Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Trace Element Determination

Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Trace Element Determination

1st Edition - May 3, 2014

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  • Editor: Erico Flores
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444594440

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Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Trace Element Analysis describes the principles, equipment, and applications involved in sample preparation with microwaves for trace element analysis. The book covers well-established applications as well as new trends in this field. Hot topics such as sample preparation for speciation, metabolomics, and halogen determination, as well as the alternatives of sample preparation for special samples (for example, carbon nanotubes, polymers, petroleum products), are also discussed. The use of microwaves in sample preparation has increased in recent decades. Several applications of microwaves for sample preparation can be found in the literature for practically all types of sample matrices, especially for the determination of trace elements by atomic spectrometric techniques, safely and cleanly reducing the time involved in this step. Microwave-assisted sample preparation is not only a tool for research but also for routine analysis laboratories; the state-of-the-art in sample preparation in trace element analysis. This book is the only resource for chemists specifically focused on this topic.

Key Features

  • The first book to describe the principles, equipment, and applications in microwave-assisted sample preparation
  • Written by experts in the field who provide a comprehensive overview of the important concepts
  • Introduces new alternatives and trends in microwave-assisted techniques


chemists; analytical chemists, including research scientists, students, and those linked to industrial laboratories

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • List of Contributors
    • Chapter 1. Introduction to Sample Preparation for Trace Element Determination
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. The Analytical Sequence
      • 1.3. Analytical Efficiency and Robustness
      • 1.4. Systematic Errors in Sample Preparation
      • 1.5. Preliminary Processes, Treatments
      • 1.6. Comments on Conventional Open and Closed Systems for Sample Preparation
      • 1.7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 2. Microwave Heating
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. General Aspects of Energy and Matter Interaction
      • 2.3. Dielectric Heating
      • 2.4. Additional Aspects to Consider in Microwave Heating
      • 2.5. Microwave Heating in Sample Preparation
      • 2.6. Final Remarks
    • Chapter 3. Systems for Microwave-Assisted Wet Digestion
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Open Systems
      • 3.3. Closed Systems
      • 3.4. History of Microwave Systems and Current Technology
      • 3.5. Flow Systems
      • 3.6. Final Remarks and Future Trends
    • Chapter 4. Wet Digestion Using Microwave Heating
      • 4.1. Microwave-Assisted Wet Sample Digestion
      • 4.2. Development and Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Wet Digestion Procedures
      • 4.3. Applications of Microwave-Assisted Procedures for Sample Digestion
    • Chapter 5. Microwave-Induced Combustion
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Combustion Systems for Sample Digestion
      • 5.3. Apparatus and Procedures for MIC
      • 5.4. Focused Microwave-Induced Combustion
      • 5.5. Absorbing Solutions
      • 5.6. Alternative Uses of MIC
      • 5.7. Final Remarks
    • Chapter 6. Diluted Acids in Microwave-Assisted Wet Digestion
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Diluted Acids in Microwave-Assisted Wet Digestion in Closed Vessels
      • 6.3. Other Strategies to Reduce the Amounts of Acids for Digestion
      • 6.4. Final Remarks
    • Chapter 7. Microwave-Assisted Ultraviolet Digestion
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. MW-UV Method
      • 7.3. Commercial Systems for MW-UV
      • 7.4. Applications in Chemistry
      • 7.5. Final Considerations
    • Chapter 8. Microwave-Assisted Extraction
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Principles and Technologies
      • 8.3. Current Applications
    • Chapter 9. Flow Digestion Systems with Microwave and Conductive Heating
      • 9.1. Systematic Errors in Sample Digestion: General Aspects Related to Flow Digestion
      • 9.2. Deleterious Effects of Carbon in ICP-Based Elemental Analysis
      • 9.3. Principles of Flow Digestion Systems
      • 9.4. Flow Digestion at Ambient Pressure
      • 9.5. Flow Digestion at Medium Pressure
      • 9.6. High-Pressure Flow Digestion Systems
      • 9.7. Components of Flow Digestion Systems
      • 9.8. Structural Materials and Dissolution Reagents for Flow Digestion Systems
      • 9.9. Flow Digestion of Slurries
    • Chapter 10. Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation for Element Speciation
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Mercury Speciation
      • 10.3. Organotin Speciation
      • 10.4. Selenium Speciation
      • 10.5. Arsenic Speciation
    • Chapter 11. Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation Focusing on “Omics” Areas
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Genomics
      • 11.3. Proteomics
      • 11.4. Peptidomics
      • 11.5. Metabolomics
      • 11.6. Lipidomics
      • 11.7. Metallomics
      • 11.8. Final Considerations
    • Chapter 12. Safety Aspects, Quality Control, and Quality Assurance using Microwave-Assisted Sample Preparation Systems
      • 12.1. Passive Safety in Microwave-Assisted Digestion
      • 12.2. Safety in Practice and during Use
      • 12.3. Analytical Quality Assurance
      • 12.4. Conclusions
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 416
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: May 3, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444594440

About the Editor

Erico Flores

Erico Flores
Érico M. M. Flores has a permanent position at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria in Brazil (since 1991) and has performed research and teaching activities in the Analytical Chemistry field. He is currently a titular member of the Brazilian Pharmacopoea Commission, Director of Analytical Chemistry Division of the Brazilian Chemistry Society and coordinator of the Chemistry Commission of Foundation of Rio Grande do Sul State for Research Support, Brazil. He has experience in many fields of analytical chemistry with emphasis on sample preparation development methods, atomic spectrometry, use of microwave and ultrasound, speciation analysis and quality control of pharmaceutical products. He published more than 150 papers in these fields. He has discovered and developed a new system of microwave induced combustion (MIC) that is currently commercialized in many countries and has opened a new window in sample preparation for trace analysis. One of his main hobbies is to work in the development of new sample preparation methods using alternative systems with the use of microwaves, ultrasound and UV radiation.

Affiliations and Expertise

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil

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