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Microbial Metabolism and Disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780323884457, 9780323884464

Microbial Metabolism and Disease

1st Edition

Author: Elena Paley
Paperback ISBN: 9780323884457
eBook ISBN: 9780323884464
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th March 2021
Page Count: 306
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Microbiome Metabolic Pathways and Disease provides insight into the interaction of microbial metabolic pathways in the human body and the impact these can have on a variety of diseases. By analyzing these pathways the book seeks to investigate how these metabolic processes can be targeted and manipulated in order to treat various disorders and diseases. Topics covered in the book include microbial shikimate pathways, protein biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolites, microbiome metabolic engineering, fecal microbiota transplantation, and virulence factors. Additionally, a variety of conditions are covered, such as disorders associated with metabolic syndromes, serotonin syndromes, Alzheimer’s disease, and Covid-19, providing a detailed overview of how metabolic pathways of microbiome can impact health and disease in the human body.

Key Features

  • Explores microbial metabolic pathways in the human body and implications for disease
  • Investigates specific steps involved in metabolic reactions in the human microbiome, including shikimate pathways and tryptophan pathways
  • Considers a variety of diseases and disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic syndromes, Crohn’s disease and Covid-19
  • Includes analysis of various amino acids and enzymes in microbial and human cells and how these can impact health


Molecular biologists, biochemists, microbiologists, pharmacologists. Graduate, PhD and postdoctoral researchers working in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, microbiology, biomedicine and related fields

Table of Contents

1. Naturally occurring affectors of initial step of protein biosynthesis
1.1 Abstract
1.2 Introduction
1.3 Experimental evidences supporting the concept
1.3.1 Tryptamine-induced neurodegeneration in cell and animal models
1.3.2 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a systemic widespread disease
1.3.3 Seizures and myoclonus in Alzheimer's disease and in tryptamine-treated animals
1.3.4 Serotonin (5-HT) or tryptamine syndrome
1.3.5 Metabolic syndrome
1.3.6 Tryptamine, biogenic amines (BA) and polyamines affect tRNA aminoacylation and protein biosynthesis
1.3.7 Protein biosynthesis in Alzheimer’s disease and in cancer
1.3.8 Mutations of genes encoding cytoplasmic (WARS) and mitochondrial (WARS2) TrpRS leading to TrpRS deficiency, Parkinsonism and cognitive impairment
1.3.9 The accumulation of defective proteins induces antigenicity
1.3.10 Conclusion

2. Physicochemical, biochemical and cell biology properties and byproducts of tryptamine and other “trace” amines

3. Tryptophan metabolites and biogenic amines in physical exercises

4. Tryptamine in inflammation and regulation of gene transcription

5. Genes encoding mammalian, plant and microbial aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
5.1 Mammalian aromatic acid decarboxylase
5.2 Bacterial aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylases
5.3 Fungal pyridoxal-dependent aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
5.4 Plant tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase
5.5 Conclusion

6. Decarboxylases producing tryptamine and other biogenic amines in human microbiome

7. Microbial shikimate pathway in diseases
7.1 Apicomplexan parasites
7.2 Effect of tryptamine and other tryptophan related compounds on shikimate pathway enzymes
7.3 Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes
7.4 Metabolic engineering
7.5 Inhibitors of shikimate pathway enzymes
7.6 Conclusion

8. Biogenic amines in fasting, feeding and stress conditions
8.1 Fasting and feeding
8.2 Anorectic effect
8.3 Stress factors
8.4 Stress and mucus
8.5 Irritable bowel syndrome: poor sleep
8.6 Conclusions

9. Metabolites of shikimate and tryptophan pathways in Corona virus disease (COVID-19)
9.1 Comparison of statistics for age-related diseases COVID-19 and Alzheimer’s disease
9.2 Proteomic and metabolomic profiling of sera from COVID-19 patients and further discussion
9.3 Postmortem studies of COVID-19 patients in different countries
9.4 Conclusions

10. Virulence factors
10.1 Bacteria and virus interactions in influenza
10.2 Decarboxylase and viral infection
10.3 Emerging data suggest that microbial tryptophan catabolites resulting from shikimate pathway, diet and human proteolysis are influencing host health
10.4 Toxicological effects of biogenic amines and postmortem examinations of Serotonin Syndrome cases
10.4.1 Toxicological effects of biogenic amines
10.4.2 Postmortem study of Serotonin Syndrome cases
10.5 Biogenic amines and amino acid decarboxylases as virulence factors
10.5.1 Tyramine, histamine, putrescine as virulence factors
10.5.2 Tryptamine as virulence and anaphylaxis factor
10.5.3 Spermine, spermidine, tyramine and tryptamine in viral infection
11. Relation of human gut Alzheimer’s disease associated sequence (ADAS) with shikimate pathway metabolites
11.1 Alterations in human gut microbiome shikimate pathway and metabolites of aromatic amino acids linked to Alzheimer’s disease and associated metabolic disorders
11.2 Ubiquinone, a substrate of Na(+)-transporting NADH: Ubiquinone reductase related to ADAS
11.3 Shikimate pathway metabolites 4-hydroxybenzoate, 3–hydroxybenzoate, benzoate and quinate in human fecal samples
11.4 Aromatic amino acids (AAA) and biogenic amines in human gut

12. Benefits of using fecal microbiota transplantation as treatment have been controversial

13. Shikimate pathway enzymes in human microbiome
13.1 Shikimate pathway and its inhibitor pesticide glyphosate in general human population and in diseases
13.2 Human microbial metabolic capacity for production of shikimate pathway metabolites
13.3 Conclusions

14. Tryptophan operon in human microbiome and inhibitors of tryptophan operon enzymes

15. Antibodies to tryptamines

16. Cell death in Alzheimer's disease brain and tryptamine-treated cells


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© Academic Press 2021
13th March 2021
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
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About the Author

Elena Paley

Dr. Elena Paley is the Founder, President & CEO of Expert Biomed Inc., and Co-founder and Director of Stop Alzheimer’s Corp. She completed her PhD in Biology at The Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia and later conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL. Dr. Paley's research focuses on protein biosynthesis interference in disease, with emphasis on cancer and neurodegenerative disease. During her career she has taught and held professorships at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Nova Southeastern University in Ft. Lauderdale, FL, among other schools. Dr. Paley is on the review board of various scientific journals, including the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Current Alzheimer Research.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder, President and CEO Expert Biomed Inc.; Co-founder and Director Stop Alzheimer’s Corp.; Adjunct Professor, Nova Southeastern University, FL, USA; The Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Ratings and Reviews