Metabolism of Sulfur Compounds

Metabolism of Sulfur Compounds

3rd Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Author: David Greenberg
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323162081

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Description

Metabolic Pathways, Third Edition: Volume VII: Metabolism of Sulfur Compounds deals with various aspects of the metabolism and biosynthesis of sulfur compounds such as coenzyme A, biotin, thiamine, and lipoic acid. The biochemistry of glutathione and the sulfur cycle is also discussed, together with sulfate activation and transfer; oxidative metabolism of cysteine and cystine in animal tissues; and enzyme defects in sulfur amino acid metabolism in humans. This volume is comprised of 15 chapters and begins with a discussion on the pathways of biosynthesis and dissimilation of coenzyme A, as well as the metabolic fate of exogenous coenzyme A in animals. The reader is then introduced to the chemistry, biosynthesis, metabolism, biological role, and biodegradation of biotin; the biosynthesis and function of thiamine; and the biosynthesis, dissimilation, and metabolic role of lipoic acid. Other sulfur compounds considered in this text are glutathione, cysteine and cystine, riboflavin, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, and methionine. The final chapter is devoted to human diseases associated with enzyme defects in sulfur amino acid metabolism. This book will be a useful resource for biologists and biochemists.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Contents of Other Volumes

    Volumes in Series

    Chapter 1 Metabolism of Coenzyme A

    I. Biosynthesis of Coenzyme A

    II. Coenzyme A as the Precursor of the Prosthetic Group of Acyl Carrier Protein

    III. Dissimilation of Coenzyme A

    IV. Metabolic Fate of Exogenous Coenzyme A in Animals

    V. Metabolic Functions of Coenzyme A

    References

    Chapter 2 Biotin

    I. Introduction

    II. Chemistry

    III. Biological Role of Biotin

    IV. Biotin Biosynthesis

    V. Biotin Degradation

    VI. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 3 Thiamine, Biosynthesis and Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Biosynthesis of Thiamine

    III. The Role of Thiamine

    References

    Chapter 4 Lipoic Acid

    I. Introduction

    II. Isolation and Some Properties

    III. Biosynthesis and Dissimilation

    IV. Summary of Metabolic Role

    References

    Chapter 5 Biochemistry of Glutathione

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural Occurrence of Glutathione and Related Compounds

    III. Determination of Glutathione

    IV. Biosynthesis of Glutathione

    V. Utilization of Glutathione and Related γ-Glutamyl Compounds by the γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase-Cyclotransferase-5-Oxoprolinase Pathway

    VI. Interconversion of Glutathione and Glutathione Disulfide

    VII. Function of Glutathione in Mercapturic Acid Formation

    VIII. Function of Glutathione as a Coenzyme

    IX. Functions of Glutathione in Certain Tissues and Cells

    X. Other Studies on Glutathione

    References

    Chapter 6 Covalent Adducts of Cysteine and Riboflavin

    I. Introduction

    II. 8α-Cysteinylflavin Thioethers

    III. 8α-Cysteinylflavin Thiohemiacetals

    IV. Metabolic Synthesis and Degradation of Covalently Bound Flavins

    References

    Chapter 7 Biochemistry of the Sulfur Cycle

    I. The Sulfur Cycle in Nature

    II. Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction

    III. Dissimilatory Sulfate Reduction

    IV. Chemolithotrophic Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Compounds

    V. Photolithotrophic Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Compounds

    VI. Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Compounds in Animals

    References

    Chapter 8 Sulfate Activation and Transfer

    I. Introduction

    II. Sulfate Activation

    III. Sulfate Transfer: The Sulfotransferases

    IV. Role of Sulfate Activation in Taurine Biosynthesis

    V. Other Mechanisms of Sulfation

    VI. Somatomedin (Sulfation Factor)

    References

    Chapter 9 Sulfohydrolases

    I. General Introduction

    II. Enzymes Hydrolyzing C-O-SO3- Linkages

    III. Enzymes Hydrolyzing P-O-SO3- Linkages

    IV. Enzymes Hydrolyzing N-O-SO3- Linkages

    V. Enzymes Hydrolyzing N-SO3- Linkages

    VI. General Comments

    VII. Addendum

    References

    Chapter 10 Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase and Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase

    I. Introduction

    II. Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase

    III. Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase

    References

    Chapter 11 Methionine Biosynthesis

    I. Introduction

    II. Enzymes and Control of Enzyme Activity in Reactions Unique to Methionine Biosynthesis

    III. Regulation of Enzyme Synthesis and Overall Methionine Control of Its Biosynthesis and Related Branch Pathways

    References

    Chapter 12 Biosynthesis of Cysteine and Cystine

    I. Introduction

    II. Synthesis of Cysteine by the Cysteine Synthase System

    III. The Cystathionine Pathway of Cysteine Biosynthesis

    IV. Cystathionine ß-Synthase of Rat Liver

    V. Cystathionine γ-Synthetase of Bacteria

    VI. γ-Cystathionase of Rat Liver

    VII. Oxidation of Cysteine to Cystine

    References

    Chapter 13 Utilization and Dissimilation of Methionine

    I. Introduction

    II. Role of Methionine in the Biosynthesis of Spermidine and Spermine

    III. Dissimilation of Methionine

    References

    Chapter 14 Oxidative Metabolism of Cysteine and Cystine in Animal Tissues

    I. Introduction

    II. Cytoplasmic Oxygenation of Cysteine to Cysteinesulfinic Acid

    III. Metabolic Fate of Cysteinesulfinic Acid

    IV. Mitochondrial Oxidation of Cysteine to Sulfate

    V. Catabolism of Cystine

    VI. Metabolic Origin of Taurine

    References

    Chapter 15 Enzyme Defects in Sulfur Amino Acid Metabolism in Man

    I. Introduction

    II. Cystathionine Synthase Deficiency

    III. Defects in Homocysteine Methylation

    IV. Cystathioninuria

    V. Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency

    VI. Hypermethioninemia

    VII. Conclusions

    References

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 636
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323162081

About the Author

David Greenberg

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