Military Radiobiology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121840501, 9780323151443

Military Radiobiology

1st Edition

Editors: James Conklin
eBook ISBN: 9780323151443
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th January 1987
Page Count: 414
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Description

Military Radiobiology provides an understanding of the sources and consequences of radiation exposure. Military personnel must develop a working knowledge of postexposure effects in order to determine points of intervention. The medical problems confronting military radiobiology include target damage, which causes decrements in normal performance, physiological injury, and impairments of the immunological-hematological system that lead to life-threatening infectious complications. The book begins by describing the properties of nuclear weapons, including the mechanisms by which nuclear energy is stored within the nucleus, its release, and its conversion to those forces associated with nuclear weapons. This is followed by discussions of the sources, patterns, radiological effects, and management of nuclear fallout; the biological effects of exposure to ionizing radiation released by nuclear weapons; and effects of radiation on the immune system, gastrointestinal physiology, and cardiovascular function. Subsequent chapters cover the diagnosis, triage, and treatment of radiation-associated injuries; internal contamination with radionuclides; radioprotective drugs; psychological reactions to nuclear confrontation; and the response to a nuclear weapon accident.

Table of Contents


1. Military Radiobiology: A Perspective

Text

2. Physical Principles of Nuclear Weapons

I. Fundamental Concepts

II. Model of the Nucleus

III. Fission

IV. Chain Reaction

V. Fusion

VI. Detonation

VII. Partition of Energy

Suggested Readings

3. Nuclear Weapons Fallout

I. Origins of Fallout

II. Design and Deployment of Weapons Related to Fallout

III. Yield and Atmospheric Conditions

IV. Fallout Patterns

V. Radiological Properties of Fallout

VI. Internal Hazards from Fallout

VII. Management of Fallout

References

Suggested Readings

4. Ionizing Radiations and Their Interactions with Matter

I. The Basics

II. The Radiation Types

III. Units of Ionizing Radiation

IV. Radiobiology: A Brief Introductory Synopsis

Bibliography

5. Cellular Radiation Biology

I. Radiation Interactions

II. Radiation Chemistry

III. Comparison of Ionizing Radiations

IV. Cellular Radiation Biology

V. Tissue and Organ Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation

References

6. Radiation Effects on the Lymphohematopoietic System: A Compromise in Immune Competency

I. Pluripotent Stem Cell

II. Survival of Mature Blood Cells after Irradiation

III. Effect of Radiation on Immune Competency

References

7. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Gastrointestinal Physiology

I. Prodromal Effects

II. The Gastrointestinal Syndrome

References

8. Postirradiation Cardiovascular Dysfunction

I. Introduction

II. Etiology of Postirradiation CVD

III. Neurovascular Dysfunction

References

9. Acute Radiation Syndrome

I. Sources of Data on Human Response to Prompt Radiation

II. Acute Radiation Sequelae

III. Detailed Description of the ARS

IV. Modifying Factors

References

10. The Combined Injury Syndrome

I. Pathophysiology

II. Hematopoietic-Immune Dysfunction

III. Gastrointestinal Dysfunction

IV. Changes in Endogenous Flora

V. Metabolic Requirements

VI. Healing of Traumatic Wounds

VII. Management of Wounds

References

11. Mechanisms and Management of Infectious Complications of Combined Injury

I. Abnormal Colonization of Epithelial Surfaces

II. Interaction of Host and Parasite during Infection

III. Summary

References

12. Diagnosis, Triage, and Treatment of Casualties

I. Decontamination of the Patient

II. Evaluation of Radiation Injury

III. Symptoms Frequently Occurring in Whole-Body Irradiated Casualties within the First Few Hours Postexposure

IV. Initial Treatment for Patients with Whole-Body Radiation Injury

V. Diagnosis and Treatment of the Patient with Combined Injuries

VI. Management of Infection

VII. Future Concerns for Management of Radiation Injuries

References

13. Internal Contamination with Medically Significant Radionuclides

I. Routes of Entry and Distribution

II. Internal Contamination through Wounds and Injection into the Systemic Circulation

III. Physical and Metabolic Characteristics of Radioisotopes Common in Internal Contamination

IV. Therapeutic Management of Internal Contamination

V. Prevention of Gastrointestinal Absorption

References

14. Radioprotectants

I. Military Applications of Radioprotectors

II. Characteristics of a Field-Usable Radioprotector

III. Historical Perspective

IV. Mechanisms of Radiation Injury and Protection

V. Screening and Assessment of Radioprotectors

VI. Radioprotectors

VII. Summary

Appendix A: Factors Affecting Survival Studies

References

15. Psychological Effects of Nuclear Warfare

I. Psychological Milieu before Conflict

II. Acute Psychological Reactions

III. Chronic Psychological Reactions

IV. Summary of Psychological Effects

V. Requirements and Problems of Care

VI. Prevention of Adverse Psychological Reactions to Nuclear Warfare

References

16. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Behavior and the Brain

I. Behavioral Alterations

II. Physiological Mechanisms and Performance Decrement

III. Summary

References

17. Nuclear Weapons Accident Response Procedure

Response to a Nuclear Weapon Accident

Appendix A: Contamination Hazards and Basic Principles of Radiation Protection

Appendix B: Checklist for Actions to Restore a Site

Appendix C: Checklist for Actions before an Accident

Appendix D: Checklist for Immediate Actions

Appendix E: Checklist for Actions as Soon as Resources and Personnel Permit

18. Management of Radiation Accidents

I. Role of the Military Physician in Management of Radiation Accidents

II. Planning for Radiation Accidents

III. Management of Radiation Accidents

IV. Bone Marrow Transplantation

V. Local Radiation Injury

VI. Decontamination and Decorporation after External Contamination by Radioactive Materials

VII. Skin Decontamination

References

19. Medical Operations in Nuclear War

I. Planning

II. Casualties

III. Combined Injury

IV. Patient Management

V. Advice to the Tactical Commander

Suggested Readings

20. Low-Level Effects

I. Late Effects of Radiation

II. Conclusions

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
414
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1987
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323151443

About the Editor

James Conklin