Microbial Aspects of Pollution - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126480504, 9781483259420

Microbial Aspects of Pollution

1st Edition

Editors: G. Sykes F. A. Skinner
eBook ISBN: 9781483259420
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 304
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Description

Microbial Aspects of Pollution is the first of a new series that emerged from the annual Summer Conference of Society for Applied Bacteriology, focusing on microbiological subjects of general topical interest.
The subject of the 1971 symposium ""Microbial Aspects of Pollution"" is particularly topical. Pollution is an environmental problem and almost invariably arises from the activities of man. Micro-organisms have their part to play, both advantageously and disadvantageously, and the 16 contributions, written by recognized experts in the field, range widely over the subject. They include considerations of the health hazards of pollution, embracing the consequences of sewage pollution of our water supplies and a most important topic to the laboratory worker—the safe disposal of infected material.
A series of papers deals with water purification problems and the disposal of sewage and other wastes, and their effects on the waters of rivers and lakes. Special attention is given in this context to the disposal of industrial wastes. Other contributions deal with the disposal of the newer industrial products of the organic chemist, namely, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and plastic materials.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Microbial Aspects of Pollution: Some General Considerations

Introduction

Historical Development of Pollution Studies

The Microbiologist's Role

References

The Health Hazards of Pollution

Introduction

Preliminary Orientations

The Assessment of Microbial Hazards of Pollution

Pollution: Past and Present

Diseases Due to Pollution of Drinking Water Supplies

Health Hazards of the Recreational Use of Water

Environmental Pollution and Food

References

Sewage Pollution of Natural Waters

Nuisances and the Destruction of Aquatic Life

Pathogens in Sewage

Bacterial Content of Crude Sewage and Sewage Effluent

Salmonellae in an Estuary

Sewage Pollution of Sea Water

Risks to Human Health

Further Reading

References

The Scope of the Water Pollution Problem

Introduction

The Supply of Water

Treatment and Disposal of Waste Waters and Sludges

Self Purification in Natural Waters

References

Microbial Aspects of Pollution in the Food and Dairy Industries

Introduction

Microbial Composition of Dairy Waste Activated Sludge

Principles of Floc Formation

Metabolic Activity of Activated Sludge

Bulking of Activated Sludge

Waste Water of the Potato Flour and Straw Board Industries

Acknowledgments

References

Aerobic Treatment of Agricultural Wastes

Introduction

Possible Systems

The Environment

Discussion

References

The Role of Strict Anaerobes in the Digestion of Organic Material

Introduction

The Overall Process of Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Wastes

The Bacteriology of Anaerobic Digestion, with Special Reference to the Digestion of Piggery Wastes

General Discussion

References

The Microbial Ecology of the Activated Sludge Process

Introduction

Typical Plants and Their Operation

The Activated Sludge Community and Selective Mechanisms

Bacteria in the Activated Sludge Process

Protozoa in the Activated Sludge Process

The Occurrence of Fungi

Flocculation

Bulking of Activated Sludge

Removal of Bacteria and Pathogenic Organisms

Mathematical Approach to the Ecology of Activated Sludge

References

Disposal by Dilution?—An Ecologist's Viewpoint

Introduction

The Role of Dilution in the Disposal of Wastes

The Nature and Types of Pollution

Physical and Hydrological Considerations in the Dispersion and Mixing of Effluents in the Aquatic Environment

Disposal by Dilution of Effluents Containing Harmful or Undesirable Organisms

Disposal by Dilution of Effluents Containing Toxic or Other Directly Harmful Substances

Disposal by Dilution of Effluents Containing Biogenic Materials

Practice of Disposal by Dilution

Conclusions

References

Microbiological Aspects of the Pollution of Fresh Water with Inorganic Nutrients

Introduction

Nutrients Limiting Microbial Growth

Sources of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Compounds

Forms and Quantities of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Lakewaters

Influence of Oxidation-Reduction Potential

Assimilation and Release of Nitrogen Compounds

General Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Factors Affecting Algal Blooms

Introduction

Requirements for Growth

Algae in Natural Environments

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Nitrogen Removal from Waste Waters by Biological Nitrification and Denitrification

Introduction

Biological Nitrification

Biological Denitrification

Nitrification-Denitrification Processes

Acknowledgments

References

Degradation of Herbicides by Soil Micro-Organisms

Introduction

The Fate and Persistence of Herbicides in the Soil

The Experimental Approach

Microbial Metabolism of Herbicides

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

The Microbial Breakdown of Pesticides

Introduction

Problems in the Study of Biodegradation

Naturally Recalcitrant Molecules

Structural Factors Influencing Biodegradability

Conclusion

References

Biodeterioration and Biodegradation of Synthetic Polymers

Introduction

The Biodeterioration of Plastics

The Biodegradation of Plastics

References

Disposal of Infective Laboratory Materials

Introduction

Infected Air

Infected Dust and Surfaces

Hollow-Ware and Cultures

Liquid Effluents

Laboratory Clothing

Animals and Cage Litter

Miscellaneous Problems

References


Details

No. of pages:
304
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1971
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483259420

About the Editor

G. Sykes

F. A. Skinner

Ratings and Reviews