MHPC: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124629202, 9780323141178

MHPC: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology

1st Edition

Editors: James Maas
eBook ISBN: 9780323141178
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1983
Page Count: 240
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Description

MHPG: Basic Mechanisms and Psychopathology discusses the interactions between clinical biological psychiatry and basic neuropsychopharmacology. Composed of 10 chapters, this book focuses on the role of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol (MHPG) in psychiatric disorders, particularly, in depression and mania. The book first examines the enzyme systems that produce MHPG in the brain and the features of these enzymes that could be used to reconcile several contradictions with regard to the origin of urinary MHPG. It then discusses the correlation between changes in impulse flow in central noradrenergic neurons of the locus ceruleus and MHPG levels in brain. The subsequent chapters cover the theoretical issues and empirical data dealing with the interrelationships between plasma and urinary measures of MHPG and central nervous system noradrenergic function. Measurement methods of MHPG in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine are also presented. The concluding chapters deal with the relevant human studies in patient and nonpatient populations concerning the role of MHPG in depressive disorders, with particular emphasis on clinical studies in childhood and adolescence. This book is of value to clinical biologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychopharmacologists.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

1. The Biochemical Pathways for Formation of 3-Methoxy-4-Hydroxyphenethyleneglycol in Man and Animals

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Urinary MHPG

III. Oxidative Deamination and O-Methylation of NE

IV. Enzymes Active in Producing the Alcohol Metabolites of NE

V. Enzymes Active in Producing the Acid Metabolites of NE

VI. Enzymes Active in Producing the Sulfate or Glucuronide Conjugates of MHPG

VII. Estimates of CNS NE Metabolism by Measures of Urinary MHPG

VIII. Summary

References

2. Neuronal Activity, Impulse Flow, and MHPG Production

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy of NE Systems

III. Impulse Flow and Transmitter Metabolism

IV. Norepinephrine Metabolism

V. Impulse Flow and Transmitter Turnover

VI. Impulse Flow and MHPG Production

VII. Plasma and CSF MHPG

VIII. Summary

References

3. Relationships between Central Nervous System Noradrenergic Function and Plasma and Urinary MHPG and Other Norepinephrine Metabolites

I. Introduction

II. Theoretical Issues: The Peripheral versus Central Model as Opposed to a Central-Peripheral Interactive Paradigm

III. Relationships between Brain, CSF, Plasma, and Urinary Concentrations of MHPG: The Empirical Data

IV. Plasma and Urinary MHPG and Other NE Metabolites as Indices of Events in CNS NE Neurons

V. Summary

References

4. Effects of Pharmacological Agents on MHPG

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Antidepressants

III. Effect of ECT

IV. Effect of Lithium

V. Effect of Neuroleptics

VI. Effect of Stimulants

VII. Effect of Narcotics

VIII. Effect of 6-Hydroxydopamine

IX. Effect of L-DOPA

X. Effect of Adrenergic Agonists and Antagonists

XI. Relationship between Norepinephrine Turnover and Adrenergic Receptors

XII. Conclusion

References

5. Methods for Determining MHPG in Plasma, CSF, and Urine

I. Introduction

II. Measurement of MHPG in CSF

III. Measurement of MHPG in Plasma

IV. Measurement of MHPG in Urine

V. Hydrolysis of Conjugated MHPG

VI. Synthesis of Stable Isotope-Labeled MHPG

VII. Summary

References

6. Preliminary Characterization of Plasma MHPG in Man

I. Introduction

II. Brain MHPG versus Other Metabolites as an Index of Brain NE Activity

III. Factors That Influence Plasma MHPG Levels

IV. The Role of the SNS: Interaction of Central and Peripheral NE Systems

V. Correspondence of MHPG Levels in Brain, CSF, and Plasma

VI. Plasma MHPG in Man: Emerging Clinical Applications

VII. Summary

References

7. Relationship between Psychiatric Diagnostic Groups of Depressive Disorders and MHPG

I. Introduction

II. Physiological Implications of Measurements of Urinary MHPG

III. Longitudinal Studies of Urinary MHPG Levels in Patients with Bipolar Manic-Depressive Disorders

IV. Urinary MHPG Levels in Bipolar Manic-Depressive and Other Clinically Defined Subgroups of Depressive Disorders

V. Application of Multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis to Data on Urinary Catecholamines and Metabolites in Depressed Patients

VI. Identification of Possible Subtypes of Unipolar Depressive Disorders

VII. Recent Studies of Pre treatment Urinary MHPG Levels as Predictors of Responses to Noradrenergically Active Antidepressant Drugs

VIII. Concluding Comments on Urinary MHPG Levels in Patients with Unipolar Major Depressive Disorders

References

8. Sources of Variance in Clinical Studies of MHPG

I. Introduction

II. Interassay Variability

III. Age, Sex, and Body Size

IV. Environmental Factors

V. Circadian and Annual Rhythms

VI. Personality

VII. Clinical State Differences

VIII. Summary

References

9. Urinary MHPG and Treatment Response: A Review

I. Introduction

II. Pretreatment MHPG and Drug-Response Prediction

III. Drug Treatment Effects on MHPG Excretion

IV. Discussion

V. Summary

References

10. Clinical Studies of MHPG in Childhood and Adolescence

I. Introduction

II. MHPG in Body Fluids

III. 24-Hour Urinary MHPG in Childhood

IV. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma MHPG in Childhood

V. Correspondence of MHPG Levels Measured Simultaneously in CSF, Plasma, and Urine

VI. Developmental Changes in MHPG Levels

VII. Functional Significance of MHPG Levels

VIII. Overview

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
240
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323141178

About the Editor

James Maas