Methods of Surface Analysis

Methods of Surface Analysis

1st Edition - January 1, 1984

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  • Editor: A.W. Czanderna
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444596451

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Description

Methods of Surface Analysis deals with the determination of the composition of surfaces and the identification of species attached to the surface. The text applies methods of surface analysis to obtain a composition depth profile after various stages of ion etching or sputtering. The composition at the solid—solid interface is revealed by systematically removing atomic planes until the interface of interest is reached, in which the investigator can then determine its composition. The book reviews the effect of ion etching on the results obtained by any method of surface analysis including the effect of the rate of etching, incident energy of the bombarding ion, the properties of the solid, the effect of the ion etching on generating an output signal of electrons, ions, or neutrals. The text also describes the effect of the residual gases in the vacuum environment. The book considers the influence of the sample geometry, of the type (metal, insulator, semiconductor, organic), and of the atomic number can have on surface analysis. The text describes in detail low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The book can prove useful for researchers, technicians, and scientists whose works involve organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and other related fields of chemistry, such as physical chemistry or inorganic chemistry.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Introduction

    Chapter 1. The Aspects of Sputtering in Surface Analysis Methods

    I. Introduction

    II. The Sputtering Process

    A. Survey

    B. Sputtering Yields

    C. Sputter Etching

    D. Composition Changes Caused by Ion Bombardment

    E. The Ratio of Sputtered Ions/Neutrals

    III. Specific Particle Bombardment Aspects

    A. In ISS

    B. In SIMS

    C. In ESCA and AES

    IV. Outlook

    References

    Chapter 2. A Comparison of the Methods of Surface Analysis and their Applications

    I. Introduction

    II. Classification of the Methods for Surface Analysis by the Incident Particles used to Produce an Output of Detectable Particles

    A. Thermal Input with Neutrals Out

    B. Electrons in

    C. Ions in

    D. Photons in

    E. Neutrals in

    III. Electric and Magnetic Fields in

    A. Electric and Magnetic Fields Out

    B. Electrons Out

    IV. Surface Waves in

    A. Neutrals Out

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Low-Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry

    I. Introduction

    A. General Remarks

    B. Historical

    C. Comparison with Ion Scattering at Higher Energies

    II. Experimental Equipment

    A. General Requirements

    B. Ion Source

    C. Vacuum System and Scattering Chamber

    D. Electrostatic Analyzer and Ion Detector

    III. Ion Scattering Principles

    A. Kinematics

    B. Scattered Yield

    C. Ion Neutralization

    IV. Surface Composition Analysis

    A. Calibration

    B. Technological Applications

    V. Surface Structure

    A. Shadowing Effects

    B. Double and Plural Scattering, Surface Defect Analysis

    VI. Conclusions

    Note Added in Proof

    References

    Chapter 4. Surface Analysis by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    I. Introduction

    II. Fundamentals

    A. X-ray Absorption

    B. Qualitative Analysis

    C. Quantitation

    III. Chemical Shifts

    A. Organic Structural Information

    B. Inorganic Structural and Chemical Information

    IV. Instrumentation

    A. Introduction

    B. X-ray Sources

    C. Electron Energy Analyzers

    D. Detectors

    E. Vacuum System

    F. Sample Handling

    G. Data Acquisition and Processing

    V. Some Experimental Variables

    A. Charging Effects

    B. Charge Compensation

    C. Depth Profiling Via Ion Etching

    D. Grazing Angle ESCA

    VI. Applications

    A. Organic Surfaces

    B. Inorganic Surfaces

    C. Catalysis

    VII. Summary

    References

    Chapter 5. Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    I. Introduction

    II. Fundamentals

    A. The Auger Process

    B. Auger Electron Escape Depth

    C. Core Level Ionization Probabilities by Electron Impact

    D. Matrix Effects

    III. Experimental Methods

    A. Electron Energy Analysis

    B. Signal-to-Noise Considerations

    C. Thin Film Analysis

    D. Scanning Auger Microscopy

    IV. Quantitative Analysis

    A. Basic Mechanisms and Absolute Measurements

    B. Measurements with External Standards

    C. Measurements with Elemental Sensitivity Factors

    D. Experimental Results

    V. Applications

    A. Fundamental Surface Science

    B. Metallurgy and Materials Science

    C. Catalytic Activity

    D. Semiconductor Technology

    References

    Chapter 6. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Nomenclature

    I. Introduction

    II. Secondary Ion Emission

    A. Mechanism

    B. Secondary Ion Yields

    C. Secondary Ion Species

    D. Incident Ion Effects

    III. SIMS Instrumentation

    A. Instrument Concepts

    B. Detection Sensitivity

    C. Trace Analysis

    D. Ion Imaging

    E. Primary Ion Beam Considerations

    F. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the Sputtered Neutral Component

    IV. Quantitation

    V. Elemental Depth Concentration Profiling

    A. Instrumental Factors Influencing Profile Depth Resolution

    B. Ion—Matrix Effects Influencing Profile Depth Resolution

    VI. Applications

    A. Surface Studies

    B. Depth Profiles

    C. XY Characterization, Micro and Bulk Analysis

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 7. The use of Auger Electron Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry in the Microelectronic Technology

    I. Introduction

    II. Sample Selection

    A. Tantalum Thin Films

    B. Doped (B,P,As) Silicon

    III. Selection of Inert or Reactive Primary Ion Bombardment in AES and SIMS Profiling

    IV. Sputtering Rate Measurements and Depth Resolution in AES and SIMS Profiling

    V. Chemical Analysis of Sputtered Tantalum Thin Films by AES and SIMS

    VI. Quantitative Analysis of Sputtered Tantalum Films Intentionally Doped with Nitrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen by AES and SIMS

    VII. Analysis of P-doped Ta2O5 Films by AES and SIMS

    VIII. Analysis of Platinum Films Containing Phosphorus by AES and SIMS

    IX. Analysis of Alumina Ceramic Substrates by AES and SIMS

    X. Chemical Analysis of P-, As-, and B-Doped Silicon by SIMS and AES

    A. Phosphorus

    B. Arsenic

    C. Boron

    XI. In-Depth, Bulk, and Surface Sensitivity Comparison of AES and SIMS

    XII. Anomalous Ion Yield Effects Produced at the Surface in SIMS Depth Profiles

    XIII. The Use of High Energy and Low Energy Secondary Ion Discrimination in SIMS

    XIV. Summary and Conclusions

    A. Sputtering Ion Beam

    B. Sputtering Rate

    C. Mass and Spectral Interferences

    D. Surface Analysis

    E. In-depth analysis (> 500 Å)

    F. Depth Resolution

    G. Quantitative Analysis

    References

    Chapter 8. The Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscope

    I. Introduction

    II. Principles of Atom-Probes

    III. Models of Field Ionization and Field Evaporation

    IV. The TOF Atom-Probe

    A. Design Considerations

    B. Detectors

    C. Pulsers

    D. Time-of-Flight Read-Out

    E. Mass Resolution

    F. Ion Energy Deficits

    G. Energy Deficit Compensation

    H. The Energy Focusing Atom-Probe

    V. A 10 cm TOF Atom-Probe

    VI. A Magnetic Sector Atom-Probe

    VII. New Phenomena Observed with the Atom-Probe

    A. Multiply Charged Ions

    B. Field Adsorption of the Imaging Gases

    C. Metal—Noble Gas Compound Ions

    D. Ions from the Forbidden Zone

    E. Surface Interactions with Molecular Gases

    F. A Field Calibration Via Free-Space Ionization

    VIII. Metallurgical Applications

    References

    Chapter 9. Field Ion Mass Spectrometry Applied to Surface Investigations

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Methods

    A. The Field Emitter

    B. The Field Ion Source

    C. Mass Separators

    D. Energy Analysis of Field Ions

    E. Ion Detectors

    III. Mechanisms of Ion Formation

    A. Field Ionization

    B. Proton Transfer

    C. Charge-Transfer and Intermolecular Interactions

    D. Heterolytic Bond Cleavage

    E. Ion—Molecule Reactions

    IV. The Identification of Surface Interactions

    A. Surface Selectivity of Field Ions

    B. Appearance Potentials

    C. Pulsed Fields

    V. Field Induced Surface Reactions

    A. Field Induced Adsorption

    B. Field Induced Desorption

    C. Thermodynamic Equilibria

    D. Field Polymerization and Fragmentation

    E. Field Desorption of Surface Complexes

    VI. Surface Reactions without Field Perturbance

    A. Carbonium Ions on Surfaces

    B. Chemical Reactions without Electric Momentum

    VII. Applications of FIMS

    A. Reactions of Water

    B. The Analysis of Evaporation Products of Solids

    C. Nitrogen Compounds at Metal Surfaces

    References

    Chapter 10. Infrared Reflection—Absorption Spectroscopy

    I. Introduction

    II. Theory

    A. History

    B. Single Reflection

    C. Absorption Band Magnification

    III. Applicability

    A. Film Effects

    B. Substrate Effects

    C. Combining Substrate and Film Effects

    IV. Experimental Arrangements

    A. Concepts

    B. Typical Arrangements

    V. Applications of RA Spectroscopy

    VI. Summary

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 496
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © North Holland 1984
  • Published: January 1, 1984
  • Imprint: North Holland
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444596451

About the Editor

A.W. Czanderna

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