Microdialysis in the Neurosciences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444811943, 9781483164656

Microdialysis in the Neurosciences

1st Edition

Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences

Editors: T.E. Robinson J.B. Justice
eBook ISBN: 9781483164656
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 29th November 1991
Page Count: 476
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Description

Techniques in the Behavioral and Neural Sciences, Volume 7: Microdialysis in the Neurosciences focuses on the neurochemical methods employed in behavioral and neural sciences.

The selection first elaborates on the introduction to intracerebral microdialysis, quantitative microdialysis, and microdialysis compared with other in vivo release models. Discussions focus on computational methods, post-mortem tissue analysis, perfusion methods, and features, development, and future applications of microdialysis. The text then takes a look at the practical aspects of using microdialysis for determination of brain interstitial concentrations and microdialysis and liquid chromatography.

The publication examines the procedures for microdialysis with smallbore HPLC, use of microdialysis in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and brain dialysis of monoamines. Topics include significance of monoamine concentrations in dialysates; criteria for brain dialysis of monoamines; distribution of drugs to the interstitium of various tissues; methods to measure the extracellular concentration by microdialysis; and application to studies on drug abuse. The manuscript then elaborates on the feasibility of repeated microdialysis for within-subjects design experiments and microdialysis and automated on-line analysis approach to study central cholinergic transmission in vivo.

The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in the use of microdialysis in neurosciences.

Table of Contents


Preface

List of Contributors

Section I Introduction to Microdialysis

Chapter 1 Introduction to Intracerebral Microdialysis

1. Development of Microdialysis

2. Features of Microdialysis

3. Comparisons to Push-Pull Perfusions

4. Principles of Microdialysis

5. The Microdialysis Experiment

6. Future Applications of Microdialysis

References

Chapter 2 Microdialysis Compared with Other in Vivo Release Models

1. Introduction

2. Post-Mortem Tissue Analysis

3. Perfusion Methods

4. In Vivo Voltammetry

Acknowledgment

References

Section II Issues of Quantification

Chapter 3 Quantitative Microdialysis

1. Introduction

2. Quantitative Microdialysis Models

3. Application

4. Computational Methods

5. Overall Concepts and Comment

Appendix I

Appendix II

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 4 Practical Aspects of Using Microdialysis for Determination of Brain Interstitial Concentrations

1. Introduction

2. Principle of Microdialysis

3. Measurements with Microdialysis

4. Perfusion Fluids

5. Factors Affecting Recovery

6. Tissue Disturbances Caused by Implantation

7. How to Determine Brain Interstitial Concentration with Microdialysis

8. Transformation of Glutamate and Dopamine Dialysate Concentrations Into Brain Interstitial Concentrations

9. Conclusion

References

Section III Methodological Considerations

Chapter 5 Microdialysis and Liquid Chromatography

1. Introduction

2. Defining the Problem

3. Liquid Chromatography

4. The Role of Column Length and Diameter

5. The Role of Temperature

6. Automated Fraction Collection, Sampling and Derivatization

7. Gradient Elution

8. Detectors

9. Representative Applications

10. Calibration of Microdialysis Probes

11. Conclusion

References

Chapter 6 Procedures for Microdialysis with Smallbore HPLC

1. Introduction

2. Smallbore HPLC Procedures

3. Microdialysis Procedures

4. Behavioral Procedures

5. Application to Studies on Drug Abuse

References

Chapter 7 The Use of Microdialysis in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

1. Introduction

2. Methods to Measure the Extracellular Concentration by Microdialysis

3. Relation Between in Vivo Effect and Interstitial Fluid Concentration of Drug

4. Distribution of Drugs to the Interstitum Of Various Tissues

5. Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 8 Brain Dialysis of Monoamines

1. Introduction

2. Criteria for Brain Dialysis of Monoamines

3. Significance of Monoamine Concentrations in Dialysates

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 9 The Feasibility of Repeated Microdialysis for Within-Subjects Design Experiments: Studies on the Mesostriatal Dopamine System

1. Introduction

2. Acute Effects of Amphetamine on Dopamine Neurotransmission

3. Amphetamine Sensitization

4. The Feasibility of Repeated Microdialysis in Dopamine Systems of Rats

5. Discussion

6. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Appendix A

Appendix B

Section IV The Application of Microdialysis in the Basic Neurosciences

Chapter 10 A Microdialysis and Automated On-Line Analysis Approach to Study Central Cholinergic Transmission in Vivo

1. Introduction

2. Analysis of Choline and Acetylcholine Using HPLC

3. Microdialysis and On-Line Analysis

4. Experimental Studies

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 11 Monitoring Extracellular Norepinephrine in Brain Using in Vivo Microdialysis and HPLC-EC

1. Introduction

2. Experimental Procedures

3. Characteristics of Extracellular NE

4. Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12 Measurement of Extracellular Neuropeptides in the Brain: Microdialysis Linked to Solid-Phase Radioimmunoassays with Subfemtomole Limits of Detection

1. Introduction

2. Membrane Recovery Characteristics

3. Solid-Phase Radioimmunoassay Procedures

4. In Vivo Procedures

5. Opioid Peptide Release in the Basal Ganglia

6. Neurotensin and CCK Release in the Limbic Forebrain

7. Conclusions and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 13 Microdialysis for the Study of Hypothalamic and Pituitary Function

1. Introduction

2. The LHRH Neurosecretory System

3. LHRH Measurements in Intrahypophysial Microdialysates

4. Hypothalamic Monoamines

5. Trans-Preoptic/Septal Microdialysis

6. Summary

References

Chapter 14 Microdialysis in Large Unrestrained Animals: Neuroendocrine and Behavioral Studies of Acetylcholine, Amino Acid, Monoamine and Neuropeptide Release in the Sheep

1. Introduction

2. Methods

3. Results

4. Discussion

References

Chapter 15 On-Line Real-Time Monitoring of Extracellular Lactate, Ethanol, Glucose and Choline, Using Microdialysis and Enzyme Reactors

1. Introduciton

2. Lactography

3. Glucose Monitoring (Glucography)

4. Ethanol Monitoring

5. Choline Monitoring

6. Comments

7. Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 16 Application of Microdialysis to the Study of Motivation and Conditioning: Measurements of Dopamine and Serotonin in Freely Behaving Rats

1. Introduction

2. Technical Considerations

3. Application of Dialysis to the Study of Motivated Behaviors

References

Section V The Application of Microdialysis in the Clinical Neurosciences

Chapter 17 Microdialysis for Metabolic Monitoring in Cerebral Ischemia and Trauma: Experimental and Clinical Studies

1. Introduction

2. Chemical Analysis

3. Experimental Studies

4. Clinical Studies

5. Discussion

Acknowledgments

Ethics

References

Chapter 18 Microdialysis Techniques for Studying Brain Amino Acids in the Extracellular Fluid: Basic and Clinical Studies

1. Microdialysis — Introductory Remarks

2. Microdialysis Probes in Animal Experiments

3. Microdialysis Probes in Clinical Work

4. Methodological Aspects

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19 In Vivo Neurochemistry of the Conscious Human Brain: Intrahippocampal Microdialysis in Epilepsy

1. Introduction

2. Microdialysis

3. Methods

4. Results

5. Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
476
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1991
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483164656

About the Editor

T.E. Robinson

J.B. Justice