Metabolism and Interactions

Metabolism and Interactions

The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Editors: Endre A. Balazs, Roger W. Jeanloz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257655

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Description

The Amino Sugars: The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars, Volume IIB: Metabolism and Interactions takes a look at the chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry of naturally occurring and synthetically prepared amino sugars and amino sugar-containing molecules and the critical and interpretative account of the biological and medical importance of these molecules. The selection takes a look at the metabolism of amino sugars, glycosaminoglycans, and glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Topics include pathways of degradation, energy-utilizing reactions, catabolism, formation of macromolecules, and metabolism of moieties. The text then ponders on the effects of steroid hormones on the glycosaminoglycans of target connective tissues, hexosaminidases, and neuraminidases. The publication elaborates on enzymes degrading glycosaminoglycans, sulfatases of glycosaminoglycans, and activation and inhibition of enzymes by polyanions containing amino sugars. The manuscript also reviews the chemical and physical changes of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins caused by oxidation-reduction systems and radiation and interactions between glycoproteins and viruses. The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in amino sugars.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Preface

    Nomenclature

    Contents of Other Volumes

    Chapter 38 Metabolism of Amino Sugars

    I. Energy-Utilizing Reactions

    A. Hexosamine Synthesis

    B. N-Acetylation

    C. Kinases

    D. Mutases

    E. Synthesis and Reactions of UDP Sugars

    F. Neuraminic Acid Synthesis

    G. Lactobacillus Bifidus Factors

    H. Amino Sugars Other Than Glucosamine or Galactosamine

    I. Summary of Anabolic Pathways of Amino Sugar Metabolism

    II. Pathways of Degradation

    A. in Vivo Effects and Reactions

    B. Effects of Amino Sugars in Tissue Cultures

    C. Microbial Degradations

    D. Degradation of Amino Sugars by Tissue Slices and Homogenates

    E. Cell-Free Systems

    Addendum

    Chapter 39 Metabolism of Glycosaminoglycans

    I. Metabolism of Moieties

    A. Monosaccharide Moieties

    B. Sulfate

    C. Acetate

    II . Formation of Macromolecules

    A. General Discussion

    B. Sulfate Acceptors

    III. Formation of Individual Glycosaminoglycans

    A. Hyaluronic Acid

    B. Chondroitin

    C. Chondroitin 4-Sulfate

    D. Chondroitin 6-Sulfate

    E. Dermatan Sulfate

    F. Heparan Sulfate

    G. Heparin

    H. Keratan Sulfate

    I. Chitin

    IV. Catabolism

    Addendum

    Chapter 40 Metabolism of Glycoproteins, Glycopeptides, and Glycolipids

    I. Metabolism of Glycoproteins

    A. General Features

    B. Plasma Glycoproteins

    C. Glycoproteins in Various organs

    D. Glycoproteins with Blood-Group Activity

    E. Glycoproteins and Glycopeptides in Microorganisms and Other organisms

    II . Metabolism of Glycolipids

    III . General Comments

    Chapter 41 Effect of Steroid Hormones On The Glycosaminoglycons of Target Connective Tissues

    I. Rooster Comb

    A. Composition of The Normal Comb

    B. Capon Comb and The Mechanism of Hormone Response

    C. Factors Influencing The Comb Response To androgens

    II. Sexual Skin

    III . Other Target Connective Tissues

    A. Integument

    B. Accessory Reproductive Organs

    IV. Glycosaminoglycans and the Target Reaction

    Addendum

    Chapter 42 Hexosaminidases

    I . ß-N-Acetylhexosaminidase

    A. Occurrence

    B. Substrates and Methods of Determination

    C. Purification

    D. Kinetics

    E. Specificity

    F. Distribution in Tissues

    II. a-N-Acetylhexosaminidase

    A. Occurrence

    B. Methods of Determination

    C. Kinetics

    D. Specificity

    Addendum

    Chapter 43 Neuraminidases

    I. Occurrence

    II. Isolation, Purification, and Assay

    III. Properties

    A. Enzymic Properties

    B. Physical Properties

    C. Immunologie Properties



    Chapter 44 Enzymes Degrading Glycosaminoglycans

    I. Enzymes Degrading Chitin

    II. The Action of Lysozyme

    III. Enzymic Degradation of Hyaluronic Acid, Chondroitin, and Chondroitin Sulfates

    A. Action of Hyaluronidases in Vitro

    B. Action of Hyaluronidases in Vivo

    C. The Mode of Action and Sources of Various Types of Hyaluronidases

    D. Other Degrading Agents ihn Tissues

    E. Enzyme Inhibitors

    IV. Enzymic Degradation of Dermatan Sulfate

    V. Enzymic Degradation of Heparan Sulfate and Heparin

    VI. Enzymic Degradation of Keratan Sulfate

    VII. The Action of ß-Glucuronidase On Glycosaminoglycans

    Addendum

    Chapter 45 Sulfatases of Glycosaminoglycans

    I. Desulfation of Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans

    A. Enzymes Attacking Chondroitin 4-Sulfate and Chondroitin 6-Sulfate

    B. Enzymes Attacking Heparin and Heparan Sulfate

    C. Enzymes Attacking Dermatan Sulfate

    D. Enzymes Attacking Keratan Sulfate

    E. General Comments

    II. Desulfation of Sulfated N-Acetylhexosamines

    A. The Specificity of The Enzyme

    III. Enzymic Desulfation in Mammals

    Addendum

    Chapter 46 Activation and Inhibition of Enzymes by Polyanions Containing Amino Sugars

    I. Activation

    A. Glycosaminoglycans with Sulfate Groups

    B. Glycosaminoglycans with Free Amino Groups

    II. Inhibition

    A. The General Type: Macroanionic Enzyme Inhibition

    B. A Special Type: Activator Competitive Enzyme Inhibition

    Chapter 47 Chemical and Physical Changes of Glycosaminoglycans and Glycoproteins Caused by Oxidation-Reduction Systems and Radiation

    I. Oxidation-Reduction Systems

    A. Glycosaminoglycans

    B. Glycoproteins

    II. Radiation

    A. Glycosaminoglycans

    B. Biological Systems

    Chapter 48 Interaction of Polyanions with Blood Components

    I. Nonspecific Protein-Polyanion Complexes

    II. Specific Complexes Between Polyanions and Certain Proteins

    A. Interaction of Macromolecular Polyanions with Serum Lipoproteins

    B. Interaction of Polyanions with Fibrinogen

    III . Interaction of Polyanions with Blood Components as Observed By Physiological Changes

    A. Anticoagulant Activity of Heparin

    B. Anticoagulant Activity of Other Polyanions

    Chapter 49 Immunochemistry

    I. Blood Group Substances

    A. ?,?,?(?), and Lewis (Lea) Blood Group Substances

    B. M,N, and Lutheran Blood Group Substances

    C. I Blood Group Antigens

    D. P Blood Group Substances

    E. T Antigen

    F. Blood Group Substances of Animal origin

    G. Heterogenetic Infectious Mononucleosis Receptor

    H. Blood Group Active Substances of Bacteria and Higher Plants

    I. Blood Group Chimerism and Acquired Tolerance

    J. Transient Acquisition of Blood Antigens By Human Erythrocytes

    II . Hormones

    A. Chorionic Gonadotropin

    B. Thyroglobulin

    III . Glycoproteins in Body Fluids

    A. Urinary Glycoproteins and Related Virus Inhibitors

    B. Plasma Glycoproteins

    IV. Amyloid

    V. Gangliosides and Related Lipids

    VI. Glycoproteins of Hen Egg White

    VII. Fertilizin and Antifertilizin

    VIII. Microbial Polysaccharides

    A. Gram-Positive Bacteria

    B. Mycobacteria

    C. Gram-Negative Bacteria

    IX. Substances of Viruses and Rickettsiae with Potential Antigenicity

    X. Fungi

    XI. Protozoa

    XII. Macromolecular Compounds without Known Antigenic Properties

    XIII. Immunochemistry in Amino Sugar Research

    Chapter 50 Interaction Between Glycoproteins and Viruses

    I. Interaction Between Influenza Virus and Cellular Receptor

    II. Soluble Glycoproteins As Receptor Analogues: Their Composition, Structure, Inhibitory Capacity, and Enzymatic Inactivation

    III. The Mode of Action of Influenza Virus and RDE On Inhibitory and Noninhibitory Glycoproteins

    A. Sialic Acid as Split Product

    B. Characterization of The Viral and Vibrio Enzymes as A-Neuraminidases

    IV. Definition in Structural Terms of A Glycoprotein Inhibiting Viral Hemagglutination

    V. Association Between Some Other Viruses and Hexosamine-Containing Substances

    VI. Inactivation of Hormonal Glycoproteins by Viral and Bacterial Neuraminidases

    Addendum

    Chapter 51 Interaction of Amino Sugars and Amino Sugar-Containing Macromolecules with Viruses, Cells, and Tissues

    Introduction

    I. Viral and Bacterial Growth

    A. Viruses

    B. Bacteria

    II Pseudopodium Formation in Amoeba

    III. Fertilization, Growth, and Wound Healing

    A. Fertilization of Eggs

    B. Tissue Growth

    C. Wound Healing

    IV. Animal Metabolism

    A. General Metabolic Effects

    B. Effect of Hexosamines On Alligators

    V. Neoplastic Transformation and Growth

    A. Cell Surface, Cohesion, and Mobility

    B. Effect on Growth

    Addendum

    Bibliography and Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 534
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483257655

About the Editors

Endre A. Balazs

Roger W. Jeanloz

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