Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics

Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics

2nd Edition - December 13, 2012

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  • Author: Jean Berthier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455725502
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455728008

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In this 2nd edition of Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics, Jean Berthier explores the fundamentals and applications of digital microfluidics, enabling engineers and scientists to design this important enabling technology into devices and harness the considerable potential of digital microfluidics in testing and data collection. This book describes the most recent developments in digital microfluidics, with a specific focus on the computational, theoretical and experimental study of microdrops. Unique in its emphasis on digital microfluidics and with diverse applications ranging from drug delivery to point-of-care diagnostic chips, organic synthesis to microreactors, Micro-Drops and Digital Microfluidics meets the needs of audiences across the fields of bioengineering and biotechnology, and electrical and chemical engineering.

Key Features

  • Authoritative reporting on the latest changes in microfluidic science, where microscopic liquid volumes are handled as ""microdrops"" and separately from ""nanodrops."
  • A methodical examination of how liquid microdrops behave in the complex geometries of modern miniaturized systems and interact with different morphological (micro-fabricated, textured) solid substrates
  • A thorough explanation of how capillary forces act on liquid interfaces in contact with micro-fabricated surfaces
  • Analysis of how droplets can be manipulated, handled, or transported using electric fields (electrowetting), acoustic actuation (surface acoustic waves), or by a carrier liquid (microflow)
  • A fresh perspective on the future of microfluidics


Engineers, scientists, and developers in biotechnology, nanotechnology, MEMS, and pharmaceuticals. This book will also be an excellent text for a Masters level course in physics and biotechnology

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Chapter 1. Introduction: Digital Microfluidics in Today’s Microfluidics

    1.1 The development of microfluidics

    1.2 The advantages of digital and droplet microfluidics compared to conventional microflows

    1.3 The respective place of digital and droplet microfluidics in today’s microfluidics

    1.4 Summary


    Chapter 2. Theory of Wetting

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Interfaces and surface tension

    2.3 Laplace’s law and applications

    2.4 Wetting—partial or total wetting

    2.5 Contact angle—Young’s law

    2.6 Work of adhesion, work of cohesion, and the Young–Dupré’s equation

    2.7 Capillary force, force on a triple line

    2.8 Measuring surface tension of liquids

    2.9 Surface tension of solids

    2.10 Minimization of the surface energy and minimal energy surface

    2.11 Summary


    Chapter 3. The Physics of Droplets

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 The shape of microdrops

    3.3 Drops on inhomogeneous surfaces

    3.4 Drops moving by capillarity

    3.5 Contact angle hysteresis

    3.6 Droplet pinning

    3.7 The effect of surfactants

    3.8 Marangoni convection

    3.9 Evaporation

    3.10 Summary


    Chapter 4. Electrowetting Theory

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Theoretical background

    4.3 Lippmann–Young’s law and the electrocapillary equivalence

    4.4 Saturation

    4.5 Hysteresis

    4.6 Working range of EWOD devices

    4.7 Materials and substrates

    4.8 Discussion: special substrates and new concepts

    4.9 Summary


    Chapter 5. EWOD Microsystems

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Open and covered EWOD microsystems

    5.3 Droplet motion

    5.4 Division of droplets

    5.5 Droplet merging and mixing

    5.6 Dilution

    5.7 Magnetic beads in EWOD microsystems

    5.8 Architecture of EWOD microsystems

    5.9 Other EWOD microsystems

    5.10 Summary


    Chapter 6. Introduction to Liquid Dielectrophoresis

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 DEP and the manipulation of particles

    6.3 Liquid dielectrophoresis

    6.4 Conclusions


    Chapter 7. Electrowetting on Curved Surfaces

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Theory of curved electrowetting

    7.3 Electrowetting on a wavy surface

    7.4 Electrowetting on a rod

    7.5 Electrowetting on a sphere

    7.6 Conclusion


    Chapter 8. Biological Applications of EWOD

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Biological liquids and physiological samples compatible with EWOD devices

    8.3 Sample collection and analysis on an LOC platform

    8.4 PCR on DMF systems

    8.5 DNA repair microprocessor

    8.6 Protein analysis coupled with mass spectrometry

    8.7 Cell-on-a-chip microsystems: example of a cell concentrator

    8.8 Summary


    Chapter 9. Cell Manipulations in EWD

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Cells in EWOD devices

    9.3 DMF for cell-based arrays

    9.4 Virtual microwells

    9.5 Hydrogel disks for DMF

    9.6 Concentration of immune cells in blood

    9.7 Conclusion



    Chapter 10. Chemical Applications

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Nonaqueous solvents on EWOD chips

    10.3 Chemical synthesis in droplets in EWOD-based systems

    10.4 Conclusions and perspectives


    Chapter 11. DMF for Optofluidic Microdevices

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Electrowetting screen display

    11.3 Tunable lens

    11.4 Electrowetting-actuated micromirrors

    11.5 Polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    11.6 Conclusion


    Chapter 12. Droplet on Deformable Surfaces—Elasto-Capillarity and Electro-Elasto-Capillarity

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Neumann’s construction

    12.3 Sessile droplet on a deformable substrate

    12.4 Example of a cantilever

    12.5 Elasto-capillarity and capillary origami

    12.6 Electro-elasto-capillarity

    12.7 Droplet at a liquid interface

    12.8 Conclusion


    Chapter 13. Acoustic Methods for Manipulating Droplets

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Digital microfluidics

    13.3 Example 1: Acoustic mixing

    13.4 Example 2: Acoustic droplet actuation

    13.5 Applications

    13.6 Summary



    Chapter 14. Introduction to Droplet Microfluidics and Multiphase Microflows

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Two-phase flows: plugs in microchannels

    14.3 Two-phase flows: flowing fluids separated by an interface

    14.4 Droplets in two-phase flows

    14.5 Summary


    Chapter 15. Epilog

    15.1 Increasing the domain of EWOD applicability

    15.2 Interconnecting the different microfluidic toolboxes

    15.3 Miniaturization: nano-EWOD

    15.4 Other applications specific to DMF

    15.5 Summary



Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © William Andrew 2012
  • Published: December 13, 2012
  • Imprint: William Andrew
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455725502
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455728008

About the Author

Jean Berthier

Affiliations and Expertise

CEA/LETI (Laboratory of Electronics, Technology and Information), Grenoble, France

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