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Microscopy of Ceramics and Cements - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483228068, 9781483274379

Microscopy of Ceramics and Cements

1st Edition

Including Glasses, Slags, and Foundry Sands

Authors: Herbert Insley Van Derck Fréchette
eBook ISBN: 9781483274379
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1955
Page Count: 298
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Microscopy of Ceramics and Cements: Including Glasses, Slags, and Foundry Sands presents the extraordinary value of the microscope in dealing with problems in the manufacture and use of ceramics. This book outlines the methods that are useful in applying polarizing microscope. Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the features of the instruments and of the methods employing them that are appropriate to their use in ceramic research and control laboratories. This text then book surveys the foundation of past experience with the microscope in the several ceramic fields of whitewares, refractories, porcelain enamels, cements, abrasives, foundry sands, and metallurgical slags as a basis for engineering applications and fundamental studies. Other chapters consider the nomenclature employed and interference figures. This book discusses as well the raw materials of ceramics. The final chapter deals with commercially used natural abrasives. This book is a valuable resource for chemists, physicist, and mineralogists.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

2. The Microscopes and Accessories

2.1 The Polarizing Microscope

2.2 The Stereoscopic Microscope

2.3 The Metallographic Microscope

2.4 The Electron Microscope

2.5 Other Instruments


3. Optical Mineralogy

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Isotropie Minerals

3.3 Uniaxial Minerals

3.4 Biaxial Minerals

3.5 Extinction Angle

3.6 Elongation Character

3.7 Birefringence

3.8 Determination of the Slow Ray with Accessory Plates

3.9 Refractive Index and Pleochroism

3.10 Refractive Index Determination by Immersion

3.11 Immersion Media for Refractive Index Determination

3.12 Manipulation of Particles

3.13 Interference Figures from Small Grains


4. Preparation of Material for Microscopic Examination

4.1 Sampling

4.2 Powder and Flake Preparations

4.3 Thin Section Preparation

4.4 Preparation of Polished Sections

4.5 Peels


5. Special Techniques

5.1 Particle Size Distribution Measurement

5.2 Stress Measurement

5.3 Quantitative Analysis

5.4 Surface Replicas


6. Raw Materials and their Thermal Behavior

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Silica Minerals

6.3 Feldspars and Feldspathoids

6.4 Clays and Clay Minerals

6.5 Other Aluminosilicates

6.6 Talc and Olivine

6.7 Magnesia Minerals

6.8 Chrome Ore

6.9 Limestone and Dolomite

6.10 Zircon


7. Whitewares

7.1 Whiteware Bodies

7.2 Thermal Behavior of Body Constituents

7.3 Thermal Changes in a Whiteware Body

7.4 Steatite Bodies

7.5 Cordierite Bodies

7.6 Whiteware Glazes


8. Refractories

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Fireclay Refractories

8.3 Silica Refractories

8.4 Basic Refractories

8.5 Forsterite Refractories

8.6 Electric Furnace Refractories

8.7 Silicon Carbide Refractories


9. Glass

9.1 General

9.2 Techniques of Examination

9.3 Surface Defects

9.4 Seeds and Bubbles

9.5 Cords and Striae

9.6 Stones


10. Cement and Cement Products

10.1 Historical

10.2 Techniques of Cement Microscopy

10.3 Mineral Phases of Clinker

10.4 Microscopy of Hydrated Cements

10.5 Natural Cement

10.6 Portland-Slag Cements

10.7 Aluminous Cements

10.8 Miscellaneous Cements and Plasters

10.9 Aggregate Materials


11. Porcelain Enamels

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Metal Examination

11.3 Nickel Flashing

11.4 Raw Materials

11.5 Metal-Enamel Relationships

11.6 Section Preparation

11.7 Enamel Surface Studies

11.8 Enamel Defects

11.9 Bubble Structure

11.10 Weathering and Chemical Attack

11.11 Cast Iron Enamels

11.12 Ceramic Coatings


12. Structural Clay Products

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Phases in Fired Products

12.3 Miscellaneous Applications


13. Foundry Sands

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Granular Constituent

13.3 Bonding Clays

13.4 Metal Penetration


14. Slags

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Blast-Furnace Slags

14.3 Acid Open-Hearth Slags

14.4 Basic Open-Hearth Slags

14.5 Electric-Furnace Slags

14.6 Bessemer-Converter Slags

14.7 Nonferrous Metallurgical Slags


15. Abrasives

15.1 Introduction

15.2 General Methods for Microscopy of Abrasives

15.3 Abrasive Grains and Powders

15.4 Bonded Abrasives

15.5 Coated Abrasives


Author Index

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1955
1st January 1955
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Herbert Insley

Van Derck Fréchette

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