Microbiology for Nurses - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9788131230909

Microbiology for Nurses

3rd Edition

Authors: Seema Sood
Paperback ISBN: 9788131230909
Imprint: Elsevier India
Published Date: 17th May 2013
Page Count: 382
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Key Features

Salient Features

  • Detailed discussion of collection and transport of specimens for microbiological examination, sterilization, hospital-associated infections, hospital waste management.
  • Practising nurses will find chapters on Occupational Hazards and Patient Safety particularly useful.

Table of Contents

CONTENTS

Preface v

Preface to the First Edition vii

Acknowledgements ix

Chapter 1 Introduction to Microbiology 1

  • Microbiology – What It Means 1
  • Why a Nurse Must Study Microbiology 1
  • Historical Perspective (Milestones in Microbiology) 2

Chapter 2 Normal Flora of the Human Body 8

  • Introduction 8
  • Normal Flora of the Skin 10
  • Normal Flora of the Eye (Conjunctiva) 10
  • Normal Flora of Mouth and Upper Respiratory Tract 10
  • Normal Flora of Gastrointestinal Tract 11
  • Normal Flora of Genitourinary Tract 11

Chapter 3 Microscopy and Morphology of Bacteria 13

  • Introduction 13
  • Structure of Bacteria 14
  • Morphology of Bacteria 15
  • Microscopic Examination 15
  • Microscopy 19

Chapter 4 Growth and Nutrition of Bacteria 23

  • Bacterial Growth 23
  • Bacterial Nutrition 25
  • Other Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth 25

Chapter 5 Study of Bacteria 27

  • Introduction 27
  • Culture Media, Methods and Characteristics 28
  • Biochemical Reactions 32
  • Antigenic Characters 34
  • Animal Pathogenicity 35
  • Resistance to Antibiotics and Other Agents 35
  • Typing Techniques 36

Chapter 6 Collection and Transport of Specimens for Microbiological Examination 38

  • Introduction 39
  • Blood 40
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid 42
  • Respiratory Tract Specimens 42
  • Urine 43
  • Stool 43
  • Serous Fluids 43
  • Tissue 43
  • Eye Swabs 44
  • Genitourinary Tract Specimens 44
  • Specimens Collected for Viral Culture 44
  • Specimens Collected for Anaerobic Culture 44
  • Specimens Collected for Fungal Culture 45

Chapter 7 Hospital-Acquired Infection: An Overview 47

  • Introduction 47
  • Definition 48
  • Prevalence and Importance 48
  • Microbial Causes of Hospital Infection 49
  • Sources and Mode of Spread of Hospital Infection 50
  • Control of Hospital-Associated Infections 51
  • Microbiological Surveillance 52

Chapter 8 Disinfection 58

  • Introduction 58
  • Definitions 59
  • Types of Disinfection 59
  • Types of Disinfectants/Antiseptics 59
  • Disinfection Policy 62
  • Other Recommended Disinfection Procedures 63
  • Testing of Disinfectants 64

Chapter 9 Sterilization 66

  • Introduction 66
  • Sterilization by Dry Heat 67
  • Sterilization by Moist Heat 68
  • Sterilization by Filtration 72
  • Sterilization by Radiation 73
  • Ultrasonic and Sonic Vibrations 73
  • Sterilization of Heat-Labile Equipment 74

Chapter 10 Management of Hospital Waste 76

  • Introduction 76
  • Classification of Hospital Waste 77
  • Segregation of Biomedical Waste 78
  • Storage and Transportation of Biomedical Waste 79
  • Treatment and Disposal of Biomedical Waste 79
  • Education 80

Chapter 11 Patient Safety 81

  • Introduction 81
  • Four Major Global Challenges for Patient Safety 81

Chapter 12 Microbiological Investigation of an Outbreak 83

  • Introduction 83
  • Recognition of an Outbreak 84
  • Notification of the Outbreak 84
  • Investigation of a Suspected Outbreak 84
  • Control Measures 85

Chapter 13 Measures to Minimize Occupational Hazards of Health Care Workers 87

  • Introduction 87
  • Primary Prevention of Exposure 88
  • Viral Hepatitis 89
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 92
  • Tuberculosis 95
  • Prevention of Transmission of Blood-Borne Pathogens from HCWs to Patients 95

Chapter 14 Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance 97

  • Introduction 97
  • Mechanism of Action of Antimicrobial Agents 99
  • Some Antimicrobial Agents in Use 100
  • Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents 101
  • Control of Nosocomial Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria 101

Chapter 15 Immunity 103

  • Introduction 103
  • Immunity 104

Chapter 16 Antigens 110

  • Introduction 110
  • Classification of Antigens 111
  • Properties of Antigenicity 111

Chapter 17 Antibodies (Immunoglobulins) 112

  • Introduction 112
  • Structure of Immunoglobulins 113
  • Classification of Immunoglobulins 113
  • Cross-reactivity 115

Chapter 18 Antigen–Antibody Reactions 117

  • Introduction 117
  • Types of Antigen–Antibody Reactions 118

Chapter 19 The Complement System 124

  • Introduction 124
  • Functions of the Complement System 125
  • Pathways of the Complement System 125

Chapter 20 Immune Response 128

  • Introduction 128
  • Humoral Immune Response 129
  • Cell-mediated Immune Response 131
  • Immunological Tolerance 132

Chapter 21 Hypersensitivity 133

  • Introduction 133
  • Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions 133

Chapter 22 Prevention of Infection by Immunization 136

  • Introduction 136
  • Specific Host Responses to Vaccines 139
  • Vaccines Available in India 139
  • Adverse Reactions Associated with Immunization 141
  • Future Vaccines 141

Chapter 23 Water-Borne and Food-Borne Diseases 143

  • Water-Borne Diseases 143
  • Food-Borne Diseases 146

Chapter 24 The Cocci 148

  • Introduction 148
  • Staphylococcus aureus 149
  • Streptococcus 153
  • Streptococcus pyogenes 154
  • Enterococcus 157
  • Pneumococcus 159
  • Meningococcus 161
  • Gonococcus 163

Chapter 25 The Bacilli and the Vibrios 167

  • Bacilli Associated with the Respiratory Tract 167
    • Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    • Haemophilus influenzae
    • Bordetella pertussis
    • Legionella pneumophila
    • Klebsiella sp.

  • Bacilli Associated with Intestinal Canal 176

    • Escherichia coli
    • Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, B, C
    • Food Poisoning Bacilli
    • Shigella sp.
    • Proteus sp.
    • Pseudomonas sp.

  • Acid-Fast Bacilli 186

    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Mycobacterium leprae

  • Spore-Bearing Bacilli 190
    • Clostridium tetani
    • C. welchii (perfringens), C. septicum and C. oedematiens (novyi)
    • Clostridium botulinum
    • Clostridium difficile
    • Bacillus anthracis

  • Bacilli Derived from Infected Animals 198
    • Yersinia pestis
    • Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis

  • The Vibrios 201
    • Vibrio cholerae, Vibro choleare O139

  • Campylobacters 204
  • Helicobacter 204
  • Bacteroides 205

Chapter 26 The Spirochaetes 207

  • Syphilis Spirochaete 207
  • Congenital Syphilis 209
  • Pinta and Yaws Spirochaetes 211
  • Vincent’s Angina Spirochaete 212
  • Relapsing Fever Spirochaetes 212
  • Lyme’s Disease Spirochaete 213
  • Leptospirosis Spirochaetes 214

Chapter 27 Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsia and Ehrlichia 217

  • Introduction 217
  • Mycoplasmas 218
  • Chlamydiae 220
  • Rickettsiae 222
  • Ehrlichia 225

Chapter 28 The Fungi 227

  • Introduction 227
  • Classification of Fungi 228
  • Superficial Mycoses 229
  • Subcutaneous Mycoses 233
  • Systemic Mycoses 235
  • Opportunistic Mycoses 239

Chapter 29 The Viruses – Part I: DNA Viruses 244

  • Introduction 244
  • Poxviruses 246
  • Herpes Viruses 247
  • Adenoviruses 252
  • Papovaviruses 253
  • Hepadnavirus (Hepatitis B Virus or HBV) 255
  • Parvovirus 258

Chapter 30 The Viruses – Part II: RNA Viruses 260

  • Introduction 261
  • Orthomyxoviruses 261
  • Paramyxoviruses 264
  • Togaviruses 268
  • Flaviviruses 269
  • Bunyaviruses 274
  • Caliciviruses 275
  • Coronaviruses 277
  • Reoviruses 279
  • Picornaviruses 280
  • Arenaviruses 285
  • Rhabdoviruses (Rabies Virus) 286
  • Filoviruses 289
  • Retroviruses 290

Chapter 31 Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Microbiology 295

  • Introduction 295
  • Tests for Detection of Antibodies 296
  • Tests for Detection of Microbial Antigens in Tissues and Body Fluids 300
  • Tests for Detection of Nucleic Acids 303
  • Tests for Detection of Metabolites 305
  • Rapid Culture Methods 305

Chapter 32 Parasitology 307

  • Introduction 307
  • Protozoa 308
  • Helminths 321

Chapter 33 Vectors and Disease 339

  • Introduction 340
  • Mosquitoes 341
  • Housefly 342
  • Sand Fly (Phlebotomus) 343
  • Tsetse Fly (Glossina) 343
  • Black Fly 344
  • Louse/Lice 344
  • Rat Flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) 345
  • Reduviid Bug 346
  • Ticks 346
  • Mites 346
  • Cyclops 347

Bibliography 349

Glossary 353

Index 359

Details

No. of pages:
382
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier India 2012
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier India
Paperback ISBN:
9788131230909

About the Author

Seema Sood