Microscopy of Ceramics and Cements

Microscopy of Ceramics and Cements

Including Glasses, Slags, and Foundry Sands

1st Edition - January 1, 1955

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  • Authors: Herbert Insley, Van Derck Fréchette
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274379

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Microscopy of Ceramics and Cements: Including Glasses, Slags, and Foundry Sands presents the extraordinary value of the microscope in dealing with problems in the manufacture and use of ceramics. This book outlines the methods that are useful in applying polarizing microscope. Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the features of the instruments and of the methods employing them that are appropriate to their use in ceramic research and control laboratories. This text then book surveys the foundation of past experience with the microscope in the several ceramic fields of whitewares, refractories, porcelain enamels, cements, abrasives, foundry sands, and metallurgical slags as a basis for engineering applications and fundamental studies. Other chapters consider the nomenclature employed and interference figures. This book discusses as well the raw materials of ceramics. The final chapter deals with commercially used natural abrasives. This book is a valuable resource for chemists, physicist, and mineralogists.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    2. The Microscopes and Accessories

    2.1 The Polarizing Microscope

    2.2 The Stereoscopic Microscope

    2.3 The Metallographic Microscope

    2.4 The Electron Microscope

    2.5 Other Instruments


    3. Optical Mineralogy

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Isotropie Minerals

    3.3 Uniaxial Minerals

    3.4 Biaxial Minerals

    3.5 Extinction Angle

    3.6 Elongation Character

    3.7 Birefringence

    3.8 Determination of the Slow Ray with Accessory Plates

    3.9 Refractive Index and Pleochroism

    3.10 Refractive Index Determination by Immersion

    3.11 Immersion Media for Refractive Index Determination

    3.12 Manipulation of Particles

    3.13 Interference Figures from Small Grains


    4. Preparation of Material for Microscopic Examination

    4.1 Sampling

    4.2 Powder and Flake Preparations

    4.3 Thin Section Preparation

    4.4 Preparation of Polished Sections

    4.5 Peels


    5. Special Techniques

    5.1 Particle Size Distribution Measurement

    5.2 Stress Measurement

    5.3 Quantitative Analysis

    5.4 Surface Replicas


    6. Raw Materials and their Thermal Behavior

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Silica Minerals

    6.3 Feldspars and Feldspathoids

    6.4 Clays and Clay Minerals

    6.5 Other Aluminosilicates

    6.6 Talc and Olivine

    6.7 Magnesia Minerals

    6.8 Chrome Ore

    6.9 Limestone and Dolomite

    6.10 Zircon


    7. Whitewares

    7.1 Whiteware Bodies

    7.2 Thermal Behavior of Body Constituents

    7.3 Thermal Changes in a Whiteware Body

    7.4 Steatite Bodies

    7.5 Cordierite Bodies

    7.6 Whiteware Glazes


    8. Refractories

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Fireclay Refractories

    8.3 Silica Refractories

    8.4 Basic Refractories

    8.5 Forsterite Refractories

    8.6 Electric Furnace Refractories

    8.7 Silicon Carbide Refractories


    9. Glass

    9.1 General

    9.2 Techniques of Examination

    9.3 Surface Defects

    9.4 Seeds and Bubbles

    9.5 Cords and Striae

    9.6 Stones


    10. Cement and Cement Products

    10.1 Historical

    10.2 Techniques of Cement Microscopy

    10.3 Mineral Phases of Clinker

    10.4 Microscopy of Hydrated Cements

    10.5 Natural Cement

    10.6 Portland-Slag Cements

    10.7 Aluminous Cements

    10.8 Miscellaneous Cements and Plasters

    10.9 Aggregate Materials


    11. Porcelain Enamels

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Metal Examination

    11.3 Nickel Flashing

    11.4 Raw Materials

    11.5 Metal-Enamel Relationships

    11.6 Section Preparation

    11.7 Enamel Surface Studies

    11.8 Enamel Defects

    11.9 Bubble Structure

    11.10 Weathering and Chemical Attack

    11.11 Cast Iron Enamels

    11.12 Ceramic Coatings


    12. Structural Clay Products

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Phases in Fired Products

    12.3 Miscellaneous Applications


    13. Foundry Sands

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Granular Constituent

    13.3 Bonding Clays

    13.4 Metal Penetration


    14. Slags

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Blast-Furnace Slags

    14.3 Acid Open-Hearth Slags

    14.4 Basic Open-Hearth Slags

    14.5 Electric-Furnace Slags

    14.6 Bessemer-Converter Slags

    14.7 Nonferrous Metallurgical Slags


    15. Abrasives

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 General Methods for Microscopy of Abrasives

    15.3 Abrasive Grains and Powders

    15.4 Bonded Abrasives

    15.5 Coated Abrasives


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 298
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1955
  • Published: January 1, 1955
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483274379

About the Authors

Herbert Insley

Van Derck Fréchette

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