Methods of Surface Analysis deals with the determination of the composition of surfaces and the identification of species attached to the surface. The text applies methods of surface analysis to obtain a composition depth profile after various stages of ion etching or sputtering. The composition at the solid—solid interface is revealed by systematically removing atomic planes until the interface of interest is reached, in which the investigator can then determine its composition. The book reviews the effect of ion etching on the results obtained by any method of surface analysis including the effect of the rate of etching, incident energy of the bombarding ion, the properties of the solid, the effect of the ion etching on generating an output signal of electrons, ions, or neutrals. The text also describes the effect of the residual gases in the vacuum environment. The book considers the influence of the sample geometry, of the type (metal, insulator, semiconductor, organic), and of the atomic number can have on surface analysis. The text describes in detail low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The book can prove useful for researchers, technicians, and scientists whose works involve organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and other related fields of chemistry, such as physical chemistry or inorganic chemistry.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. The Aspects of Sputtering in Surface Analysis Methods

I. Introduction

II. The Sputtering Process

A. Survey

B. Sputtering Yields

C. Sputter Etching

D. Composition Changes Caused by Ion Bombardment

E. The Ratio of Sputtered Ions/Neutrals

III. Specific Particle Bombardment Aspects



C. In ESCA and AES

IV. Outlook


Chapter 2. A Comparison of the Methods of Surface Analysis and their Applications

I. Introduction

II. Classification of the Methods for Surface Analysis by the Incident Particles used to Produce an Output of Detectable Particles

A. Thermal Input with Neutrals Out

B. Electrons in

C. Ions in

D. Photons in

E. Neutrals in

III. Electric and Magnetic Fields in

A. Electric and Magnetic Fields Out

B. Electrons Out

IV. Surface Waves in

A. Neutrals Out

V. Conclusions


Chapter 3. Low-Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry

I. Introduction

A. General Remarks

B. Historical

C. Comparison with Ion Scattering at Higher Energies

II. Experimental Equipment

A. General Requirements

B. Ion Source

C. Vacuum System and Scattering Chamber

D. Electrostatic Analyzer and Ion Detector

III. Ion Scattering Principles

A. Kinematics

B. Scattered Yield

C. Ion Neutralization

IV. Surf


No. of pages:
© 1975
North Holland
eBook ISBN:
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@qu:...a valuable addition to the libraries of those interested in the experimental techniques employed in surface science today. @source:American Scientist