Micro and Nanoscale Laser Processing of Hard Brittle Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128167090

Micro and Nanoscale Laser Processing of Hard Brittle Materials

1st Edition

Authors: Jiwang Yan Nozomi Takayama
Paperback ISBN: 9780128167090
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st November 2019
Page Count: 356
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Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Typical hard brittle materials
1.2 Micro and nanoprocessing technologies for hard brittle materials
1.3 Importance of nanoscale laser processing

2 Fundamentals of laser processing
2.1 Laser specifications
2.2 Characteristics of laser processing
2.2.1 Advantages of laser processing
2.2.2 Comparison to other processing technologies
2.3 General applications

3 Laser-material interactions
3.1 Absorption
3.1.1 Laser absorptivity
3.1.2 Absorption in non-transparent materials
3.1.3 Absorption in transparent materials
3.1.4 Electron excitation, relaxation and thermal conduction
3.2 Material removal
3.2.1 Effect of pulse width
3.2.2 Ablation
3.2.3 Vaporization
3.2.4 Plasma formation
3.3 Melting
3.3.1 Thermal conduction and phase change
3.3.2 Melt deposition
3.3.3 Marangoni convection
3.4 Heat-affected zone
3.4.1 Post-irradiation surface
3.4.2 Phase transformation
3.4.3 Laser induced cracking
3.4.4 Thermal decomposition

4 Processing technologies
4.1 Laser machining (Application of material removal)
4.1.1 Grooving and drilling
4.1.2 Taper angle
4.1.3 Complex structures
4.2 Laser assisted and combined processes
4.2.1 Laser assisted mechanical processes
4.2.2 Laser assisted chemical processes
4.2.3 Laser assisted electrical processes
4.2.4 Multi wavelength processes
4.3 Laser healing (Application of laser induced melting)
4.3.1 Laser amplification in cracks
4.3.2 Healing of surface cracks
4.3.3 Healing of sub-surface damage
4.4 Laser recovery (Application of laser induced melting/crystal growth)
4.4.1 Recovery of crystal defects
4.4.2 Comparison to conventional crystal recovery methods
4.5 Laser surface property modification (Application of laser induced melting/phase transformation)
4.5.1 Surface properties
4.5.2 Modification mechanisms
4.6 Laser sintering (Application of laser induced melting/bonding)
4.6.1 Sintering of powder materials
4.6.2 Selective removal of powder particles
4.6.3 Comparison to conventional sintering methods
4.7 Laser microstructuring (Application of laser induced self-organization)
4.7.1 Formation of microstructures
4.7.2 Effect of laser parameters on structure

5 Micromachining of single-crystal diamond
5.1 Material removal by graphitization
5.2 Laser irradiation responses of different crystal growth methods
5.3 Machining of single-crystal diamond tools

6 Micromachining of microstructures on sapphire
6.1 Machining of micropyramid structures
6.2 Change in crystallinity, surface roughness and transparency

7 Laser healing of microcracks in glass
7.1 Removal of surface cracks
7.2 Removal of sub-surface damage by innovative methods

8 Laser recovery of silicon single crystals
8.1 Improvement in both surface roughness and crystallinity

9 Surface modification of silicon carbide
9.1 Change in surface structure
9.2 Change in atomic composition
9.3 Change in crystallinity

10 Modification of surface property of alumina sprayed coating
10.1 Phase transformation
10.2 Change in surface structure
10.3 Change in sub-surface microstructure

11 Laser sintering of silicon powder and carbon nanofibers
11.1 Increased strength, film life-time
11.2 Improved crystallinity
11.3 Control of film porosity
11.4 Application of film electrodes

12 Micropillar formation from silicon powder
12.1 Mechanism of micropillar formation (include crystallinity)
12.2 Effect of laser parameters
12.3 Effect of powder composition
12.4 Application of micropillar electrodes

13 Laser-induced periodical surface structures
13.1 Picosecond laser induced nanostructures on silicon
13.2 Femtosecond laser induced nanostructures on glass
13.3 Applications of periodical surface structures

14 Summary and outlook
14.1 Guidelines for the application of laser processing
14.1.1 Examples of practical and industrial applications
14.2 Application to other classes of materials
14.3 The future of laser processing


Micro and Nanoscale Laser Processing of Hard Brittle Materials examines general laser-material interactions within this type of material, focusing on the nanoprocessing technologies that these phenomena have given rise to. Sections cover laser machining, healing, recovery, sintering, surface modification, texturing and microstructuring. These technologies all benefit from the characteristics of laser processing, its highly localized heating ability, and its well-defined optical properties. The book also describes frontier applications of the developed technologies, thus further emphasizing the possibility of processing hard brittle materials into complex structures with functional surfaces at both the micro and nanoscale.

Key Features

  • Provides readers with a solid understanding of laser-material interactions
  • Helps readers choose suitable laser parameters for processing hard brittle materials
  • Demonstrates how micro and nanoscale laser processing can be used to machine brittle materials without fracture


Students, engineers and materials scientists who want to learn more about new processing techniques for brittle hard materials


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© Elsevier 2020
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About the Authors

Jiwang Yan Author

Jiwang Yan is Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Keio University, Japan, where he heads up the Yan Laboratory. He is also Adjunct Professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan. His research interests the laser processing of materials, and ultraprecision and micro and nano manufacturing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Japan

Nozomi Takayama Author

Nozomi Takayama is a researcher at Yan Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering at Keio University, Japan. Her research interest focus on laser processing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, Yan Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Japan