Military Radiobiology

Military Radiobiology

1st Edition - January 6, 1987

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  • Editor: James Conklin
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151443

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Description

Military Radiobiology provides an understanding of the sources and consequences of radiation exposure. Military personnel must develop a working knowledge of postexposure effects in order to determine points of intervention. The medical problems confronting military radiobiology include target damage, which causes decrements in normal performance, physiological injury, and impairments of the immunological-hematological system that lead to life-threatening infectious complications. The book begins by describing the properties of nuclear weapons, including the mechanisms by which nuclear energy is stored within the nucleus, its release, and its conversion to those forces associated with nuclear weapons. This is followed by discussions of the sources, patterns, radiological effects, and management of nuclear fallout; the biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation released by nuclear weapons; and effects of radiation on the immune system, gastrointestinal physiology, and cardiovascular function. Subsequent chapters cover the diagnosis, triage, and treatment of radiation-associated injuries; internal contamination with radionuclides; radioprotective drugs; psychological reactions to nuclear confrontation; and the response to a nuclear weapon accident.

Table of Contents


  • 1. Military Radiobiology: A Perspective

    Text

    2. Physical Principles of Nuclear Weapons

    I. Fundamental Concepts

    II. Model of the Nucleus

    III. Fission

    IV. Chain Reaction

    V. Fusion

    VI. Detonation

    VII. Partition of Energy

    Suggested Readings

    3. Nuclear Weapons Fallout

    I. Origins of Fallout

    II. Design and Deployment of Weapons Related to Fallout

    III. Yield and Atmospheric Conditions

    IV. Fallout Patterns

    V. Radiological Properties of Fallout

    VI. Internal Hazards from Fallout

    VII. Management of Fallout

    References

    Suggested Readings

    4. Ionizing Radiations and Their Interactions with Matter

    I. The Basics

    II. The Radiation Types

    III. Units of Ionizing Radiation

    IV. Radiobiology: A Brief Introductory Synopsis

    Bibliography

    5. Cellular Radiation Biology

    I. Radiation Interactions

    II. Radiation Chemistry

    III. Comparison of Ionizing Radiations

    IV. Cellular Radiation Biology

    V. Tissue and Organ Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation

    References

    6. Radiation Effects on the Lymphohematopoietic System: A Compromise in Immune Competency

    I. Pluripotent Stem Cell

    II. Survival of Mature Blood Cells after Irradiation

    III. Effect of Radiation on Immune Competency

    References

    7. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Gastrointestinal Physiology

    I. Prodromal Effects

    II. The Gastrointestinal Syndrome

    References

    8. Postirradiation Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    I. Introduction

    II. Etiology of Postirradiation CVD

    III. Neurovascular Dysfunction

    References

    9. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    I. Sources of Data on Human Response to Prompt Radiation

    II. Acute Radiation Sequelae

    III. Detailed Description of the ARS

    IV. Modifying Factors

    References

    10. The Combined Injury Syndrome

    I. Pathophysiology

    II. Hematopoietic-Immune Dysfunction

    III. Gastrointestinal Dysfunction

    IV. Changes in Endogenous Flora

    V. Metabolic Requirements

    VI. Healing of Traumatic Wounds

    VII. Management of Wounds

    References

    11. Mechanisms and Management of Infectious Complications of Combined Injury

    I. Abnormal Colonization of Epithelial Surfaces

    II. Interaction of Host and Parasite during Infection

    III. Summary

    References

    12. Diagnosis, Triage, and Treatment of Casualties

    I. Decontamination of the Patient

    II. Evaluation of Radiation Injury

    III. Symptoms Frequently Occurring in Whole-Body Irradiated Casualties within the First Few Hours Postexposure

    IV. Initial Treatment for Patients with Whole-Body Radiation Injury

    V. Diagnosis and Treatment of the Patient with Combined Injuries

    VI. Management of Infection

    VII. Future Concerns for Management of Radiation Injuries

    References

    13. Internal Contamination with Medically Significant Radionuclides

    I. Routes of Entry and Distribution

    II. Internal Contamination through Wounds and Injection into the Systemic Circulation

    III. Physical and Metabolic Characteristics of Radioisotopes Common in Internal Contamination

    IV. Therapeutic Management of Internal Contamination

    V. Prevention of Gastrointestinal Absorption

    References

    14. Radioprotectants

    I. Military Applications of Radioprotectors

    II. Characteristics of a Field-Usable Radioprotector

    III. Historical Perspective

    IV. Mechanisms of Radiation Injury and Protection

    V. Screening and Assessment of Radioprotectors

    VI. Radioprotectors

    VII. Summary

    Appendix A: Factors Affecting Survival Studies

    References

    15. Psychological Effects of Nuclear Warfare

    I. Psychological Milieu before Conflict

    II. Acute Psychological Reactions

    III. Chronic Psychological Reactions

    IV. Summary of Psychological Effects

    V. Requirements and Problems of Care

    VI. Prevention of Adverse Psychological Reactions to Nuclear Warfare

    References

    16. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Behavior and the Brain

    I. Behavioral Alterations

    II. Physiological Mechanisms and Performance Decrement

    III. Summary

    References

    17. Nuclear Weapons Accident Response Procedure

    Response to a Nuclear Weapon Accident

    Appendix A: Contamination Hazards and Basic Principles of Radiation Protection

    Appendix B: Checklist for Actions to Restore a Site

    Appendix C: Checklist for Actions before an Accident

    Appendix D: Checklist for Immediate Actions

    Appendix E: Checklist for Actions as Soon as Resources and Personnel Permit

    18. Management of Radiation Accidents

    I. Role of the Military Physician in Management of Radiation Accidents

    II. Planning for Radiation Accidents

    III. Management of Radiation Accidents

    IV. Bone Marrow Transplantation

    V. Local Radiation Injury

    VI. Decontamination and Decorporation after External Contamination by Radioactive Materials

    VII. Skin Decontamination

    References

    19. Medical Operations in Nuclear War

    I. Planning

    II. Casualties

    III. Combined Injury

    IV. Patient Management

    V. Advice to the Tactical Commander

    Suggested Readings

    20. Low-Level Effects

    I. Late Effects of Radiation

    II. Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 414
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1987
  • Published: January 6, 1987
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151443

About the Editor

James Conklin

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