Metabolism of Vitamins and Trace Elements

Metabolism of Vitamins and Trace Elements

Comprehensive Biochemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Editors: Marcel Florkin, Elmer H. Stotz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483165462

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Description

Comprehensive Biochemistry, Volume 21: Metabolism of Vitamins and Trace Elements focuses on the processes, reactions, methodologies, and principles involved in the metabolism of vitamins and trace elements, including catabolism, enzymatic synthesis, absorption, and metabolic functions. The selection first elaborates on the biosynthesis of thiamine and riboflavin and metabolism of vitamin B6. Topics include absorption and transport of vitamin B6, catabolism of vitamin B6, mechanism of riboflavin synthetase from yeast, enzymatic synthesis of thiamine, biogenesis of thiazole, and interconversion of various forms of vitamin B6. The book also ponders on the biosynthesis of pantothenic acid and coenzyme A and metabolism of biotin, analogues, folic acid, pteridine derivatives, and cobalamins. Discussions focus on the uses of radioactive cobalamins in metabolic studies, absorption of cobalamins, pteroylpolyglutamates, and biosynthesis of folate compounds, interconversions, and degradations. The manuscript examines the metabolism and metabolic function of trace elements, including iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, fluorine, and iodine. The selection is a vital source of data for researchers interested in the metabolism of vitamins and trace elements.

Table of Contents


  • General Preface

    Preface to Section IV

    Chapter I. Metabolism of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Section a. The Biosynthesis of Thiamine

    1. Introduction

    2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Thiamine

    3. Enzymatic Synthesis of Thiamine-PP

    4. Biogenesis of the Pyrimidine MOiety

    5. Biogenesis of Thiazole

    References

    Chapter I. Metabolism of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Section b. The Biosynthesis of Riboflavin

    1. Introduction

    2. Formation of Riboflavin from 6,7-Dimethyl-8-Ribityllumazine

    a. Isolation and Chemical Synthesis of 6,7-Dimethyl-8-Ribityllumazine and Derivatives

    b. 6,7-Dimethyl-8-Ribityllumazine as Precursor of Riboflavin

    c. Stoichiometry of the Riboflavin Synthetase Reaction

    d. Substrate Specificity of the Riboflavin Synthetase Reaction

    e. Purification and Certain Properties of Riboflavin Synthetase

    3. Mechanism of Riboflavin Synthetase from Yeast

    a. Complexes of the Enzyme with Lumazine Derivatives and Riboflavin

    b. Kinetics

    c. Binding of 4-Carbon Donor and Acceptor

    d. Evidence for Existence of a Ternary Complex

    e. Studies of Nature of Reaction Intermediates

    4. Biosynthesis of 6,7-Dimethyl-8-Ribityllumazine

    References

    Chapter I. Metabolism of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Section c. The Metabolism of Vitamin B6

    1. Introduction

    2. Biosynthesis of Vitamin B6

    3. Absorption and Transport of Vitamin B6

    4. Interconversion of Various Forms of Vitamin B6

    a. Phosphorylation of Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine

    b. Interconversion of Pyridoxine 5'-Phosphate, Pyridoxamine 5'-Phosphate, and Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate

    c. Hydrolysis of Vitamin B6 5'-Phosphates to Free Vitamin B6

    d. Interconversion of Free Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine

    5. Preferred Pathways for Pyridoxal-P Formation and Control of Vitamin B6 Metabolism

    6. Catabolism of Vitamin B6

    a. In Animals

    b. In Microorganisms

    7. Abnormalities in Vitamin B6 Metabolism

    References

    Chapter I. Metabolism of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Section d. Biosynthesis of Pantothenic Acid and Coenzyme A

    1. Introduction

    2. Biogenesis of Pantoic Acid

    3. Biogenesis of ?-Alanine

    4. Enzymatic Synthesis of Pantothenic Acid

    5. Enzymatic Synthesis of Coenzyme A from Pantothenic Acid

    References

    Chapter I. Metabolism of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Section e. The Metabolism of Biotin and Analogues

    1. Introduction

    2. Biosynthesis

    a. Pimelic Acid

    b. Pelargonie Acid Derivatives

    c. Dethiobiotin

    d. Sulfur Sources

    e. Miscellaneous Factors

    3. Interconversions

    a. Free and Bound Forms

    b. Thioether and Sulfoxide Forms

    4. Degradations

    a. Side-Chain

    b. Bicyclic Ring System

    References

    Chapter I. Metabolism of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Section f. The Biosynthesis of Folic Acid and 6-Substituted Pteridine Derivatives

    1. Introduction

    2. The Biosynthesis of Folate Compounds

    a. Involvement of Purines

    b. GTP as the Pteridine Precursor

    c. Pyrimidine Derivatives as Intermediates

    d. Dihydroneopterin Triphosphate Synthesis

    e. Dihydroneopterin Triphosphate Utilization

    f. Hydroxymethyldihydxopterin Utilization

    g. Hydroxymethyldihydropterin-PP as an Intermediate

    h. Role of p-Aminobenzoate and p-Aminobenzoylglutamate

    i. Dihydrofolate synthesis

    3. Pteroylpolyglutamates

    a. Occurrence

    b. Biosynthesis

    c. Conjugase(s)

    d. Assays

    4. Biosynthesis of Unconjugated Pteridines

    a. Occurrence of Pteridines with a Side-Chain in Position 6

    b. Origin of the Side-Chain of Biopterin and Sepiapterin

    c. The Reactions Concerning the Side-Chain of Neopterin, Biopterin and Sepiapterin

    d. Pterin and Hydroxypterins

    5. Coenzyme Function

    a. Hydroxylation

    b. Possible Involvement in the Photosynthetic Process

    Acknowledgement

    Addendum

    References

    Chapter I. Metabolism of Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Section g. The Metabolism of the Cobalamins

    1. Introduction

    2. Sources and Requirements

    3. Uses of Radioactive Cobalamins in Metabolic Studies

    4. Absorption of Cobalamins

    5. Malabsorption of Cobalamins

    6. Absorption of Vitamin B12 by Simple Diffusion

    7. Vitamin B12 Binders Other than Intrinsic Factor

    8. Vitamin B12 Transport in Plasma

    9. Uptake of Vitamin B12 by Tissues

    10. The Distribution of Vitamin B12 in Tissues

    11. The Distribution of Vitamin B12 in Serum

    12. The Turnover of Exogenous Cobalamins

    a. Tracer Studies in Rats

    b. Tracer Studies in Mice

    c. Tracer Studies in Dogs

    13. Turnover Studies in Man

    14. The Excretion of Cyanocobalamin

    15. Interconversion of Cobalamins

    References

    Chapter II. Trace Elements: Metabolism and Metabolic Function

    1. Introduction

    2. Iron

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    3. Copper

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    4. Zinc

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    5. Cobalt

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    6. Manganese

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    7. Chromium

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    8. Molybdenum

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    9. Selenium

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    10. Iodine

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    11. Fluorine

    a. Metabolism

    b. Chemistry

    c. Biochemical Function

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 314
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483165462

About the Editors

Marcel Florkin

Elmer H. Stotz

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