Microirrigation for Crop Production

Microirrigation for Crop Production

Design, Operation, and Management

1st Edition - September 28, 2006

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  • Editors: Freddie R. Lamm, James E. Ayars, Francis S. Nakayama
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444506078
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080465814

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Description

Microirrigation has become the fastest growing segment of the irrigation industry worldwide and has the potential to increase the quality of food supply through improved water fertilizer efficiency. This book is meant to update the text "Trickle Irrigation, Design, Operation and Management". This text offers the most current understanding of the management criteria needed to obtain maximum water and fertilization efficiency.

Key Features

* Presents a detailed explanation of system design, operation, and management specific to various types of MI systems
* Analyzes proper use of irrigation technology and its effect to increase efficiency
* Provides an understanding to the basic science needed to comprehend operation and management
* Over 150 figures of designs and charts of systems including, surface drip, subsurface drip, spray/microsprinkler, and more

Readership

Researchers in crop science, agronomy, irrigation studies, food science, and environmentalists.

Table of Contents

  • I. MICROIRRIGATION THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES
    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
    1.1. DEFINITION
    1.2. HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS
    1.2.1. Early History Worldwide
    1.2.2. Early History in United States
    1.2.3. Current Irrigated Area
    1.2.4. Principal Crops Utilizing Microirrigation
    1.2.5. Trends
    1.2.6. Economics
    1.2.7. Expansion in Developing Countries
    1.3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    1.3.1. Advantages
    1.3.1.1. Increased water use efficiency
    1.3.1.1.1. Improved crop yields and quality
    1.3.1.1.2. Reduced nonbeneficial use
    1.3.1.1.3. Reduced deep percolation
    1.3.1.2. Use of saline water
    1.3.1.3. Improved fertilizer and other chemical application
    1.3.1.4. Decreased energy requirements
    1.3.1.5. Improved cultural practices
    1.3.1.6. Use of biological effluent and treated wastewaters
    1.3.2. Disadvantages
    1.3.2.1. Extensive maintenance requirements
    1.3.2.2. Salt accumulation near plants
    1.3.2.3. Restricted root development
    1.3.2.4. High system costs
    1.3.2.5. Restricted crop rotation
    1.3.3. System Considerations
    1.3.3.1. Design and installation considerations
    1.3.3.2. Maintenance considerations
    1.3.3.3. Management considerations
    1.3.3.4. Economic considerations
    1.3.3.4.1. System costs
    1.4. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
    1.4.1. Emission Devices
    1.4.2. Distribution System
    1.4.3. Control and Automation
    1.4.4. Filtration
    1.5. SYSTEM TYPES
    1.5.1. Surface Drip Irrigation
    1.5.2. Subsurface Drip Irrigation
    1.5.3. Bubbler Irrigation
    1.5.4. Microsprinkler Irrigation
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 2. SOIL WATER CONCEPTS
    2.1. INTRODUCTION
    2.1.1. Soil Water Regime for High Frequency Irrigation
    2.2. SOIL WATER
    2.2.1. Soil Water Content
    2.2.2. Soil Water Potential
    2.2.3. Soil Water Characteristic Curves
    2.2.4. Soil Water Measurements
    2.2.4.1. Gravimetric determination of soil water content
    2.2.4.2. Neutron scattering
    2.2.4.3. Time domain reflectometry (TDR)
    2.2.4.4. Tensiometers
    2.2.4.5. Heat dissipation
    2.2.4.6. Electrical resistance
    2.2.4.7. Capacitance
    2.3. SOIL WATER MOVEMENT
    2.3.1. Darcy’s Law
    2.3.1.1. Alternative forms for Darcy’s Law
    2.3.2. Richards’ Equation
    2.3.3. Measurements of Soil Hydraulic Parameters
    2.3.3.1. Direct measurements
    2.3.3.2. Indirect measurements
    2.3.3.3. Inverse methods
    2.3.4. Shortcuts with Pedotransfer Functions
    2.4. MODELING FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND DESIGN
    2.4.1. Simplified Hemispherical Model
    2.4.2. Quasi-Linear Solutions to Richards’ Equation
    2.4.2.1. Steady state solutions for point sources
    2.4.2.2. Steady state solutions for surface ponding
    2.4.2.3. Steady state solutions for line sources
    2.4.2.4. Transient (time-dependent) solutions
    2.4.3. Root Water Uptake
    2.4.3.1. Transient two and three-dimensional uptake functions
    2.4.4. Influence of Soil Spatial Variability on Soil Water Distribution
    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 3. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING
    3.1. INTRODUCTION
    3.1.1. System Capacity
    3.1.2. System Uniformity Effects on Scheduling
    3.1.3. System Maintenance Effects on Scheduling
    3.1.4. Scheduling Constraints
    3.2. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES
    3.2.1 Water Balance (Evapotranspiration Base)
    3.2.1.1. Climatic factors affecting crop water use
    3.2.1.2. Crop factors affecting ET
    3.2.1.3. Soil factors affecting ET
    3.2.1.4. A direct ET approach
    3.2.1.5. Evaporation pans and atmometers
    3.2.1.6. Scheduling principles using evapotranspiration
    3.2.2. Soil Water Control
    3.2.2.1. Soil water measurement and controls
    3.2.2.2. Placement and implementation
    3.2.3. Plant Water Deficit Indicators
    3.2.3.1. Irrigation scheduling feedback loop using plant stress indicators
    3.2.3.2. Plant water potential measurements
    3.2.3.3. Plant size changes from plant-water stress
    3.2.3.4. Plant stress based on plant temperature
    3.2.3.5. Transpiration measurements by sap flow
    3.3. SUMMARY
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 4. SALINITY
    4.1. INTRODUCTION
    4.2. QUANTIFYING SALINITY AND SODICITY
    4.2.1. Salinity
    4.2.2. Sodicity
    4.3. CROP TOLERANCE
    4.3.1. Crop Salt Tolerance
    4.3.2. Factors Modifying Salt Tolerance
    4.3.3. Tolerance to Specific Solutes
    4.4. LEACHING
    4.4.1. Leaching Requirement
    4.4.2. Impact of Rainfall
    4.5. INFLUENCES OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND WATER SOURCE ON
    SOIL SALINITY
    4.5.1. Influence of Irrigation Method
    4.5.2. Reuse and Conjunctive Use of Waters
    4.5.2.1. Reuse
    4.5.2.2. Blending
    4.5.2.3. Cycling
    4.5.3. Environmental Consequences
    4.6. SALINITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
    4.6.1. Soil Salinity Distribution
    4.6.2. Crop Considerations
    4.6.2.1. Crop selection
    4.6.2.2. Other management techniques
    4.6.3. Infiltration
    4.6.4. Reclamation of Salt-Affected Soils
    4.6.4.1. Saline soils
    4.6.4.2. Sodic soils
    4.6.4.3. Boron leaching
    4.7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 5. GENERAL SYSTEM DESIGN PRINCIPLES
    5.1. OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
    5.1.1. Initial Assessment
    5.1.2. Microirrigation Layout and Components
    5.1.3. The Design Process
    5.2. SOURCES OF WATER
    5.2.1. Water Quantity and Quality
    5.2.2. Groundwater
    5.2.3. Surface Water
    5.3. SYSTEM HYDRAULICS
    5.3.1. Hydraulic Principles
    5.3.1.1. Total head
    5.3.1.2. Pump energy requirements
    5.3.1.3. Total friction head
    5.3.1.3.1. Pipeline friction head loss
    5.3.1.3.2. Multiple outlet pipes
    5.3.1.3.3. Fitting, valve and component losses
    5.3.1.3.4. Emitter connection losses
    5.3.2. Emitter Hydraulics
    5.3.3. Microirrigation Lateral Lines
    5.3.3.1. Lateral line design procedures
    5.3.4. Manifolds
    5.3.5. Mainline Pipe System Design
    5.4. FILTRATION
    5.5 SUMMARY OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS
    REFERENCES
    SUPPLEMENTAL READING
    CHAPTER 6. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF MICROIRRIGATION
    6.1. INTRODUCTION
    6.1.1. The Farm-Level Perspective
    6.1.2. The Public Perspective
    6.2. FARM-LEVEL COSTS OF MICROIRRIGATION
    6.2.1. Fixed and Variable Costs
    6.2.2. Examples from the Literature
    6.2.2.1. Irrigating vegetables in Florida
    6.2.2.2. Irrigating field crops with subsurface drip irrigation systems
    6.2.2.3. Other examples
    6.3. FARM-LEVEL BENEFITS OF MICROIRRIGATION
    6.3.1. Crop Yield Effects
    6.3.1.1. Deciduous fruits and nuts
    6.3.1.2. Citrus
    6.3.1.3. Small fruits
    6.3.1.4. Tomato
    6.3.1.5. Melons
    6.3.1.6. Other fruits and vegetables
    6.3.1.7. Cotton
    6.3.1.8. Sugarcane and sugarbeets
    6.3.2. Frost and Freeze Protection with Microsprinklers
    6.3.3. Fertigation
    6.3.4. Chemical Application of Non-Fertilizer Materials
    6.3.5. Irrigation with Saline Water and Effluent
    6.4. FARM-LEVEL OBSERVATIONS
    6.5. PUBLIC BENEFITS AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
    6.6. SUMMARY
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    REFERENCES
    II. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PRINCIPLES
    CHAPTER 7. AUTOMATION
    7.1. INTRODUCTION
    7.2. CONTROL THEORY
    7.2.1. Control Methods
    7.2.1.1. On-off control
    7.2.1.2. Stepwise control
    7.2.1.3. Continuous control
    7.2.2. Linear Systems
    7.3. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    7.3.1. Soil Water Methods
    7.3.1.1. Soil water potential
    7.3.1.2. Soil water content
    7.3.1.3. Wetting front detection
    7.3.2. Plant Water Methods
    7.3.2.1. Leaf water potential method
    7.3.2.2. Plant canopy temperature method
    7.3.2.3. Plant turgor methods
    7.3.2.4. Evapotranspiration estimates
    7.3.2.4.1. Evapotranspiration models
    7.3.2.4.2. Direct measurement of Etc
    7.4. INSTRUMENTATION AND HARDWARE
    7.4.1. Controllers
    7.4.2. Valves
    7.4.3. Flowmeters
    7.4.4. Environmental Sensors
    7.4.5. Filters
    7.4.6. Chemical Injectors
    7.5. SUMMARY
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 8. APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL MATERIALS
    8.1. INTRODUCTION
    8.1.1. Definitions
    8.1.2. Basic Information
    8.1.3. Advantages of Chemigation
    8.1.4. Disadvantages of Chemigation
    8.1.5. Types of Agrochemicals
    8.1.5.1. Water soluble chemicals
    8.1.5.2. Wettable powders
    8.1.5.3. Emulsifiable (oil soluble) chemicals
    8.1.5.4. Gases
    8.1.6. Safety
    8.1.6.1. Following the label and other regulations
    8.1.7. General Considerations
    8.1.7.1. Problems with chemical mixes
    8.2. CHEMICAL INJECTION METHODS
    8.2.1. Injection Pumps and Systems
    8.2.2. Pollution Prevention
    8.2.2.1. Electrical and mechanical interlock system
    8.2.2.2. Backflow prevention in the irrigation line
    8.2.2.3. Injection line components
    8.2.3. Chemical Supply Tanks and Secondary Containment
    8.2.4. Corrosion Resistance of Surfaces
    8.2.5. Maintenance
    8.3. CHEMICALS AND CALCULATION OF INJECTION RATES
    8.3.1. Fertigation
    8.3.1.1. Calculation of plant nutrient requirements
    8.3.1.2. Fertilizer selection and calculation of injection rates
    8.3.2. Chemigation of Non-Fertilizer Materials
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 9. APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICAL EFFLUENT
    9.1. INTRODUCTION
    9.1.1. Advantages of Applying Biological Effluent
    9.1.2. Disadvantages of Applying Biological Effluent
    9.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGICAL EFFLUENTS
    9.2.1. Effluent Source and Degree of Treatment
    9.2.2. Composition of Effluent
    9.2.3. Characteristics of Effluents Used in Some Microirrigation Studies
    9.3. BIOLOGICAL EFFLUENT CONSTITUENT BEHAVIOR IN SOILS
    9.3.1. Nitrogen Uptake by Plants and Potential Loss Mechanisms
    9.3.2. Phosphorus Uptake by Plants and Potential Loss Mechanisms
    9.3.3. Trace Element Uptake by Plants and Potential Loss Mechanisms
    9.3.4. Salinity Management
    9.3.5. Pathogenic Organisms
    9.4. HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS
    9.4.1. Typical Regulations
    9.4.2. Practices to Meet the Regulations
    9.5. SITE CONSIDERATIONS
    9.5.1. Soils
    9.5.2. Climate
    9.5.3. Crops
    9.5.4. Land Area
    9.6. DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
    9.6.1. System Components
    9.6.2. Filtration Requirements
    9.6.3. Chemical Treatment Requirements
    9.6.4. Dripline Flushing
    9.6.5. Monitoring Procedures
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 10. FIELD PERFORMANCE AND EVALUATION
    10.1. INTRODUCTION
    10.1.1. Uniformity of Water Application
    10.1.2. Order of Significance of Design Parameters
    10.1.3. The Goal of Microirrigation Application
    10.2. VARIATIONS OF IRRIGATION APPLICATION
    10.2.1. Variations from Hydraulic Design
    10.2.2. Manufacturer’s Variation
    10.2.3. Effects by Grouping of Emitters
    10.2.4. Possible Clogging Effects
    10.2.5. Total Variation
    10.3. UNIFORMITY CONSIDERATIONS
    10.3.1. Uniformity Parameters
    10.3.2. A Linearized Water Application Function
    10.3.3. Uniformity and Total Yield
    10.3.4. Uniformity and Total Economic Return
    10.4. FIELD PERFORMANCE AND IRRIGATION STRATEGY
    10.4.1. Significance of Irrigation Scheduling
    10.4.2. Optimal Irrigation
    10.4.3. Conventional Irrigation
    10.4.4. A Simple Irrigation Schedule
    10.4.5. Irrigation Strategy for Environmental Protection
    10.4.6. Microirrigation for Water Conservation
    10.4.6.1. Comparing optimal schedule with conventional irrigation schedule
    10.4.6.2. Comparing simple irrigation schedule with conventional irrigation schedule
    10.4.6.3. Comparing simple irrigation schedule with the optimal irrigation schedule
    10.4.6.4. Comparing the irrigation schedule for environmental protection with the optimal irrigation schedule
    10.4.6.5. Comparing the irrigation schedule for environmental protection with the simple irrigation schedule
    10.5. FIELD EVALUATION AND ADJUSTMENT
    10.5.1. Design Criteria of Microirrigation
    10.5.1.1 Uniformity parameters
    10.5.1.2. Determination of design criteria
    10.5.1.3. Selection of design criteria
    10.5.2. Field Evaluation
    10.5.2.1. Significance of field evaluation
    10.5.2.2. Uniformity measurement
    10.5.3. Repairs and Adjustment
    10.5.3.1. Repairing leaks in the system
    10.5.3.2. Adjustment of irrigation time
    10.5.3.3. Adjustments for changes in uniformity
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 11. MAINTENANCE
    11.1. EMITTER OPERATION
    11.1.1. Evaluation of Emitter Clogging
    11.1.1.1. Source of water
    11.1.1.2. Surface water
    11.1.1.3. Groundwater
    11.1.1.4. Wastewater
    11.1.2. Water Quality
    11.1.2.1. Physical aspects
    11.1.2.2. Chemical aspects
    11.1.2.3. Biological aspects
    11.1.3. Causes
    11.1.3.1. Physical, chemical, and biological factors
    11.1.3.2. Microorganisms
    11.1.3.3. Macroorganisms
    11.2. WATER TREATMENT
    11.2.1. Filtration
    11.2.1.1. Screen filters
    11.2.1.2. Disk filters
    11.2.1.3. Media filters
    11.2.1.4. Settling basins
    11.2.1.5. Cyclonic filters or centrifugal separators
    11.2.1.6. Filter design and operation
    11.2.2. Chemical Treatment
    11.2.2.1. Chemical precipitation
    11.2.2.2. Acid treatment
    11.2.2.3. Chlorination
    11.2.2.4. Chemical injection
    11.3. MAINTENANCE OPERATION
    11.3.1. Approach
    11.3.1.1. Chemical water treatment research
    11.3.1.2. Preventive maintenance practices
    11.3.1.3. Flushing
    11.3.1.4. Reclamation
    11.4. GUIDELINE AND PRACTICES
    REFERENCES
    SUPPLEMENTAL READING
    III. SYSTEM TYPE AND MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
    CHAPTER 12. SURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION
    12.1. INTRODUCTION
    12.2. SURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION OF PERMANENT CROPS
    12.2.1. Introduction
    12.2.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Surface Drip Irrigation for Permanent Crops
    12.2.3. Suitability
    12.2.3.1. Suitable tree and vine crops
    12.2.3.2. Geographical considerations
    12.2.3.3. Water supply and quality
    12.2.3.4. Maintenance and longevity
    12.2.3.5. Irrigation uniformity
    12.2.4. Surface Drip Design and Application
    12.2.4.1. Drip emitters
    12.2.4.1.1. Physical description of drip emitters
    12.2.4.1.2. Emitter hydraulic characteristics
    12.2.4.1.3. Coefficient of manufacturing variation
    12.2.4.2. Lateral line drip tubing
    12.2.4.2.1. Lateral line spacing
    12.2.4.2.2. Lateral length
    12.2.4.3. Emitter spacing
    12.2.4.4. Design emission uniformity
    12.2.4.5. Installation issues
    12.2.5. Management, Evaluation, and Maintenance of Surface Drip
    Irrigation Systems
    12.2.5.1. Water requirements
    12.2.5.2. Crop response
    12.2.5.3. Drip irrigation system application rate
    12.2.5.4. Irrigation efficiency
    12.2.5.5. Irrigation frequency
    12.2.5.6. Special management issues
    12.2.6. Evaluation of Surface Drip Irrigation Systems
    12.3 SURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION FOR ROW CROPS
    12.3.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Surface Drip irrigation for Row Crops
    12.3.2. Suitability
    12.3.3. Drip Materials
    12.3.4. Driplines
    12.3.5. Manifolds
    12.3.6. Emitter and Dripline Spacing
    12.3.7. Installation and Extraction of Surface Driplines
    12.3.8. Patterns of Soil Water Content
    12.3.9. Patterns of Soil Salinity
    12.3.10. Crop Response to Surface Drip Irrigation
    12.3.10.1. Surface versus subsurface drip irrigation
    12.3.10.2. Irrigation frequency effects
    12.3.11. Managing a Drip Irrigation System of Row Crops
    12.3.12. Using Plastic Mulch with Surface Drip Irrigation
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 13. SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION
    13.1. APPLICATION AND GENERAL SUITABILITY
    13.1.1. Advantages of SDI
    13.1.2. Disadvantages of SDI
    13.1.3. Suitability Considerations
    13.1.3.1. Suitable crops
    13.1.3.2. Geographical and topographical considerations
    13.1.3.3. Water supply and quality
    13.1.3.4. Maintenance and longevity
    13.1.3.5. System uniformity considerations
    13.1.3.5.1. System uniformity considerations related to emitter clogging
    13.1.3.5.2. System uniformity considerations related to root intrusion and root pinching
    13.1.3.5.3. System uniformity considerations related to mechanical or pest damage
    13.1.3.5.4. System uniformity considerations related to soil overburden and/or compaction
    13.1.3.5.5. System uniformity considerations related to soil hydraulic
    parameters
    13.1.3.5.6. System uniformity and longevity
    13.2. SYSTEM DESIGN AND INSTALLATION
    13.2.1. Materials and Components
    13.2.1.1. Emitter and dripline characteristics
    13.2.1.2. Additional SDI system components
    13.2.2. Dripline and Manifold Design Issues
    13.2.2.1. Dripline, crop row, and emitter spacing
    13.2.2.2. Emitter flowrate
    13.2.2.3. Dripline length
    13.2.2.4. Flushing requirements and flushline design
    13.2.2.4.1. Flushing velocity
    13.2.2.4.2. Dripline inlet pressure and flowrate during flushing
    13.2.2.4.3. Sizing the flushline and flush valve
    13.2.2.5. Dripline depth
    13.2.3. Installation Issues
    13.2.4. Special or Unique Design Considerations
    13.2.4.1. SDI design and electrical technologies
    13.2.4.2. SDI design issues for recycled waters and biological effluent
    13.2.4.3. Use of SDI in fully enclosed subirrigation (FES) systems
    13.3. SOIL AND CROP MANAGEMENT
    13.3.1. Soil Issues
    13.3.1.1. Soil physical characteristics and soil water redistribution
    13.3.1.2. Salinity aspects
    13.3.1.3. Soil water redistribution problems caused by backpressure
    13.3.1.4. Soil compaction
    13.3.1.5. Managing the soil water budget components
    13.3.1.6. Special or unique soil issues
    13.3.1.6.1. Weed control
    13.3.1.6.2. Application of insecticides for crop protection
    13.3.1.6.3. Application of biological effluent
    13.3.1.6.4. Soil profile injection of gases
    13.3.2. Crop Issues
    13.3.2.1. Crop water uptake and crop growth
    13.3.2.2. Frequency of irrigation
    13.3.2.3. Crop response to conjunctive water and nutrient management
    13.4. SUMMARY
    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 14. BUBBLER IRRIGATION
    14.1. APPLICATION AND GENERAL SUITABILITY
    14.1.1. Advantages and disadvantages
    14.1.1.1. Potential advantages
    14.1.1.2. Potential disadvantages
    14.2. SYSTEM DESIGN AND APPLICATION
    14.2.1. Materials and components
    14.2.1.1. Gravity system emitters
    14.2.1.2. Pressurized system emitters
    14.2.1.3. Laterals and manifolds
    14.2.1.4. System design procedures
    14.3. SAMPLE DESIGN—LOW HEAD BUBBLER SYSTEM
    14.4. MANAGEMENT, EVALUATION, AND MAINTENANCE
    14.4.1. Soil Issues
    14.4.2. Crops
    14.4.3. Evaluation and Maintenance
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS
    REFERENCES
    CHAPTER 15. MICROSPRINKLER IRRIGATION
    15.1. APPLICATION AND SUITABILITY OF MICROSPRINKLERS
    15.1.1. Advantages of Microsprinkler Systems
    15.1.2. Disadvantages of Microsprinkler Systems
    15.2. MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS
    15.2.1. Materials Used in Systems
    15.2.1.1. Ferrous materials
    15.2.1.2. Non-ferrous metals
    15.2.1.3. Plastics
    15.2.1.4. Elastomers
    15.2.2. Microsprinkler Emitters
    15.2.2.1. Emitter hydraulic characteristics
    15.2.3. Emitter Manufacturing Variation
    15.2.4. Emitter Types
    15.2.4.1. Orifice control emitters
    15.2.4.2. Vortex control emitters
    15.2.4.3. Pressure compensating emitters
    15.2.5. Emitter Wetting Patterns
    15.2.6. Stake Assemblies
    15.2.7. Lateral Tubing
    15.3. LATERAL AND MANIFOLD DESIGN
    15.3.1. Head Losses in Lateral Lines
    15.3.2. Pressure Variation
    15.3.3. Lateral Design
    15.4. UNIQUE MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
    15.4.1. Young Trees
    15.4.2. Application Volumes
    15.4.4. Freeze Protection
    15.5. EVALUATION OF MICROSPRINKLER SYSTEMS
    15.5.1. Uniformity
    15.5.2. Irrigation System Efficiency
    15.5.3. Wetting Pattern
    15.5.4. Effects of Wear
    LIST OF TERMS AND SYMBOLS

Product details

  • No. of pages: 642
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2006
  • Published: September 28, 2006
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444506078
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080465814

About the Series Volume Editors

Freddie R. Lamm

Affiliations and Expertise

Kansas State University, Northwest Research-Extension Center, Colby, Kansas, U.S.A.

James E. Ayars

Dr Ayars is a retired Research Agricultural Engineer with the USDA-ARS, an irrigation/drainage engineer responsible for developing research on the integrated management of irrigation and drainage systems in arid and semi-arid areas. Honored by the California Chapter of the American Society of Agronomy, he also received multiple awards including long-term membership in Sigma Xi, Gamma Sigma Delta and Alpha Epsilon Honor Societies in Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering. He was awarded the Sir Frederick McMaster’s Fellowship by CSIRO in Australia, received the USCID Merriam Award for Improved Irrigation and the Royce J. Tipton Award from the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers for his work. In his 40 year career, he served the research community and agricultural industry in a wide range of offices and committee assignments including extensive experience working on a United Nations Development Project in Uzbekistan to improve irrigation and drainage water management.

Affiliations and Expertise

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, California, U.S.A.

Francis S. Nakayama

Affiliations and Expertise

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center, Maricopa, Arizona, U.S.A.

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