Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 1: Process Fundamentals - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080969862, 9780080969879

Treatise on Process Metallurgy, Volume 1: Process Fundamentals

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Seshadri Seetharaman
eBook ISBN: 9780080969879
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080969862
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 26th November 2013
Page Count: 980
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Description

Process metallurgy provides academics with the fundamentals of the manufacturing of metallic materials, from raw materials into finished parts or products.

Coverage is divided into three volumes, entitled Process Fundamentals, encompassing process fundamentals, extractive and refining processes, and metallurgical process phenomena; Processing Phenomena, encompassing ferrous processing; non-ferrous processing; and refractory, reactive and aqueous processing of metals; and Industrial Processes, encompassing process modeling and computational tools, energy optimization, environmental aspects and industrial design.

The work distils 400+ years combined academic experience from the principal editor and multidisciplinary 14-member editorial advisory board, providing the 2,608-page work with a seal of quality.

The volumes will function as the process counterpart to Robert Cahn and Peter Haasen’s famous reference family, Physical Metallurgy (1996)--which excluded process metallurgy from consideration and which is currently undergoing a major revision under the editorship of David Laughlin and Kazuhiro Hono (publishing 2014). Nevertheless, process and extractive metallurgy are fields within their own right, and this work will be of interest to libraries supporting courses in the process area.

Key Features

  • Synthesizes the most pertinent contemporary developments within process metallurgy so scientists have authoritative information at their fingertips
  • Replaces existing articles and monographs with a single complete solution, saving time for busy scientists
  • Helps metallurgists to predict changes and consequences and create or modify whatever process is deployed

Readership

For teaching and research faculty, upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and post-doctoral research associates in metallurgy and materials science and technology and related areas of study (physics, chemistry and biomedical science) as well as researchers and staff members of government and industrial research laboratories. Particularly useful for more experienced research workers who require an overview of fields comparatively new to them, or with which they wish to renew contact after a gap of some years.

Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface

Editor in Chief

Co-Editors-in-Chief

Contributors to volume 1

Acknowledgement

The Review Committee

Chapter 1. Process Metallurgy—An Argosy Through Time

Acknowledgments

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Alchemy and the Discovery of Metals

1.3 Development of Extraction Processes

References

Chapter 1.1. Introduction to Metallurgical Processing

1.1.1 Recent Development Trends

1.1.2 Process Options

1.1.3 Classification of Metallurgical Reactors

1.1.4 Summary of General Characteristics of Metallurgical Reactors

1.1.5 Reactor and Process Design Methodologies

1.1.6 Summary

Reference

Chapter 2. Structure and Properties of Matter

Abstract

2.1 State and Equilibrium

2.2 State of Matter

2.3 Solid

2.4 Liquid

2.5 Gas

2.6 Glass = Amorphous Solid

2.7 Plasma

2.8 Phase Transition

2.9 Glass Transition

2.10 Description of Structural Features of Liquid

2.11 Structural Features of Metallic and Oxide Melts

References

Chapter 2.1. Structure and Properties of Molten Metals

Abstract

2.1.1 Structure

2.1.2 Properties

2.1.3 Structure-Property Relations and Interproperty Relations

2.1.4 Summary

References

Chapter 2.2. The Structure and Properties of Silicate Slags

Symbols, Units, and Abbreviations

Acknowledgments

2.2.1 Introduction

2.2.2 Structure of Slags and Glasses

2.2.3 Effect of Structure on Properties

2.2.4 Properties of Slags Based on Silicate Network

2.2.5 Summary and Conclusions

Appendix Thermodynamic Properties of Slags

Nomenclature of Appendix

A.1 Pertinent Properties

A.2 Bonding, Electronegativity, and Ideal Ionic Solution

A.3 Nonideal Solutions Structural Models for Limited Degree of Polymerization

A.4 Nonideal Solutions Structural Models for Higher Degree of Polymerization

References

Chapter 2.3. Atomistic Simulations of Properties and Phenomena at High Temperatures

Abstract

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Atomistic Computer Simulation Techniques

2.3.3 Special Techniques and Advanced Algorithms

2.3.4 Determination of Physical Properties

2.3.5 Atomistic Interaction Potentials

2.3.6 Properties and Phenomena at High Temperatures: Computer Simulations and Other Results

2.3.7 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 3. Thermodynamic Aspects of Process Metallurgy: Introduction to Thermodynamics of Metallurgical Processes

Chapter 3.1. First, Second, and Third Laws of Thermochemistry

Abstract

3.1.1 Thermodynamic Data Compilations

3.1.2 Ideal Gas

3.1.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics

3.1.4 Enthalpy and Heat Capacity

3.1.5 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Entropy

3.1.6 Gibbs Energy

3.1.7 Combined Statement of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

3.1.8 Changes in Gibbs Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy Due to Reaction

3.1.9 Gibbs Energy Function

Appendix

References

Chapter 3.2. Phase Rule

Abstract

3.2.1 Intensive and Extensive Properties

3.2.2 Degree of Freedom

3.2.3 Phase

3.2.4 System

3.2.5 Condensed Phase-Vapor Equilibrium

3.2.6 Arbitrary Choice of System

3.2.7 Clapeyron Equation—Liquid Vapor Equilibrium

3.2.8 Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressure

3.2.9 Solid–Liquid Equilibrium

3.2.10 Triple Point

3.2.11 Arbitrary Choice of System—Ionic Species

3.2.12 Critical Temperature and Pressure

3.2.13 Freedom Degree and Thermochemical Data—1

3.2.14 Freedom Degree and Thermochemical Data—2

3.2.15 Single-Phase Composition and Bulk Composition

3.2.16 Composition of Industrial Slag

References

Chapter 3.3. Ellingham Diagram

Abstract

3.3.1 Standard Gibbs Energy Change of Formation of Compounds

3.3.2 Equilibrium Oxygen Partial Pressure

3.3.3 Equilibrium CO/CO2 Ratio and the Boudouard Reaction

3.3.4 Influence of Activity of Condensed Phases on Gibbs Energy Change

References

Chapter 3.4. Solution Thermochemistry

Abstract

3.4.1 Partial Molar Quantities

3.4.2 Integral Molar Quantities

3.4.3 Relationship Between Partial Molar Quantities and Integral Molar Quantities

3.4.4 Relative Partial Molar Quantities and Integral Molar Quantities

3.4.5 Raoult’s Law and Ideal Solutions

3.4.6 Excess Thermodynamic Quantities

3.4.7 Integration of the Gibbs–Duhem Equation

3.4.8 Regular Solutions

3.4.9 Darken’s Quadratic Formalism

References

Chapter 3.5. Thermodynamic Basis for Phase Diagrams

Abstract

3.5.1 Gibbs Energy of Binary Solutions

3.5.2 Binary Isomorphous System

3.5.3 Binary Eutectic System

3.5.4 Binary Monotectic and Peritectic Systems

3.5.5 Binary System Including an Intermediate Compound

3.5.6 Consistency of Phase Diagram and Thermochemical Data of the Binary System CaO–SiO2

3.5.7 Ternary Phase Diagram

References

Chapter 3.6. Dilute Solutions

Abstract

3.6.1 Henry’s Law and Sieverts’ Law

3.6.2 Henrian Activities and the Conversion of Standard States

3.6.3 Description of Activities of Minor Solute Elements in Metallic Solution (Wagner’s Equation)

3.6.4 Examples for the Calculation of Henrian Activities

3.6.5 Data Compilations for Dilute Liquid Alloys

References

Chapter 3.7. Thermodynamics of Slags

Abstract

3.7.1 Phase Diagrams and Activities

3.7.2 Basicity and Refining Ability of Slags

3.7.3 Structure and Thermochemical Models for Slags

3.7.4 Oxidation–Reduction Equilibrium in Slags

References

Chapter 3.8. Examples of Steelmaking Thermochemistry

Abstract

3.8.1 Fundamental Considerations Pertaining to Removal of Impurities from Molten Steel

3.8.2 Effect of Solute Elements on Silicon Deoxidation of Ferrous Alloys

3.8.3 Thermodynamics of Calcium Treatment of Al-Killed Steel

3.8.4 Equilibrium Between Solid Oxides and Highly Alloyed Steels

3.8.5 Thermodynamics of Calcium Treatment of Molten Iron

3.8.6 Chemical Potential Control by Gas Equilibria

References

Chapter 3.9. Thermodynamics of Aqueous Phases

Abstract

3.9.1 Chemical Potentials and Electrochemical Potentials

3.9.2 Activity and Activity Coefficients

3.9.3 Mean Activity Coefficients

3.9.4 The Debye–Hückel Law

3.9.5 Chemical Equilibrium and Gibbs Energy of Formation of Ions

3.9.6 Chemical Equilibrium in Aqueous Solutions

3.9.7 Potential–pH Diagrams (Pourbaix Diagrams)

References

Chapter 3.10. Thermodynamic Basis of Electrolysis and Electrochemistry

Abstract

3.10.1 Zinc Electrowinning

3.10.2 Copper Electrowinning

3.10.3 Copper Electrorefining

3.10.4 Electrochemistry in Leaching

References

Chapter 4.1. Rate Phenomena in Process Metallurgy

Nomenclature

4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 Momentum Transfer

4.1.3 Flow Description

4.1.4 Overall Energy Balance

4.1.5 The Concept of Viscosity

4.1.6 Steady-State Fully Developed Laminar Flow Through a Straight Pipe

4.1.7 Buckingham Π Theorem and Its Application to Transport Phenomena

4.1.8 Reynolds Number

4.1.9 Friction Factor for Flow Through Pipes

4.1.10 Flow Through Packed Beds

4.1.11 Fluidized Beds

4.1.12 Flow Around Particles

4.1.13 Compressible Flow

4.1.14 Momentum Balance at Differential Scale

4.1.15 Models of Turbulence

4.1.16 Introduction to Heat Transfer

4.1.17 Conservation Equation as Applied to Thermal Systems

4.1.18 Conduction

4.1.19 Convection

4.1.20 Radiation

4.1.21 Mass Transfer

References

Chapter 4.2. Reaction Kinetics

Nomenclature

4.2.1 Reaction Kinetics and Reaction Systems

4.2.2 Reaction Rates and Rate-Limiting Processes

4.2.3 Structure of the Chapter

References

Chapter 4.3. Chemical Reaction Kinetics

4.3.1 Chemical Kinetics

4.3.2 Electrochemical Reactions

4.3.3 Reversible Processes

References

Chapter 4.4. Chemical Reactions at Moving Surfaces: Shape Change, No Phase Change

4.4.1 Reaction Rates on Fluid/Condensed Phases Interfaces

4.4.2 Chemical Reactions on Moving Solid Surfaces

4.4.3 Reactions with Accumulation at the Interface

4.4.4 Summary

References

Chapter 4.5. Phase Formation Reactions

4.5.1 Classes of Phase Formation Reactions

4.5.2 Elementary Reaction Processes

4.5.3 Mechanisms of Growth

4.5.4 Summary

References

Chapter 4.6. Chemical Kinetics + Phase Changes + Shape Changes

4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Metal Growth Morphologies

4.6.3 Morphology Maps

4.6.4 Summary

References

Chapter 4.7. Factors Influencing Reaction Area

4.7.1 Introduction

4.7.2 Reactant Characteristics

4.7.3 Reaction Induced Phenomena

4.7.4 Reaction Time/Extent

4.7.5 Summary

References

Chapter 4.8. Reaction System Performance

4.8.1 Driving Forces for Reaction

4.8.2 Reaction Engineering and Process Models

4.8.3 Summary

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
980
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780080969879
Hardcover ISBN:
9780080969862

About the Editor-in-Chief

Seshadri Seetharaman