Microclimate for Cultural Heritage: Conservation and Restoration of Indoor and Outdoor Monuments, Second Edition, is a cutting-edge, theoretical, and practical handbook concerning microclimate, environmental factors, and conservation of cultural heritage. Although the focus is on cultural heritage objects, most of the theory and instrumental methodologies are common to other fields of application, such as atmospheric and environmental sciences.

Microclimate for Cultural Heritage, Second Edition, is a useful treatise on microphysics and a practical handbook for conservators and specialists in physics, chemistry, architecture, engineering, geology, and biology who work in the multidisciplinary field of the environment, and, in particular, in the conservation of works of art. Part I, devoted to applied theory, is a concise treatise on microphysics, which includes a survey on the basic ideas of environmental diagnosis and conservation. The second part of the book focuses on practical utilization, and shows in detail how field surveys should be performed, with many suggestions and examples, as well as some common errors to avoid.

Key Features

  • Presents updated scientific and technological findings based on the novel European standards on microclimate and cultural heritage
  • Includes the latest information on experimental research on environmental factors and their impact on materials, such as the behavior of water and its interactions with cultural heritage materials
  • Contains case studies of outdoor and indoor microclimate conditions and their effects, providing ideas for readers facing similar problems caused by heat, water, radiation, pollution, or air motions
  • Covers instruments and methods for practical applications to help readers understand, to observe and interpret observations, and avoid errors


cultural heritage conservationists, restorers, curators, environmental scientists, atmospheric scientists, chemists, physicists

Table of Contents

Preface to the First Edition (1998)

Preface to the Second Edition (2014)

Foreword to the First Edition (1998)

Reviews to the First Edition (1998)

Il Nuovo Cimento Vol. 22, no. 1, p. 121 (1999)

2 Studies in Conservation Vol. 45, no.2, p. 143 (2000)

3 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 111, p. 309 (2002)




The Author

Part I: Atmospheric Physics Applied to Microclimate Analysis and Conservation

Chapter 1. Microclimate, Air and Temperature


1.1 Microclimate

1.2 Air, Water Vapour, Perfect and Real Gases

1.3 Temperature

1.4 Mechanisms of Temperature Degradation

1.5 Temperature in a Building, a Room

1.6 Temperature in a Showcase

1.7 Is it Possible to Combine People Comfort, Conservation Needs and Sustainability?

1.8 Monitoring Air Temperature to Study Air–Surface Interactions and for Environmental Diagnostics


Chapter 2A. Theoretical Grounds for Humidity


2A.1 Partial Pressure of Water Vapour

2A.2 Derivation of the Latent Heat

2A.3 Mixing Ratio of Water Vapour and Dry Air

2A.4 Specific Humidity

2A.5 Absolute Humidity

2A.6 Relative Humidity

2A.7 Dew Point: The Temperature of Condensation

2A.8 Frost Point: The Temperature of Freezing

2A.9 Wet Bulb Temperature: The Temperature of Evaporation

2A.10 The Psychrometric Chart


Chapter 2B. Humidity and Conservation


2B.1 Air–Surface Interactions and Environmental Diagnostics

2B.2 The Equilibrium Moisture Content and Dimensional Changes in Wood

2B.3 Mechanisms of Humidity Degradation in Paper and Parchment

2B.4 Biological Habitat

2B.5 Metals, Pipe Organs and Other Materials

2B.6 What is the Best Microclima


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Elsevier Science
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