid Agonists
  • Agonist-Antagonist Opioid Compounds
  • Opioid Antagonists
  • Drug Interactions With Opioids
  • 25. Nonopioid Pain Medications
  • Introduction
  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
  • Acetaminophen
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Sodium Channel Blockers
  • 26. Intravenous Drug Delivery Systems
  • Introduction
  • Pharmacokinetic Considerations
  • Pharmacodynamic Considerations
  • Designing Dosing Regimens
  • Intravenous Infusion Devices and Technologies
  • Future Perspectives
  • 27. Pharmacology of Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
  • History and Clinical Use
  • Principles of Action of Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs at the Neuromuscular Junction
  • Pharmacology of Succinylcholine
  • Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
  • Special Populations
  • 28. Reversal (Antagonism) of Neuromuscular Blockade
  • History
  • Antagonism of Neuromuscular Blockade: Current Management Practices
  • Drugs Used to Antagonize (Reverse) Neuromuscular Blockade
  • 29. Local Anesthetics
  • Basic Pharmacology
  • Anatomy of the Peripheral Nerve
  • Mechanism of Action of Local Anesthetics (Pharmacodynamics)
  • Clinical Pharmacology
  • Choice of Local Anesthetic for Various Regional Anesthetic Procedures
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Toxicity
  • Development of Prolonged-Duration and Sensory- or Nociceptive-Selective Local Anesthetics
  • Biologic Mechanisms of Local Anesthetic Failure: Inflammation, Hyperalgesia, Tachyphylaxis, and Genetic Variants
  • Conclusions
  • Section III. Anesthesia Management
  • 30. Risk of Anesthesia
  • Introduction
  • Framework of Perioperative Risk
  • Issues Related to Study Design
  • Risks Related to Patient Characteristics
  • Special Patient Groups
  • Risks Directly Related to the Anesthetic Drug
  • Risks Related to Surgery
  • Risks Related to the Location of Surgery and Postoperative Monitoring
  • Risks Related to the Anesthesia Provider
  • Improving Anesthesia Safety
  • Summary
  • 31. Preoperative Evaluation
  • Evolution of Preanesthesia Evaluation
  • Goals and Benefits of Preanesthesia Evaluation
  • Clinical Examination During Preoperative Evaluation
  • Frailty, Geriatric Conditions, and the Older Surgical Patient
  • Preoperative Evaluation of Patients With Coexisting Disease
  • Special Issues in Preoperative Evaluation
  • Preoperative Laboratory and Diagnostic Studies
  • Preoperative Risk Assessment
  • Preoperative Medication Management
  • Planning for Anesthesia
  • Regulatory Issues
  • Preoperative Evaluation Clinic
  • Conclusion
  • 32. Anesthetic Implications of Concurrent Diseases
  • Role of the Primary Care Physician or Consultant
  • Diseases Involving the Endocrine System and Disorders of Nutrition
  • Diseases Involving the Cardiovascular System
  • Disorders of the Respiratory and Immune Systems
  • Diseases of the Central Nervous System, Neuromuscular Diseases, and Psychiatric Disorders
  • Renal Disease and Electrolyte Disorders
  • Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases
  • Hematologic Disorders and Oncologic Disease
  • Patients Given Drug Therapy for Chronic and Acute Medical Conditions
  • 33. Anesthetic Implications of Complementary and Alternative Therapies
  • Herbal Medicines
  • Preoperative Assessment and Management
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Other Dietary Supplements
  • Summary
  • Acupuncture
  • Music Therapy
  • Conclusion
  • 34. Patient Positioning and Associated Risks
  • Introduction
  • Physiologic Considerations of Positioning
  • General Positioning Considerations
  • Specific Positions
  • Peripheral Nerve Injury
  • Pressure Injuries
  • Bite Injuries
  • Anesthesia Outside the Operating Room
  • Perioperative Visual Loss
  • Conclusion
  • Disclosure
  • 35. Neuromuscular Disorders Including Malignant Hyperthermia and Other Genetic Disorders
  • Malignant Hyperthermia
  • Malignant Hyperthermia Is the Result of Abnormal Function of Muscle Calcium Release Units
  • Genetics
  • Fulminant Malignant Hyperthermia
  • Malignant Hyperthermia–Associated Syndromes
  • Diagnosis in the Operating Room and Postanesthesia Care Unit
  • Anesthesia for Susceptible Patients
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Motor Neuron Disorders
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathies, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Becker Muscular Dystrophy
  • Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy
  • Myotonic Dystrophy
  • Myotonia Congenita
  • Myotubular Myopathy
  • Metabolic Myopathies
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type I
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (Acid Maltase Deficiency)
  • Mitochondrial Myopathies
  • Myasthenia Gravis
  • Periodic Paralysis (Hyperkalemic, Hypokalemic, and Normokalemic)
  • Summary
  • 36. Cardiovascular Monitoring
  • Introduction to Cardiovascular Monitoring: Focused Physical Examination
  • Heart Rate and Pulse Rate Monitoring
  • Electrocardiography Monitoring
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring
  • Central Venous Pressure Monitoring
  • Pulmonary Artery Catheter Monitoring
  • Cardiac Output Monitoring
  • 37. Perioperative Echocardiography
  • Introduction
  • History of Perioperative Echocardiography
  • Principles of Ultrasound
  • Ultrasound Modalities
  • Three-Dimensional Image Acquisition
  • Indications and Practice Guidelines
  • Transesophageal Echocardiography Examination
  • Epicardial and Epiaortic Imaging
  • Transthoracic Echocardiography Examination
  • Qualitative Assessment
  • Quantitative Assessment
  • Hemodynamic Failure and Shock
  • Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography - Noncardiac Surgery
  • Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography - Cardiac Surgery
  • Intraprocedural Transesophageal Echocardiography- Structural Heart Interventions
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Perioperative Transthoracic Echocardiography and Focused Cardiac Ultrasound
  • Critical Care
  • Training and Certification
  • Future Directions
  • 38. Implantable Cardiac Pulse Generators: Pacemakers and Cardioverter-Defibrillators
  • Introduction
  • Basic Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Function
  • Perioperative Considerations
  • Conclusions
  • 39. Neurologic Monitoring
  • Monitoring Modalities
  • Clinical Applications of Neurologic Monitoring
  • Nonsurgical Factors Influencing Monitoring Results
  • Summary
  • 40. Monitoring the State of the Brain and Central Nervous System During General Anesthesia and Sedation
  • Induction of General Anesthesia
  • Maintenance of General Anesthesia: Physiologic Signs and the Nociceptive-Medullary-Autonomic Pathway
  • Maintenance of General Anesthesia: Electroencephalogram-Based Indices of Level of Consciousness
  • Emergence From General Anesthesia
  • Emerging Strategies for Monitoring the Brain States of General Anesthesia and Sedation
  • 41. Respiratory Monitoring
  • Overview of Respiratory Monitoring
  • The Physical Examination
  • Pulse Oximetry
  • Mixed Venous Oxygen Saturation
  • Tissue Oxygenation
  • Capnometry and Capnography
  • Blood Gas Analysis
  • Monitoring Lung Flows, Volumes, and Pressures:
  • Plethysmographic Monitoring
  • Respiratory Rate Monitoring: Apnea Monitoring
  • Imaging for Respiratory Monitoring
  • Point of Care Tests
  • Respiratory Monitoring in Special Conditions
  • Automated Data Systems
  • Additional Monitored Variables
  • 42. Renal Pathophysiology and Treatment for Perioperative Ischemia and Nephrotoxic Injury
  • Introduction and Acute Kidney Injury Definitions
  • Pathophysiologic Processes of Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury
  • Renal Response to Hypoperfusion: Autoregulation and Distribution of Cardiac Output to the Kidneys
  • Detection of Acute Kidney Injury
  • Preoperative Evaluation of Renal Function and Risk Stratification
  • Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury: Mechanisms and Treatment
  • Perioperative Blood Pressure and Fluid Management
  • Nephrotoxins and Acute Kidney Injury
  • Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Summary
  • 43. Neuromuscular Monitoring
  • Principles of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
  • Types of Peripheral Nerve Stimulation
  • Basic Considerations
  • Sites of Nerve Stimulation and Different Muscle Responses
  • Patterns of Nerve Stimulation
  • Equipment
  • Peripheral Nerve Stimulator
  • Objective Monitors
  • Evaluation of Recorded Evoked Responses
  • Use of Nerve Stimulators in Daily Clinical Practice
  • When to Use a Peripheral Nerve Stimulator
  • 44. Airway Management in the Adult
  • Introduction
  • Functional Airway Anatomy
  • Airway Assessment
  • Physiologic Concepts for Airway Management
  • Anesthesia for Airway Management
  • Mask Ventilation
  • Supraglottic Airways
  • Tracheal Intubation
  • Emergency Front of Neck Access
  • Extubation of the Trachea
  • Dissemination of Critical Airway Information
  • Summary
  • 45. Spinal, Epidural, and Caudal Anesthesia
  • Principles
  • Practice
  • Historical Perspectives
  • Anatomy
  • Anatomic Variations
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Physiologic Effects
  • Indications
  • Contraindications
  • Spinal Anesthesia
  • Epidural Anesthesia
  • Combined Spinal-Epidural
  • Caudal Anesthesia
  • Complications
  • Outcomes
  • Recent Advances
  • 46. Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Ultrasound Guidance for Regional Anesthesia
  • Introduction
  • Techniques for Localizing Neural Structures
  • Ultrasound Guidance
  • Transducer Selection, Manipulation, and Modes of Imaging
  • Needle Tip Visibility
  • Approaches to Regional Block With Ultrasound
  • Brachial Plexus Blocks
  • Trunk Blocks
  • Lower Extremity Blocks
  • Continuous Catheter Techniques
  • Choice of Local Anesthetic
  • Complications and Safety
  • Training
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 47. Perioperative Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy
  • Physiology
  • Fluid Pharmacology
  • Clinical Fluid and Electrolyte Management
  • 48. Perioperative Acid-Base Balance
  • Introduction—Why Is Acid-Base Balance Important?
  • What Are Acids and Bases?
  • What Determines the Acidity or Alkalinity of a Solution?
  • Acid-Base Abnormalities
  • Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
  • Analytic Tools Used in Acid-Base Chemistry
  • Acid-Base Problems in Perioperative and Critical Care Medicine
  • Metabolic Acidosis and Alkalosis
  • Ketoacidosis
  • Renal Acidosis
  • Hyperchloremic Acidosis
  • Perioperative Metabolic Alkalosis
  • Summary
  • 49. Patient Blood Management: Transfusion Therapy
  • Evolution and Recent History of Blood Transfusion Therapy
  • Blood Procurement
  • Blood Component Therapy: Indications for Transfusion
  • Synthetic Oxygen-Carrying Substances
  • Autologous Blood
  • Compatibility Testing
  • Maximal Surgical Blood Order Schedule
  • Emergency Transfusion
  • Fresh Whole Blood
  • Complications
  • Citrate Intoxication and Hyperkalemia
  • Temperature
  • Acid-Base Abnormalities
  • Transfusion Reactions
  • Leukoreduction and Irradiation of Blood Transfusions
  • Informed Consent
  • 50. Patient Blood Management: Coagulation
  • Introduction
  • Normal Hemostasis
  • Disorders of Hemostasis
  • Antithrombotics, Thrombolytics, and Procoagulant Drugs
  • Perioperative Management of Anticoagulation
  • Emergent Reversal of Anticoagulants
  • Conclusion
  • VOLUME 2
  • Section IV. Adult Subspecialty Management
  • 51. Management of the Patient with Chronic Pain
  • Introduction
  • Drugs Used for Chronic Pain
  • Interventional Methods used for Chronic Pain
  • Perioperative Management of Patients with Chronic Pain
  • 52. Palliative Medicine
  • What Is Palliative Medicine?
  • Where Is Palliative Care Delivered?
  • Differences Between Hospice Care and Palliative Care
  • Anesthetic Concerns in the Patient Receiving Palliative Care
  • Communication
  • Prognosis
  • The Dying Process
  • 53. Anesthesia for Thoracic Surgery
  • Introduction
  • Concomitant Medical Conditions
  • Difficult Endobronchial Intubation
  • Prediction of Desaturation During One-Lung Ventilation
  • Assessment for Repeat Thoracic Surgery
  • Intraoperative Monitoring
  • Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring
  • Other Monitoring Technology
  • Indirect Cardiac Output
  • Lung Isolation
  • Difficult Airways and One-Lung Ventilation
  • Lung-Isolation Techniques in Patients With a Tracheostomy in Place
  • Anesthetic Management
  • Management of One-Lung Ventilation
  • Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction
  • Ventilation Strategies During One-Lung Ventilation
  • Prediction of Hypoxemia During One-Lung Ventilation
  • Treatment of Hypoxemia During One-Lung Ventilation
  • Anesthetic Management for Common Surgical Procedures
  • Pulmonary Surgery
  • Lobectomy
  • Pneumonectomy
  • Limited Pulmonary Resections: Segmentectomy and Wedge Resection
  • Anesthetic Management for Specific Surgical Procedures
  • Anesthesia for Tracheal Resection
  • Blebs, Bullae, Cysts, and Pneumatoceles
  • Lung Transplantation
  • Pulmonary Hemorrhage
  • Pulmonary Thromboendarterectomy
  • Bronchopulmonary Lavage
  • Mediastinal Masses
  • Thymectomy for Myasthenia Gravis
  • Postoperative Management
  • Postoperative Analgesia
  • 54. Anesthesia for Cardiac Surgical Procedures
  • Cardiovascular Disease in the 21st Century
  • Approach to Anesthesia for the Adult Cardiac Patient
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Specific Cardiovascular Disease States
  • Procedures in the Hybrid Operating Room
  • 55. Anesthesia for Correction of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Historical Perspectives
  • Scope of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Normal Cardiac Rhythm
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Permanent Pacing
  • Resynchronization Therapy
  • Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator
  • Correction of Cardiac Arrhythmias With Ablation Therapy
  • Future Trends
  • 56. Anesthesia for Vascular Surgery
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Abdominal Aortic Reconstruction
  • Endovascular Aortic Repair Surgery
  • Hybrid Arch Repairs
  • Carotid Endarterectomy
  • Endovascular Treatment of Carotid Disease: Carotid Artery Stenting
  • Lower Extremity Revascularization
  • 57. Anesthesia for Neurologic Surgery and Neurointerventions
  • Recurrent Issues in Neuroanesthesia
  • Specific Procedures
  • 58. Anesthesia for Bariatric Surgery
  • Obesity as a Disease
  • Nonsurgical Management of Obesity
  • Surgical Management of Obesity
  • Anesthetic Management of the Bariatric Surgical Patient
  • Considerations for Management of the Obese Patient Presenting for Nonbariatric Surgery
  • 59. Anesthesia and the Renal and Genitourinary Systems
  • Innervation of the Genitourinary System
  • Anesthesia for Patients With Renal Disease
  • Renal and Genitourinary Procedures
  • Urogenital Pain Syndromes and Treatment
  • 60. Anesthesia for Abdominal Organ Transplantation
  • Kidney Transplantation
  • Pancreas Transplantation
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Conclusions
  • 61. Anesthesia for Organ Procurement
  • Introduction
  • Management of Organ Donors After Declaration of Neurologic Death
  • Donation After Circulatory (Cardiac) Death
  • Extended Criteria Donor
  • Management of Organ Donors Before Procurement
  • Management of Donors After Circulatory Death
  • Management of Organ Donor During Procurement Surgery
  • Management of Living Organ Donors
  • Organ Preservation and Management After Procurement
  • 62. Anesthesia for Obstetrics
  • Physiologic Changes During Pregnancy and Delivery
  • Uteroplacental Physiology
  • Labor Progress
  • Labor Analgesia
  • Anesthesia Considerations for Operative Delivery
  • Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery
  • Postcesarean Pain Control and Recovery
  • Complications of Regional Anesthesia
  • Maternal Comorbidities
  • Opioid Dependence
  • Anesthesia for Malpresentation and External Cephalic Version
  • Obstetric Emergencies
  • Nonobstetric Surgery During Pregnancy
  • 63. Anesthesia for Fetal Surgery and Other Fetal Therapies
  • Indications, Procedures, and Outcomes
  • Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion Sequence
  • Preoperative Assessment and Counseling
  • Intraoperative Management and Considerations
  • Postoperative Management and Considerations
  • Management of Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment Procedure
  • Conclusions and Future Considerations
  • 64. Anesthesia for Orthopedic Surgery
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Special Considerations for Conditions Leading to Orthopedic Surgery
  • Orthopedic Procedures in Children with Special Conditions
  • Perioperative Management of the Orthopedic Patient
  • Anesthesia for Spine Surgery
  • 65. Geriatric Anesthesia
  • Organ-Specific Age-Related Physiologic and Pathologic Changes
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Intraoperative Management Considerations for Older Adults
  • Postoperative Concerns
  • Outcomes
  • 66. Anesthesia for Trauma
  • Introduction
  • Prioritizing Trauma Care
  • Anesthesia in War and Austere Conditions
  • Emergency Airway Management
  • Resuscitation from Hemorrhagic Shock
  • Trauma to the Central Nervous System
  • Orthopedic and Soft Tissue Trauma
  • Other Traumatic Injuries
  • Selected Patient Populations
  • Postoperative Care
  • Summary
  • 67. Prehospital Care for Medical Emergencies and Trauma
  • Background
  • Emergency Medical Technician and Paramedic-Based Emergency Medical Service Systems
  • Primary Survey and Initial Assessment at the Scene
  • Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • Respiratory Distress
  • Neurologic Injury and Head Injury
  • Prehospital Trauma
  • Point-of-Care Diagnostics
  • Overdose/Toxicology/Environmental Exposure
  • Horizons in Prehospital Care
  • 68. Biological, Natural, and Human-Induced Disasters: The Role of the Anesthesiologist
  • Introduction
  • Section 1: Natural Disasters
  • Section 2: Acts of Terrorism
  • Section 3: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Warfare
  • Section 4: Epidemic and Pandemic Infectious Outbreaks
  • 69. Anesthesia for Ophthalmic Surgery
  • Overview of Ophthalmic Anesthesia
  • Preoperative Evaluation
  • Orbital Blocks
  • Monitored Anesthesia Care
  • General Anesthesia
  • Anesthesia for Pediatric Ophthalmology
  • Postoperative Considerations in Ophthalmic Surgery
  • Ophthalmic Emergencies
  • Anesthesia-Related Eye Injuries
  • 70. Anesthesia for Otolaryngologic and Head-Neck Surgery
  • Synopsis of Ear, Nose, and Throat Anatomy
  • Preoperative Evaluation for Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery
  • Airway Management in Otolaryngology
  • Airway Disorders in Otolaryngology
  • Anesthesia for Panendoscopy
  • Otolaryngologic Trauma
  • Nasal Surgery
  • Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy
  • Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
  • Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery
  • Airway Fires
  • Ear Surgery
  • Parotid and Other Salivary Gland Surgery
  • Sleep Apnea Surgery
  • Zenker Diverticulum
  • Anesthesia for Surgical Airways: Cricothyrotomy and Tracheostomy
  • Neck Dissection and Laryngectomy
  • Maxillary, Mandibular, and Temporomandibular Joint Surgery
  • Ear, Nose, and Throat Laser Surgery
  • Phonosurgery
  • Head and Neck Flap Reconstructive Surgery
  • Stridor and Heliox
  • Anesthesia for Face Transplantation
  • 71. Anesthesia for Robotic Surgery
  • What Is a Robot?
  • Why Is the Robot Preferred?
  • When Is the Robot Used?
  • Future Applications of Robotic Surgery
  • Physiologic Changes Associated With Patient Positioning
  • Types of Robotic Surgery
  • Cardiac (See Also Chapter 54 Anesthesia for Cardiac Surgical Procedures)
  • Robotic-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (See Also Chapter 53 Anesthesia for Thoracic Surgery)
  • Summary
  • 72. Ambulatory (Outpatient) Anesthesia
  • Introduction
  • Benefits of Ambulatory Surgery
  • Facilities for Ambulatory Surgery
  • Patient Selection Criteria
  • Preoperative Assessment
  • Patient Preparation
  • Anesthetic Techniques
  • Monitoring Depth of Anesthesia
  • Recovery from Ambulatory Anesthesia
  • Postoperative Pain
  • Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
  • Special Areas
  • Home Readiness and Beyond
  • 73. Non-Operating Room Anesthesia
  • Overview: Defining Non-Operating Room Anesthesia—What It Is and How We Got Here
  • Transitional Priorities for Anesthesiologists Outside of the Operating Room
  • Specific Procedure-Related Issues
  • Interventional Pulmonary Procedures
  • Novel Anesthetic Concerns
  • Anesthesiology for Image-Guided Interventions: Evolution of a New Interface
  • Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventions: New Challenges
  • Procedures Guided by Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Image-Guided Procedures for Specialty Areas: Neuroradiology and Interventional Cardiology
  • Procedures in the Neuroradiology Suite
  • Interventional Neuroradiology: Acute Stroke Treatments
  • Interventional Cardiology Procedures: General Considerations for the Electrophysiology and Catheterization Laboratories
  • Anesthesiologists in the Electrophysiology Laboratory
  • Anesthesiologists in the Catheterization Laboratory
  • Interventional Echocardiography Anesthesiologists as Co-Proceduralists—The Road Ahead
  • The Road Ahead: Toward a Comprehensive Strategy
  • 74. Clinical Care in Extreme Environments: Physiology at High Altitude and in Space
  • Introduction to Altitude and Explanation of Hypobaric Hypoxia and Its Effect on Physiologic Performance
  • Physiologic Responses to Hypoxia/Acclimatization
  • Altitude Illness
  • Special Situations at Altitude
  • Anesthesia at Altitude
  • Space Medicine
  • The Environmental Challenges Posed by Spaceflight
  • Cardiovascular Physiology During Space Flight
  • Pulmonary Physiology During Space Flight
  • Musculoskeletal Physiology During Space Flight
  • Central Nervous System and Psychological Challenges During Space Flight
  • The Effect of Spaceflight on Other Physiologic Systems (Including the Immune and Gastric Systems)
  • Potential Medical Scenarios During Manned Space Missions
  • Thoughts and Considerations for Anesthetic Provision in Space
  • 75. Clinical Care in Extreme Environments: High Pressure, Immersion, Drowning, Hypo- and Hyperthermia
  • Introduction
  • Physiology of Immersion
  • Drowning
  • Hypothermia
  • Hyperthermia
  • Effects of Increased Gas Pressure
  • Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Summary
  • Section V. Pediatric Anesthesia
  • 76. Regional Anesthesia in Children
  • Introduction
  • Relevant Differences Between Children and Adults
  • Indications, Contraindications, and Complications
  • Selection of Materials and Anesthetic Solution
  • Anatomic Identification in Regional Anesthesia
  • Safety, Precautions and Discharge Criteria
  • Neuraxial Blocks
  • Upper Extremity Conduction Blocks
  • Lower Extremity Conduction Blocks
  • Truncal Blocks
  • Face, Head, and Neck Nerve Blocks
  • Other Procedures
  • 77. Pediatric Anesthesia
  • Physiologic Considerations
  • Pharmacology
  • Perioperative Management
  • Important Pediatric Anesthesia Scenarios
  • 78. Anesthesia for Pediatric Cardiac Surgery
  • Unique Features of Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia
  • Anesthetic Management
  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
  • Anticoagulation, Hemostasis, and Blood Conservation
  • Postoperative Management
  • Anesthesia for Heart and Lung Transplantation
  • Anesthesia for Closed-Heart Operations
  • Anesthesia for Interventional or Diagnostic Cardiac Procedures
  • Adult Congenital Heart Disease
  • Pediatric Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • Advances in Resynchronization Therapy
  • Anesthesia for Noncardiac Surgery
  • Offsite Anesthesia in Cardiac Surgery Patients
  • 79. Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care
  • Relationship Between the Intensive Care Unit and the Operating Room
  • Family Partnered Care in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
  • Disclosure of Medical Errors
  • Organization of the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Common Cardiovascular Disease States
  • Cardiovascular Pharmacology
  • Neonatal Resuscitation
  • Phases of Resuscitation
  • Interventions During the Cardiac Arrest (No Flow) and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (Low Flow)
  • Post-resuscitation Myocardial Dysfunction
  • Ventricular Fibrillation and Ventricular Tachycardia in Children
  • Respiratory System
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Section VI. Postoperative Care
  • 80. The Postanesthesia Care Unit
  • Admission to the Postanesthesia Care Unit
  • The Standards for Postanesthesia Care
  • Early Postoperative Physiologic Changes
  • Transport to the Postanesthesia Care Unit
  • Upper Airway Obstruction
  • Management of Upper Airway Obstruction
  • Differential Diagnosis of Arterial Hypoxemia in the Postanesthesia Care Unit
  • Pulmonary Edema
  • Monitoring and Treatment of Hypoxemia
  • Oxygen Delivery Systems
  • Hemodynamic Instability
  • Myocardial Ischemia: Evaluation and Treatment
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • Renal Dysfunction
  • Postoperative Hypothermia and Shivering
  • Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
  • Delirium
  • Emergence Excitement
  • Delayed Awakening
  • Discharge Criteria
  • Infection Control
  • Postoperative Management of Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement and Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair
  • Immediate Postoperative Care of Craniotomies
  • Potentially Devastating Visual Complications
  • Future Considerations
  • Summary
  • 81. Acute Postoperative Pain
  • Fundamental Considerations
  • Systemic Analgesic Techniques
  • Acetaminophen
  • Gabapentinoids
  • 82. Cognitive Dysfunction and Other Long-Term Complications of Surgery and Anesthesia
  • Introduction
  • Nomenclature, Diagnosis, and Measurement
  • Summary
  • Risk Factors, Informed Consent, and Perioperative Management
  • Intraoperative Management
  • Postoperative Management
  • Mechanisms and Biomarkers
  • Summary
  • Section VII. Critical Care Medicine
  • 83. Critical Care Anesthesiology
  • Introduction
  • Intensive Care Unit Structure and Management
  • Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Lung Protective Ventilation
  • Sepsis and Shock
  • Hemodynamic Resuscitation in Shock
  • Care for Patients Receiving Cancer Immunotherapy in the Intensive Care Unit
  • Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Critical Care
  • Conclusion
  • 84. Neurocritical Care
  • Intracranial Physiology and Cerebrovascular Autoregulation
  • General Cardiopulmonary Considerations
  • Fluids, Electrolytes, and Nutrition
  • Temperature Control
  • Monitoring
  • Common Diseases in the Neurocritical Care Unit
  • Postoperative Neurosurgical Care
  • Ethical Considerations
  • Conclusion
  • 85. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation and Cardiac Devices
  • Introduction
  • History of Extracorporeal Cardiorespiratory Support
  • ECMO for Respiratory Failure (VV ECMO)
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Patients Awaiting and Undergoing Lung Transplantation
  • ECMO for Circulatory Failure (VA ECMO)
  • The Ethics of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • The Mechanics of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • Vascular Access for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • Monitoring on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • Anticoagulation
  • Therapeutic Monitoring of Unfractionated Heparin (Table 85.4)
  • Weaning from Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • Complications of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • The Anesthesiologist’s Role in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • 86. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Advanced Cardiac Life Support
  • Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  • Recognition and Management of Specific Arrythmias
  • Postresuscitation Interventions
  • Pediatric Resuscitation
  • Future of Resuscitation Science and Care
  • Section VIII. Ancillary Responsibilities and Problems
  • 87. Acute and Anesthetic Care of the Burn-Injured Patient
  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Hemodynamic Alterations
  • Inhalation Injury
  • Acute Management
  • Estimation of Size and Depth of Burn Injury
  • Fluid Resuscitation
  • Electrical Injury
  • Chemical Burns
  • Cold Injury
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
  • Special Considerations
  • Infection Control
  • Metabolic Considerations
  • Nutrition
  • Anesthetic Management
  • Intraoperative Management
  • Postoperative Care
  • Pain Management
  • Conclusion
  • 88. Occupational Safety, Infection Control, and Substance Abuse
  • Physical Exposures
  • Infectious Exposures
  • Substance Use Disorders
  • Fatigue
  • 89. Clinical Research
  • Introduction
  • Key Principles
  • Study Design
  • Study Protocol
  • Ethical and Regulatory Considerations
  • Study Management
  • Study Reporting
  • Reflection, Feedback, and Forward Planning
  • 90. Interpreting the Medical Literature
  • Introduction
  • The Publication Process
  • Accessing the Medical Literature
  • Assessing the Methodology of a Study
  • Tools to Ensure Study Quality
  • Interpreting the Analysis of a Study
  • The Dark Side of the Medical Literature
  • Conclusions
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 3112
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2019
  • Published: October 7, 2019
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323612647
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323596046
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323612630

About the Editors

Michael Gropper

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesia, Director, Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA

Lars Eriksson

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Academic Chair, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna

Lee Fleisher

Affiliations and Expertise

Lee A. Fleisher is the Robert Dunning Drips Professor and Chair of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Jeanine Wiener-Kronish

Affiliations and Expertise

Anesthetist-in-Chief, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Neal Cohen

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine San Francisco, CA

Kate Leslie

Affiliations and Expertise

Staff Specialist, Head of Anesthesia Research, Royal Melbourne Hospital; Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

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