Metabolism of Sulfur Compounds  - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780122992575, 9780323162081

Metabolism of Sulfur Compounds

3rd Edition

Authors: David Greenberg
eBook ISBN: 9780323162081
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1975
Page Count: 636
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Description

Metabolic Pathways, Third Edition: Volume VII: Metabolism of Sulfur Compounds deals with various aspects of the metabolism and biosynthesis of sulfur compounds such as coenzyme A, biotin, thiamine, and lipoic acid. The biochemistry of glutathione and the sulfur cycle is also discussed, together with sulfate activation and transfer; oxidative metabolism of cysteine and cystine in animal tissues; and enzyme defects in sulfur amino acid metabolism in humans. This volume is comprised of 15 chapters and begins with a discussion on the pathways of biosynthesis and dissimilation of coenzyme A, as well as the metabolic fate of exogenous coenzyme A in animals. The reader is then introduced to the chemistry, biosynthesis, metabolism, biological role, and biodegradation of biotin; the biosynthesis and function of thiamine; and the biosynthesis, dissimilation, and metabolic role of lipoic acid. Other sulfur compounds considered in this text are glutathione, cysteine and cystine, riboflavin, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, and methionine. The final chapter is devoted to human diseases associated with enzyme defects in sulfur amino acid metabolism. This book will be a useful resource for biologists and biochemists.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Other Volumes

Volumes in Series

Chapter 1 Metabolism of Coenzyme A

I. Biosynthesis of Coenzyme A

II. Coenzyme A as the Precursor of the Prosthetic Group of Acyl Carrier Protein

III. Dissimilation of Coenzyme A

IV. Metabolic Fate of Exogenous Coenzyme A in Animals

V. Metabolic Functions of Coenzyme A

References

Chapter 2 Biotin

I. Introduction

II. Chemistry

III. Biological Role of Biotin

IV. Biotin Biosynthesis

V. Biotin Degradation

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 3 Thiamine, Biosynthesis and Function

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis of Thiamine

III. The Role of Thiamine

References

Chapter 4 Lipoic Acid

I. Introduction

II. Isolation and Some Properties

III. Biosynthesis and Dissimilation

IV. Summary of Metabolic Role

References

Chapter 5 Biochemistry of Glutathione

I. Introduction

II. Natural Occurrence of Glutathione and Related Compounds

III. Determination of Glutathione

IV. Biosynthesis of Glutathione

V. Utilization of Glutathione and Related γ-Glutamyl Compounds by the γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase-Cyclotransferase-5-Oxoprolinase Pathway

VI. Interconversion of Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide

VII. Function of Glutathione in Mercapturic Acid Formation

VIII. Function of Glutathione as a Coenzyme

IX. Functions of Glutathione in Certain Tissues and Cells

X. Other Studies on Glutathione

References

Chapter 6 Covalent Adducts of Cysteine and Riboflavin

I. Introduction

II. 8α-Cysteinylflavin Thioethers

III. 8α-Cysteinylflavin Thiohemiacetals

IV. Metabolic Synthesis and Degradation of Covalently Bound Flavins

References

Chapter 7 Biochemistry of the Sulfur Cycle

I. The Sulfur Cycle in Nature

II. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction

III. Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction

IV. Chemolithotrophic Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Compounds

V. Photolithotrophic Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Compounds

VI. Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Compounds in Animals

References

Chapter 8 Sulfate Activation and Transfer

I. Introduction

II. Sulfate Activation

III. Sulfate Transfer: The Sulfotransferases

IV. Role of Sulfate Activation in Taurine Biosynthesis

V. Other Mechanisms of Sulfation

VI. Somatomedin (Sulfation Factor)

References

Chapter 9 Sulfohydrolases

I. General Introduction

II. Enzymes Hydrolyzing C-O-SO3- Linkages

III. Enzymes Hydrolyzing P-O-SO3- Linkages

IV. Enzymes Hydrolyzing N-O-SO3- Linkages

V. Enzymes Hydrolyzing N-SO3- Linkages

VI. General Comments

VII. Addendum

References

Chapter 10 Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase and Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase

I. Introduction

II. Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase

III. Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase

References

Chapter 11 Methionine Biosynthesis

I. Introduction

II. Enzymes and Control of Enzyme Activity in Reactions Unique to Methionine Biosynthesis

III. Regulation of Enzyme Synthesis and Overall Methionine Control of Its Biosynthesis and Related Branch Pathways

References

Chapter 12 Biosynthesis of Cysteine and Cystine

I. Introduction

II. Synthesis of Cysteine by the Cysteine Synthase System

III. The Cystathionine Pathway of Cysteine Biosynthesis

IV. Cystathionine ß-Synthase of Rat Liver

V. Cystathionine γ-Synthetase of Bacteria

VI. γ-Cystathionase of Rat Liver

VII. Oxidation of Cysteine to Cystine

References

Chapter 13 Utilization and Dissimilation of Methionine

I. Introduction

II. Role of Methionine in the Biosynthesis of Spermidine and Spermine

III. Dissimilation of Methionine

References

Chapter 14 Oxidative Metabolism of Cysteine and Cystine in Animal Tissues

I. Introduction

II. Cytoplasmic Oxygenation of Cysteine to Cysteinesulfinic Acid

III. Metabolic Fate of Cysteinesulfinic Acid

IV. Mitochondrial Oxidation of Cysteine to Sulfate

V. Catabolism of Cystine

VI. Metabolic Origin of Taurine

References

Chapter 15 Enzyme Defects in Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism in Man

I. Introduction

II. Cystathionine Synthase Deficiency

III. Defects in Homocysteine Methylation

IV. Cystathioninuria

V. Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

VI. Hypermethioninemia

VII. Conclusions

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
636
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1975
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323162081

About the Author

David Greenberg