MicroRNA in Regenerative Medicine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124055445, 9780124058583

MicroRNA in Regenerative Medicine

1st Edition

Editors: Chandan Sen
eBook ISBN: 9780124058583
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124055445
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd December 2014
Page Count: 1288
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Description

This work encapsulates the uses of miRNA across stem cells, developmental biology, tissue injury and tissue regeneration. In particular contributors provide focused coverage of methodologies, intervention and tissue engineering.

Regulating virtually all biological processes, the genome’s 1048 encoded microRNAs appear to hold considerable promise for the potential repair and regeneration of tissues and organs in future therapies. In this work, 50 experts address key topics of this fast-emerging field. Concisely summarizing and evaluating key findings emerging from fundamental research into translational application, they point to the current and future significance of clinical research in the miRNA area. Coverage encompasses all major aspects of fundamental stem cell and developmental biology, including the uses of miRNA across repair and regeneration, and special coverage of methodologies and interventions as they point towards organ and tissue engineering

Key Features

  • Multi-colour text layout with 150 colour figures to illustrate important findings
  • Take home messages encapsulate key lessons throughout text
  • Short chapters offer focused discussion and clear ‘voice’

Readership

Graduate students studying stem cell biology and regenerative and reparative medicine

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Part 1. Stem Cells
    • Chapter 1. MicroRNA Biogenesis in Regenerative Medicine
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Macro Impact of miRNAs
      • 1.3. miRNA Biogenesis: Different Paths to the Same Destination
      • 1.4. Mechanisms of miRNA-Induced Translational Repression
      • 1.5. miRNA Regulation
      • 1.6. Methods for miRNA Profiling
      • 1.7. Bioinformatics Analysis of miRNAs
      • 1.8. miRNA Applications in Regenerative Medicine
      • 1.9. miRNAs and Stem Cells
      • 1.10. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
      • Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 2. Control of Pluripotency and Reprogramming
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Basic Properties of Stem Cells
      • 2.3. Pluripotency
      • 2.4. Nuclear Reprogramming
      • 2.5. Conclusions
      • Chapter Questions
      • Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • Chapter 3. Epigenetic Modification of MicroRNAs
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. The Epigenetic Landscape of a Healthy Cell
      • 3.3. miRNAs and Epigenetic Regulation
      • 3.4. A Generalized Model for Epigenetic Regulation of miRNAs in Determining Cell Fate
      • 3.5. Epigenetic Modifications and Regenerative Medicine
      • 3.6. Epigenetic Modifying Drugs
      • 3.7. The Clinical Relevance of miRNAs and Epigenetic Modifying Drugs
      • 3.8. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
      • Abbreviations
    • Chapter 4. miRNAs in Bone Marrow–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Mechanisms of MSC Correction
      • 4.3. miRNAs in General and in Wound Healing
      • 4.4. MSCS in miR-146A Expression: Attenuation of Inflammatory Response in Diabetic Wounds
      • 4.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 5. miRNAs in Cancer Stem Cells
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. miRNA Regulation of Normal Stem Cells
      • 5.3. miRNA Regulation of Cancer Stem Cells
      • 5.4. Regulation of miRNAs to Inhibit Cancer Stem Cells
      • 5.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 6. MicroRNAs in Neural Stem Cells
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. First Insights: Dicer-Knockout Mice
      • 6.3. miRNA Control of NSC Status and Progression along Differentiation
      • 6.4. miRNAs as Neuronal Fate Determinants
      • 6.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 7. MicroRNAs in Embryonic Stem Cells
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Stem Cells and Pluripotency
      • 7.3. miRNAs in Embryonic Stem Cells
      • 7.4. The Role of miRNAs in Cellular Reprogramming
      • 7.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 8. MicroRNAs in Normal and Malignant Myelopoiesis
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. miRNAs in Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Lineage-Committed Progenitor Cells
      • 8.3. Critical Transcription Factors Control miRNAs in Myelopoiesis
      • 8.4. miRNA Functions in Mature Myeloid Cells
      • 8.5. miRNAs in Malignant Myelopoiesis
      • 8.6. Aberrant miRNA Biogenesis in AML
      • 8.7. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 9. MicroRNA-Mediated Translational Control in Stem Cells: Self-Renewal and Therapeutic Implications
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Stem Cells
      • 9.3. Factors Essential for Maintenance of Stem Cell Self-Renewal
      • 9.4. miRNA Biogenesis and Mode of Action
      • 9.5. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and miRNAs
      • 9.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 10. MicroRNAs in Endothelial Progenitor Cells
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. EPCS and Cardiovascular Diseases
      • 10.3. EPCS and Angiogenesis-Based Tissue Repair
      • 10.4. EPCS in Tumor Angiogenesis
      • 10.5. Controversy in Identification of EPCS
      • 10.6. miRNA Profiles in EPCs
      • 10.7. Regulation of miRNAs in EPCs in Diseases
      • 10.8. Targeting miRNAs in EPC Therapy
      • 10.9. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
  • Part 2. Development
    • Chapter 11. MicroRNA Function in Muscle Homeostasis and Regenerative Medicine
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Bone Development and Remodeling
      • 11.3. Skeletal Muscle Development and Regeneration
      • 11.4. MicroRNAs in Differentiation and Regenerative Medicine
      • 11.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 12. MicroRNAs in Skin Fibrosis
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. miRNA Regulation of Skin Fibrosis
      • 12.3. Clinical Applications of miRNAs in Skin Fibrosis
      • 12.4. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
      • Abbreviations and Acronyms
    • Chapter 13. MicroRNAs in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Involvement of miRNAs in HSC Biology
      • 13.3. miRNA Regulation of HSC Responses to Inflammatory Stress
      • 13.4. miRNAs and Hematopoietic Diseases
      • 13.5. Translational Aspects of Hematopoietic miRNAs
      • 13.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 14. miRNAs in Bone Formation and Homeostasis
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. The Role of miRNAs in the Limb Mesenchyme
      • 14.3. The Role of miRNAs in Chondrocytes
      • 14.4. The Role of miRNAs in Osteoblasts and Osteoprogenitors
      • 14.5. The Role of miRNAs in Osteoclasts
      • 14.6. The Role of miRNAs in the Differentiation of Stem Cells
      • 14.7. Skeletal Diseases and miRNAs
      • 14.8. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 15. Lung Development
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. miRNAs and Lung Development
      • 15.3. miRNAs and Lung Developmental Diseases
      • 15.4. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 16. MicroRNAs in Pancreas and Islet Development
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. The Role of miRNAs in Adult Islet Function and Diabetes
      • 16.3. miRNAs in the Mouse and Human Developing Pancreas
      • 16.4. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 17. MicroRNAs in Skeletal Muscle Differentiation
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. myomiRs
      • 17.3. Nonmuscle-Specific miRNAs in Skeletal Muscle Development
      • 17.4. Functional Characterization of miRNAs in Mouse Models
      • 17.5. miRNAs and Skeletal Muscle Diseases
      • 17.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 18. MicroRNAs in Brain Development
      • 18.1. Introduction: From Neural Progenitors to Neural Networks
      • 18.2. Implication of Micrornas in Brain Development
      • 18.3. miRNA Involvement in the Steps of Brain Development
      • 18.4. MIR-9 AND MIR-124: The Stars of the Field
      • 18.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 19. MicroRNAs in the Retina and in Visual Connectivity
      • 19.1. Introduction
      • 19.2. Gross Anatomy and Physiology of the Mammalian Retina
      • 19.3. Development of the Mammalian Eye
      • 19.4. Establishment of Visual Connectivity
      • 19.5. miRNA Expression in the Retina
      • 19.6. miRNAs as a Prospective Tool in Regenerative Medicine for Retinal Disease
      • 19.7. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 20. MicroRNAs in Neural Crest Development
      • 20.1. Introduction
      • 20.2. Neural Crest Development
      • 20.3. miRNAs in Neural Crest Development
      • 20.4. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 21. Adipogenesis and Obesity
      • 21.1. Adipose Tissue
      • 21.2. Adipogenesis
      • 21.3. Obesity
      • 21.4. miRNA Regulation of Adipogenesis
      • 21.5. miRNAs in Obesity
      • 21.6. Factors That Influence miRNA Expression in Adipose Tissue
      • 21.7. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
  • Part 3. Repair
    • Chapter 22. MicroRNAs with Mega Functions in Cardiac Remodeling and Repair: The Micromanagement of Matters of the Heart
      • 22.1. Introduction
      • 22.2. miRNAs in Cardiac Development and Function
      • 22.3. miRNAs in Cardiac Remodeling
      • 22.4. Modulation of miRNA Expression to Limit Remodeling and for Myocardial Repair
      • 22.5. miRNAs in Cardiac Dysfunction
      • 22.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 23. MicroRNAs in Vascular Remodeling and Repair
      • 23.1. Introduction
      • 23.2. miRNAs in Vascular Remodeling
      • 23.3. miRNAs in Tissue Regeneration
      • 23.4. miRNAs in Regenerative Cell Therapy
      • 23.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 24. Skin Wound Healing
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Anatomy of the Skin
      • 24.3. The Wound-Healing Cascade
      • 24.4. Epigenetic Control of Wound Healing
      • 24.5. Micrornas—Regulators of Gene Expression
      • 24.6. miRNAs in the Phases of Wound Healing
      • 24.7. miRNA-Based Therapeutics
      • 24.8. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 25. miRNAs in Bone Repair
      • 25.1. Introduction
      • 25.2. Bone Remodeling and Bone Repair
      • 25.3. miRNAS in Fracture Repair
      • 25.4. miRNAS in Osteoblasts
      • 25.5. miRNAS in Vascular Endothelial Cells
      • 25.6. miRNAs in Osteoclasts
      • 25.7. Challenges for MIRNA-Based Therapeutics in Bone Repair
      • 25.8. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 26. MicroRNAs as Future Therapeutic Targets for Spinal Cord Injury
      • 26.1. Introduction
      • 26.2. The Lack of Central Nervous System Regeneration in Primates
      • 26.3. miRNA Involvement in Spinal Cord Development and Following Spinal Cord Injury
      • 26.4. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 27. MicroRNA Regulation of Angiogenesis
      • 27.1. Introduction
      • 27.2. Angiogenesis Versus Vasculogenesis
      • 27.3. microRNAs
      • 27.4. The Role of miRNAs in Endothelial Cells
      • 27.5. Translation from Bench to Clinic
      • 27.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 28. Micromanaging Inflammation and Tissue Repair
      • 28.1. Introduction
      • 28.2. miRNAs in Inflammation Control
      • 28.3. miRNA Control of Inflammatory Mediators
      • 28.4. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 29. MicroRNA Regulation of mTOR Function
      • 29.1. Introduction
      • 29.2. The mTOR Protein
      • 29.3. mTOR in Cancer
      • 29.4. mTOR in the Nervous System
      • 29.5. Mechanisms of mTOR Regulation
      • 29.6. miRNA Regulation of mTOR Function
      • 29.7. miRNAs as a Tool to Promote mTOR-Mediated NS Regeneration
      • 29.8. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 30. OxymiRs in Regenerative Medicine
      • 30.1. Introduction
      • 30.2. OxymiRs in Developmental Biology
      • 30.3. OxymiRs in Wound Healing
      • 30.4. OxymiRs in Stem Cell Regeneration
      • 30.5. OxymiRs in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
      • 30.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
      • Abbreviations
    • Chapter 31. MicroRNAs and Exosomes in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
      • 31.1. Introduction
      • 31.2. miRNA Biogenesis
      • 31.3. Exosome Biogenesis
      • 31.4. Exosomes in miRNA Biogenesis
      • 31.5. The Link between Exosomes and miRNA Expression Patterns
      • 31.6. The Link between Exosomes and miRNA Biological Function and Its Application to Cancer
      • 31.7. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 32. Organ Transplantation and MicroRNA Expression
      • 32.1. Introduction
      • 32.2. Components of Successful Transplantation
      • 32.3. Allograft Rejection
      • 32.4. Allograft Tolerance
      • 32.5. Nonimmunologic Allograft Injury
      • 32.6. miRNAs as Effective Biomarkers
      • 32.7. Therapeutic Potential of miRNA Modulation
      • 32.8. Examples of miRNAs Implicated in Solid Organ Transplantation
      • 32.9. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
  • Part 4. Regeneration
    • Chapter 33. MicroRNAs in the Control of Neurogenesis in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
      • 33.1. Introduction
      • 33.2. Mature miRNAs in Cortical Neurogenesis
      • 33.3. Specific miRNAs in the Fine-Tuning of Cortical Neurogenesis
      • 33.4. Conclusions and Future Directions
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 34. miRNAs in Transitions: EMT, MET, and EndoMT
      • 34.1. Introduction
      • 34.2. miRNAs in EMT, MET, and EndoMT
      • 34.3. EMT-Regulating miRNAs
      • 34.4. EndoMT-Regulating miRNAs
      • 34.5. MET in Somatic Reprogramming
      • 34.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 35. MicroRNAs in Cardiac Regeneration
      • 35.1. Introduction
      • 35.2. Cell Transplantation in Cardiac Regeneration
      • 35.3. Tissue Transplantation in Cardiac Regeneration
      • 35.4. microRNAs in Cardiac Regeneration
      • 35.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 36. MicroRNAs in Liver Regeneration
      • 36.1. Introduction
      • 36.2. Differential Regulation of MicroRNAs during Liver Regeneration
      • 36.3. miRNA Delivery
      • 36.4. miRNAs in the Treatment of Liver Diseases
      • 36.5. Difficulties in Studying miRNAs in Liver Regeneration
      • 36.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
  • Part 5. Methodology
    • Chapter 37. MicroRNA Technology and Small-Molecule Delivery
      • 37.1. Introduction
      • 37.2. Mechanisms of RNAi in Physiology and Pathology
      • 37.3. Therapeutic Delivery of RNAi
      • 37.4. miRNA-Based Adenosine Augmentation in Epilepsy
      • 37.5. Safety Concerns
      • 37.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
  • Part 6. Intervention
    • Chapter 38. Drug–MicroRNA Cross-Talk
      • 38.1. Introduction
      • 38.2. miRNAs and Their Impact on Drug Metabolism
      • 38.3. miRNAs as Drugs
      • 38.4. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 39. Delivery and Biological Activity of Therapeutic miRNAs and miRNA Modifiers
      • 39.1. Introduction
      • 39.2. Altering miRNA Functions as a Novel Therapeutic Approach
      • 39.3. Biomolecules for miRNA Therapeutics
      • 39.4. Physical Approaches for miRNA Delivery
      • 39.5. Vector-Based miRNA Delivery and Expression
      • 39.6. Nonviral Delivery
      • 39.7. Chemical Modifications of Anti-miRNAs or miRNA-Mimicking Molecules
      • 39.8. Selected Examples of miRNA Replacement Therapeutics
      • 39.9. Selected Examples of miRNA-Targeting Therapeutics
      • 39.10. A Novel Frontier: miRNA Replacement and miRNA Targeting for iPSC Production
      • 39.11. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 40. RNA-Based Therapies for Bone Diseases
      • 40.1. Introduction
      • 40.2. The Cells and Mechanisms of Bone Metabolism
      • 40.3. miRNAs: from Discovery to Modern Experiments
      • 40.4. miRNAS in Skeleton Patterning: Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts in Bone, and Chondrocytes in Cartilage
      • 40.5. miRNAS and Diseases
      • 40.6. New Frontiers: Interaction between miRNAS and Biomaterials
      • 40.7. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 41. MicroRNA-Mediated Regulation of Cardiovascular Differentiation and Therapeutic Implications
      • 41.1. Introduction
      • 41.2. miRNAs and Stem Cell Differentiation into Cardiovascular Cells
      • 41.3. miRNAs and Paracrine Mechanisms that Affect Cardiac Wound Healing
      • 41.4. Myocardial Regeneration with miRNA-Modulated Stem Cells
      • 41.5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 42. Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers
      • 42.1. Introduction
      • 42.2. Evaluating Circulating miRNA Expression
      • 42.3. Circulating miRNAS in Lung Disease
      • 42.4. Circulating miRNAS in Cardiovascular Diseases
      • 42.5. Extracellular miRNAS in Sepsis the ICU and Viral Diseases
      • 42.6. Beyond Biomarkers
      • 42.7. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
  • Part 7. Tissue Engineering
    • Chapter 43. Nuclear Architecture and Transcriptional Regulation of MicroRNAs
      • 43.1. Introduction
      • 43.2. Higher-Order DNA Structure
      • 43.3. Nuclear Organization
      • 43.4. Gene Regulatory Elements
      • 43.5. DNA-Dependent RNA Transcription
      • 43.6. Noncoding RNA
      • 43.7. MicroRNAs
      • 43.8. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
    • Chapter 44. MicroRNAs in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
      • 44.1. Introduction
      • 44.2. miRNA Biogenesis and Function
      • 44.3. Methods for Identifying miRNA–mRNA Interactions
      • 44.4. miRNAs In Cell and Tissue Development
      • 44.5. miRNAs in Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering
      • 44.6. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter Questions
  • Glossary
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
1288
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124058583
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124055445

About the Editor

Chandan Sen

Chandan Sen

Dr. Chandan K Sen is a tenured Professor of Surgery, Executive Director of The Ohio State University Comprehensive Wound Center and Director of the Ohio State University's Center for Regenerative Medicine & Cell Based Therapies. He is also the Associate Dean for Research at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. After completing his Masters of Science in Human Physiology from the University of Calcutta, Dr. Sen received his PhD in Physiology from the University of Kuopio in Finland. Dr. Sen trained as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California at Berkeley's Molecular and Cell Biology department. His first faculty appointment was in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. In fall of 2000, Dr. Sen moved to The Ohio State University where established a program on tissue injury and repair. Currently, Dr. Sen is a Professor and Vice Chair of Research of Surgery. Dr. Sen serves on the editorial board of numerous scientific journals. He is the Editor in Chief of Antioxidants & Redox Signaling(www.liebertpub.com/ars) with a current impact factor of 8.456. He is the Section Editor of microRNA of Physiological Genomics, a journal of the American Physiological Society. Dr. Sen and his team have published over 250 scientific publications. He has a H-index of 64 and is currently cited 2000 times every year.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Reviews

"...comprehensive in its discussion of regenerative medicine and the current knowledge about microRNA in tissue regeneration.  Score: 68 - 2 Stars" --Doody's