Methods of Surface Analysis - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444413444, 9780444596451

Methods of Surface Analysis, Volume 1

1st Edition

Editors: A.W. Czanderna
eBook ISBN: 9780444596451
Imprint: North Holland
Published Date: 1st January 1984
Page Count: 496
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Table of Contents



Chapter 1. The Aspects of Sputtering in Surface Analysis Methods

I. Introduction

II. The Sputtering Process

A. Survey

B. Sputtering Yields

C. Sputter Etching

D. Composition Changes Caused by Ion Bombardment

E. The Ratio of Sputtered Ions/Neutrals

III. Specific Particle Bombardment Aspects



C. In ESCA and AES

IV. Outlook


Chapter 2. A Comparison of the Methods of Surface Analysis and their Applications

I. Introduction

II. Classification of the Methods for Surface Analysis by the Incident Particles used to Produce an Output of Detectable Particles

A. Thermal Input with Neutrals Out

B. Electrons in

C. Ions in

D. Photons in

E. Neutrals in

III. Electric and Magnetic Fields in

A. Electric and Magnetic Fields Out

B. Electrons Out

IV. Surface Waves in

A. Neutrals Out

V. Conclusions


Chapter 3. Low-Energy Ion Scattering Spectrometry

I. Introduction

A. General Remarks

B. Historical

C. Comparison with Ion Scattering at Higher Energies

II. Experimental Equipment

A. General Requirements

B. Ion Source

C. Vacuum System and Scattering Chamber

D. Electrostatic Analyzer and Ion Detector

III. Ion Scattering Principles

A. Kinematics

B. Scattered Yield

C. Ion Neutralization

IV. Surface Composition Analysis

A. Calibration

B. Technological Applications

V. Surface Structure

A. Shadowing Effects

B. Double and Plural Scattering, Surface Defect Analysis

VI. Conclusions

Note Added in Proof


Chapter 4. Surface Analysis by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

I. Introduction

II. Fundamentals

A. X-ray Absorption

B. Qualitative Analysis

C. Quantitation

III. Chemical Shifts

A. Organic Structural Information

B. Inorganic Structural and Chemical Information

IV. Instrumentation

A. Introduction

B. X-ray Sources

C. Electron Energy Analyzers

D. Detectors

E. Vacuum System

F. Sample Handling

G. Data Acquisition and Processing

V. Some Experimental Variables

A. Charging Effects

B. Charge Compensation

C. Depth Profiling Via Ion Etching

D. Grazing Angle ESCA

VI. Applications

A. Organic Surfaces

B. Inorganic Surfaces

C. Catalysis

VII. Summary


Chapter 5. Auger Electron Spectroscopy

I. Introduction

II. Fundamentals

A. The Auger Process

B. Auger Electron Escape Depth

C. Core Level Ionization Probabilities by Electron Impact

D. Matrix Effects

III. Experimental Methods

A. Electron Energy Analysis

B. Signal-to-Noise Considerations

C. Thin Film Analysis

D. Scanning Auger Microscopy

IV. Quantitative Analysis

A. Basic Mechanisms and Absolute Measurements

B. Measurements with External Standards

C. Measurements with Elemental Sensitivity Factors

D. Experimental Results

V. Applications

A. Fundamental Surface Science

B. Metallurgy and Materials Science

C. Catalytic Activity

D. Semiconductor Technology


Chapter 6. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry


I. Introduction

II. Secondary Ion Emission

A. Mechanism

B. Secondary Ion Yields

C. Secondary Ion Species

D. Incident Ion Effects

III. SIMS Instrumentation

A. Instrument Concepts

B. Detection Sensitivity

C. Trace Analysis

D. Ion Imaging

E. Primary Ion Beam Considerations

F. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of the Sputtered Neutral Component

IV. Quantitation

V. Elemental Depth Concentration Profiling

A. Instrumental Factors Influencing Profile Depth Resolution

B. Ion—Matrix Effects Influencing Profile Depth Resolution

VI. Applications

A. Surface Studies

B. Depth Profiles

C. XY Characterization, Micro and Bulk Analysis

VII. Conclusions


Chapter 7. The use of Auger Electron Spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry in the Microelectronic Technology

I. Introduction

II. Sample Selection

A. Tantalum Thin Films

B. Doped (B,P,As) Silicon

III. Selection of Inert or Reactive Primary Ion Bombardment in AES and SIMS Profiling

IV. Sputtering Rate Measurements and Depth Resolution in AES and SIMS Profiling

V. Chemical Analysis of Sputtered Tantalum Thin Films by AES and SIMS

VI. Quantitative Analysis of Sputtered Tantalum Films Intentionally Doped with Nitrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen by AES and SIMS

VII. Analysis of P-doped Ta2O5 Films by AES and SIMS

VIII. Analysis of Platinum Films Containing Phosphorus by AES and SIMS

IX. Analysis of Alumina Ceramic Substrates by AES and SIMS

X. Chemical Analysis of P-, As-, and B-Doped Silicon by SIMS and AES

A. Phosphorus

B. Arsenic

C. Boron

XI. In-Depth, Bulk, and Surface Sensitivity Comparison of AES and SIMS

XII. Anomalous Ion Yield Effects Produced at the Surface in SIMS Depth Profiles

XIII. The Use of High Energy and Low Energy Secondary Ion Discrimination in SIMS

XIV. Summary and Conclusions

A. Sputtering Ion Beam

B. Sputtering Rate

C. Mass and Spectral Interferences

D. Surface Analysis

E. In-depth analysis (> 500 Å)

F. Depth Resolution

G. Quantitative Analysis


Chapter 8. The Atom-Probe Field Ion Microscope

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Atom-Probes

III. Models of Field Ionization and Field Evaporation

IV. The TOF Atom-Probe

A. Design Considerations

B. Detectors

C. Pulsers

D. Time-of-Flight Read-Out

E. Mass Resolution

F. Ion Energy Deficits

G. Energy Deficit Compensation

H. The Energy Focusing Atom-Probe

V. A 10 cm TOF Atom-Probe

VI. A Magnetic Sector Atom-Probe

VII. New Phenomena Observed with the Atom-Probe

A. Multiply Charged Ions

B. Field Adsorption of the Imaging Gases

C. Metal—Noble Gas Compound Ions

D. Ions from the Forbidden Zone

E. Surface Interactions with Molecular Gases

F. A Field Calibration Via Free-Space Ionization

VIII. Metallurgical Applications


Chapter 9. Field Ion Mass Spectrometry Applied to Surface Investigations

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Methods

A. The Field Emitter

B. The Field Ion Source

C. Mass Separators

D. Energy Analysis of Field Ions

E. Ion Detectors

III. Mechanisms of Ion Formation

A. Field Ionization

B. Proton Transfer

C. Charge-Transfer and Intermolecular Interactions

D. Heterolytic Bond Cleavage

E. Ion—Molecule Reactions

IV. The Identification of Surface Interactions

A. Surface Selectivity of Field Ions

B. Appearance Potentials

C. Pulsed Fields

V. Field Induced Surface Reactions

A. Field Induced Adsorption

B. Field Induced Desorption

C. Thermodynamic Equilibria

D. Field Polymerization and Fragmentation

E. Field Desorption of Surface Complexes

VI. Surface Reactions without Field Perturbance

A. Carbonium Ions on Surfaces

B. Chemical Reactions without Electric Momentum

VII. Applications of FIMS

A. Reactions of Water

B. The Analysis of Evaporation Products of Solids

C. Nitrogen Compounds at Metal Surfaces


Chapter 10. Infrared Reflection—Absorption Spectroscopy

I. Introduction

II. Theory

A. History

B. Single Reflection

C. Absorption Band Magnification

III. Applicability

A. Film Effects

B. Substrate Effects

C. Combining Substrate and Film Effects

IV. Experimental Arrangements

A. Concepts

B. Typical Arrangements

V. Applications of RA Spectroscopy

VI. Summary




Methods of Surface Analysis deals with the determination of the composition of surfaces and the identification of species attached to the surface. The text applies methods of surface analysis to obtain a composition depth profile after various stages of ion etching or sputtering. The composition at the solid—solid interface is revealed by systematically removing atomic planes until the interface of interest is reached, in which the investigator can then determine its composition. The book reviews the effect of ion etching on the results obtained by any method of surface analysis including the effect of the rate of etching, incident energy of the bombarding ion, the properties of the solid, the effect of the ion etching on generating an output signal of electrons, ions, or neutrals. The text also describes the effect of the residual gases in the vacuum environment. The book considers the influence of the sample geometry, of the type (metal, insulator, semiconductor, organic), and of the atomic number can have on surface analysis. The text describes in detail low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The book can prove useful for researchers, technicians, and scientists whose works involve organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and other related fields of chemistry, such as physical chemistry or inorganic chemistry.


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© North Holland 1975
North Holland
eBook ISBN:


@qu:...a valuable addition to the libraries of those interested in the experimental techniques employed in surface science today. @source:American Scientist

About the Editors

A.W. Czanderna Editor