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Metal – Semiconductor Contacts and Devices - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122341137, 9781483217796

Metal – Semiconductor Contacts and Devices, Volume 13

1st Edition

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Authors: Simon S. Cohen Gennady Sh. Gildenblat
Editor: Norman G. Einspruch
eBook ISBN: 9781483217796
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1986
Page Count: 434
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1 Introduction


Chapter 2 Electrical Characteristics of the Metal-Semiconductor Interface

2.1. Introduction

2.2. The Interface Barrier and Space Charge Region

2.3. Generalized Transport Theory at Low Dopant Levels

2.4. Tunneling Across the Interface

2.5. Minority Carrier Injection Ratio


Chapter 3 Experimental Methods of Barrier Height Determination

3.1. Introduction

3.2. The Forward Bias I - V Method

3.3. Forward Bias I - V Method for Schottky Diodes with High Series Resistance

3.4. The Capacitance - Voltage Method

3.5. The Correlation Between the Barrier Height and the Ideality Factor of the Schottky Diode

3.6. Reverse Bias Current - Voltage Characteristics

3.7. The Photoexcitation Method


Chapter 4 Test Structures for Ohmic Contact Characterization

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Simple Methods for Contact Resistance Measurements

4.3. Transfer Length Method

4.4. The Circular Transmission Line Model

4.5. Finite Depth Effects

4.6. The Four-Terminal Resistor


Chapter 5 Contact Fabrication Procedures

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Basic Elements of IC Device Processing

5.3. The Chemistry of Contact Hole Opening

5.4. Contact Geometry

5.5. Metal Deposition Techniques

5.6. Contact Metallization Definition Techniques

5.7. Details of Shallow Junction Formation


Chapter 6 Practical Ohmic Contacts to Silicon

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Requirements on Ohmic Contacts for VLSI

6.3. Metallurgical Considerations

6.4. Contact Electromigration

6.5. Aluminum-Based Contact Metallizations

6.6. Suicide Contact Metallization

6.7. Refractory Metal Contacts to Silicon

6.8. Other Metal-Silicon Systems


Chapter 7 Other Metal - Semiconductor Contact Systems

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Ohmic Contacts to III-V Compound Semiconductors

7.3. Polysilicon Emitter Contacts


Chapter 8 Metal - Semiconductor Devices

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Schottky Barrier MOS Transistors

8.3. Schottky Diodes in Bipolar Integrated Circuits

8.4. The Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor


Appendix I Modified Bessel Functions

Appendix II Thin-Film Resistors

Appendix III Physical Properties of Common Semiconductor Materials

Appendix IV Selected Properties of Commonly Used Metals



VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.

This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularly, ohmic contacts. Contacts that involve polycrystalline silicon; applications of the metal-semiconductor barriers in MOS, bipolar, and MESFET digital integrated circuits; and methods for measuring the barrier height are covered as well.

Process engineers, device physicists, circuit designers, and students of this discipline will find the book very useful.


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1986
28th April 1986
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

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About the Authors

Simon S. Cohen

Gennady Sh. Gildenblat

About the Editor

Norman G. Einspruch