Metallurgical Microscopy

Metallurgical Microscopy

1st Edition - January 1, 1973

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  • Authors: Helfrid Modin, Sten Modin
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483144788

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Metallurgical Microscopy provides the general principles, methods, and techniques in metallurgical microscopy. The book initially provides the techniques for specimen preparation for macroscopic and microscopic examination. Subsequent chapters are devoted to the discussion of light-optical microscopy and photography, interferometry and contrast-raising methods, and microhardness measurement. Topics on high-temperature microscopy, a brief review of the electron microprobe and its applications, and the construction, properties and applications of the electron microscope are presented as well. Metallurgists and materials scientists will find the book very informative and useful.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Specimen Preparation for Macroscopic and Microscopic Examination

    1.1 Examination of Surface Structures

    1.2 Preparation of Flat Section Surfaces

    1.3 Etching

    2 Light-Optical Microscopy and Photography

    2.1 Refraction of Light Rays in Thin Lenses

    2.2 The Speed of Lenses

    2.3 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus

    2.4 Influence of Focal Length on Depth of Field

    2.5 Size of Negative and Focal Length

    2.6 Perspective

    2.7 Aperture

    2.8 Lens Aberrations

    2.9 The Metallurgical Microscope

    2.10 Polarised Light

    2.11 Cleaning the Various Parts of the Microscope

    2.12 Checking the Microscope Objective

    2.13 Immersion Oils

    2.14 Photomacrography

    2.15 Choice of Metallurgical Microscope

    3 Interferometry and Contrast-Raising Methods

    3.1 Determination and Calculation of Surface Topography Using the Interference Microscope

    3.2 Methods for Increasing Image Contrast

    4 Microhardness Measurement

    4.1 Test Conditions

    4.2 Errors in Hardness Measurements Due to Specimen Preparation

    4.3 Errors in Hardness Measurements Due to Faults in the Equipment

    4.4 Measuring the Size of the Indentation

    5 Quantitative Microscopy

    5.1 Methods

    5.2 Calculation of Particle Size and Number

    5.3 Microscopic Methods of Inclusion Content Determination

    5.4 Determination of Grain Size

    6 High-Temperature Microscopy

    6.1 General Review

    7 Electron Microscopy

    7.1 Construction, Properties and Applications of the Electron Microscope

    7.2 Image Formation and Interpretation

    7.3 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus

    7.4 Electron Diffraction

    7.5 Choice of Electron Microscope

    7.6 Practical Applications of Fresnel Diffraction During Electron Microscopy

    7.7 Cleaning the Electron Microscope

    7.8 Replica Techniques and Extraction of Particles

    7.9 Preparation of Thin Foils

    7.10 Special Electron Microscopes

    8 The Electron Microprobe

    8.1 General Review

    9 Photographic Materials

    9.1 General

    9.2 The Negative Process

    9.3 The Positive Process

    Tables and Formulae

    A1 Specimen Preparation for Macroscopic and Microscopic Examination

    A2 Crystal Structures and Optical Properties of Some Commonly-Encountered Phases

    A5 Conversion Tables for Particle and Grain Size Determination

    A7 Tables for Assessing Electron Diffraction Patterns and Formulae for Electrolytes for Producing Metal Foils

    A9 Photographic Formulae


Product details

  • No. of pages: 484
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1973
  • Published: January 1, 1973
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483144788

About the Authors

Helfrid Modin

Sten Modin

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