Methods in Palaeomagnetism - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483228945, 9781483274997

Methods in Palaeomagnetism

1st Edition

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Palaeomagnetic Methods, Held in the Physics Department of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, April 1–10, 1964

Editors: D.W. Collinson K.M. Creer S.K. Runcorn
eBook ISBN: 9781483274997
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 628
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Description

Methods in Paleomagnetism covers the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Paleomagnetic Methods, held in the Physics Department of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne on April 1-10, 1964. The book focuses on apparatus and techniques used in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism. The selection first offers information on sampling techniques in the field and measurement of natural remanent magnetization. Discussions focus on ballistic and spinner magnetometers; paleomagnetic sampling with a portable coring drill; portable apparatus for collecting small oriented cores; and portable field-sampling equipment. The book also takes a look at procedures to test the stability of magnetization, as well as physical properties of demagnetization; thermal demagnetization by the continuous method; and apparatus for thermal demagnetization by the progressive method. The text ponders on measurement of isotropic and anisotropic susceptibility and magnetic measurements in applied fields. Topics include preliminary account of a refined technique for magnetic susceptibility anisotropy measurement of rocks; errors in anisotropy measurements with the torsion balance; and measurement of the anisotropy of the susceptibility with an astatic magnetometer. The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in paleomagnetism.

Table of Contents


Preface

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Sampling Techniques in the Field

Notes on Rock Sampling for Paleomagnetic Research

The Collection and Orientation of Rock Samples

The Use of the Sun Compass

Methods of Sample Collection and Orientation for Archeomagnetism

Paleomagnetic Sampling with a Portable Coring Drill

Advantages of Field Drilling of Samples for Paleomagnetic Studies

Portable Apparatus for Collecting Small Oriented Cores

Portable Field-Sampling Equipment

A Large Sampling Drill

Chapter 2. Measurement of Natural Remanent Magnetization

Section I. Astatic Magnetometers

The Design and Construction of Astatic Magnetometers

The Astatic Magnetometers at Newcastle upon Tyne

The Astatic Magnetometers at De Bilt

The Dominion Observatory Astatic Magnetometer

The Astatic Magnetometers Constructed in Paris

The Astatic Magnetometer at the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge

Two Astatic Magnetometers with Variable Sensitivity

Recent Improvements Carried Out on Astatic Magnetometers

An Automatic Astatic Magnetometer

Preliminary Evaluation of a New Resonance Magnetometer

The Resonance Magnetometer

Section II. Ballistic and Spinner Magnetometers

Principles of The Ballistic Magnetometer for the Measurements of Remanence

Design of Spinner Magnetometers

The Spinner Magnetometer at Salisbury

The Spinner Magnetometer at Newcastle upon Tyne

A Spinner Magnetometer for Igneous Rocks

Design of a Transistorized Portable Air-Turbine Spinner Magnetometer

A "Big Sample" Spinner Magnetometer

Calibration of the Spinner Magnetometer

Section III. Fluxgate Magnetometers

Measurement of N.R.M. with Fluxgate Unit

Measurement of Natural Remanent Magnetization at the Outcrop

Section Iv. Principles of Measurement

The Magnetization of Rock Samples

Methods of Measurement with the Astatic Magnetometer

Shape and Size of Weakly Magnetized Rock Specimens

Analysis of Spinner Magnetometer Operation

Chapter 3. Procedures to Test the Stability of Magnetization

Field Tests for Stability

Physical Principles of Demagnetization

The A.C. Demagnetization Technique

Computations of the Behavior of Two- and Three-Axis Rotation Systems

A 500 C/Sec Alternating Field Demagnetizing Apparatus

Analysis of Alternating Field Demagnetization Equipment

A.C. Demagnetization of Rocks: Analysis of Results

Thermal Demagnetization by the Continuous Method

Apparatus for Thermal Demagnetization by the Progressive Method

Thermal Demagnetization Apparatus at Paris

A "Big Sample" Spinner Magnetometer and Demagnetizing Oven

Chemical Demagnetization

Chapter 4. Presentation and Analysis of Data

Statistics of a Spherical Distribution

Distortion Patterns of Projections and Simple Methods of Constructing Oblique Cases

Statistical Discussion of Magnetization of Rock Samples

Analysis of Paleomagnetic Data

On Estimating Secular Variation From Paleomagnetic Data

Chapter 5. Measurement of Isotropic and Anisotropic Susceptibility

The Anisotropy of Magnetization of Rocks

Measurement of Initial Susceptibility with the Astatic Magnetometer

The Measurement of Anisotropy of the Susceptibility with an Astatic Magnetometer

An Instrument for the Measurement of Isotropic Initial Susceptibility of Rock Samples

An Anisotropy Meter

Torsion-Balance Method of Measuring Anisotropic Susceptibility

Errors in Anisotropy Measurements with the Torsion Balance

Use of the Spinner Magnetometer for Anisotropy Measurements

The A.C. Bridge Method

Preliminary Account of a Refined Technique for Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy Measurement of Rocks

Anisotropy Measurements with a Translation Inductometer

Chapter 6. Magnetic Measurements in Applied Fields

Principles of Magnetic Balances

A Fused-Quartz Curie-Point Balance

Recording Magnetic Balance

A High-Frequency Method for the Measurement of Curie Temperatures of Ferrimagnetic Minerals

The Use of a Commercially Available Fluxgate Magnetometer in Determination of the Curie Point of Rock Samples

Vibration Magnetometer

Apparatus for Magnetic Measurements at Low Temperatures

The High-Field Torque-Meter Method of Measuring Magnetic Anisotropy of Rocks

Measurement of High-Coercivity Magnetic Anisotropy

Chapter 7. Techniques for The Study of Magnetic Components in Rocks

The Identification of the Opaque Oxide Minerals by Optical and X-ray Methods

The Determination of Iron and Titanium in Silicate Rocks

Identification of Magnetic Minerals in Rocks Using Methods Based on Their Magnetic Properties

Rock Magnetic Investigations at Low Temperatures

Identification of Magnetic Phases in Certain Rocks by Low-Temperature Analysis

Observation and Interpretation of Magnetic Domains in Natural Magnetite

Chapter 8. Miscellaneous Laboratory Facilities

The Production of High Magnetic Fields for Experiments in Rock Magnetism

Helmholtz Coils and Coil Design

Magnetic Shielding

The Measurement of Stress Effects in Rock Magnetism

A Two-Component Magnetometer Used to Measure Magnetization Changes of Rock Under Uniaxial Compression

Laboratory Redeposition Studies — An Appraisal of Apparatus and Technique

Simple, Order-of-Magnitude Rule for Estimating Stray Fields of Ferrous Components in Laboratory Apparatus

Index

Details

No. of pages:
628
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1967
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483274997

About the Editor

D.W. Collinson

K.M. Creer

S.K. Runcorn