Metabolism and Interactions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483229287, 9781483257655

Metabolism and Interactions

1st Edition

The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars

Editors: Endre A. Balazs Roger W. Jeanloz
eBook ISBN: 9781483257655
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 534
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Description

The Amino Sugars: The Chemistry and Biology of Compounds Containing Amino Sugars, Volume IIB: Metabolism and Interactions takes a look at the chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry of naturally occurring and synthetically prepared amino sugars and amino sugar-containing molecules and the critical and interpretative account of the biological and medical importance of these molecules. The selection takes a look at the metabolism of amino sugars, glycosaminoglycans, and glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. Topics include pathways of degradation, energy-utilizing reactions, catabolism, formation of macromolecules, and metabolism of moieties. The text then ponders on the effects of steroid hormones on the glycosaminoglycans of target connective tissues, hexosaminidases, and neuraminidases.
The publication elaborates on enzymes degrading glycosaminoglycans, sulfatases of glycosaminoglycans, and activation and inhibition of enzymes by polyanions containing amino sugars. The manuscript also reviews the chemical and physical changes of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins caused by oxidation-reduction systems and radiation and interactions between glycoproteins and viruses.
The selection is a dependable reference for readers interested in amino sugars.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Nomenclature

Contents of Other Volumes

Chapter 38 Metabolism of Amino Sugars

I. Energy-Utilizing Reactions

A. Hexosamine Synthesis

B. N-Acetylation

C. Kinases

D. Mutases

E. Synthesis and Reactions of UDP Sugars

F. Neuraminic Acid Synthesis

G. Lactobacillus Bifidus Factors

H. Amino Sugars Other Than Glucosamine or Galactosamine

I. Summary of Anabolic Pathways of Amino Sugar Metabolism

II. Pathways of Degradation

A. in Vivo Effects and Reactions

B. Effects of Amino Sugars in Tissue Cultures

C. Microbial Degradations

D. Degradation of Amino Sugars by Tissue Slices and Homogenates

E. Cell-Free Systems

Addendum

Chapter 39 Metabolism of Glycosaminoglycans

I. Metabolism of Moieties

A. Monosaccharide Moieties

B. Sulfate

C. Acetate

II . Formation of Macromolecules

A. General Discussion

B. Sulfate Acceptors

III. Formation of Individual Glycosaminoglycans

A. Hyaluronic Acid

B. Chondroitin

C. Chondroitin 4-Sulfate

D. Chondroitin 6-Sulfate

E. Dermatan Sulfate

F. Heparan Sulfate

G. Heparin

H. Keratan Sulfate

I. Chitin

IV. Catabolism

Addendum

Chapter 40 Metabolism of Glycoproteins, Glycopeptides, and Glycolipids

I. Metabolism of Glycoproteins

A. General Features

B. Plasma Glycoproteins

C. Glycoproteins in Various organs

D. Glycoproteins with Blood-Group Activity

E. Glycoproteins and Glycopeptides in Microorganisms and Other organisms

II . Metabolism of Glycolipids

III . General Comments

Chapter 41 Effect of Steroid Hormones On The Glycosaminoglycons of Target Connective Tissues

I. Rooster Comb

A. Composition of The Normal Comb

B. Capon Comb and The Mechanism of Hormone Response

C. Factors Influencing The Comb Response To androgens

II. Sexual Skin

III . Other Target Connective Tissues

A. Integument

B. Accessory Reproductive Organs

IV. Glycosaminoglycans and the Target Reaction

Addendum

Chapter 42 Hexosaminidases

I . ß-N-Acetylhexosaminidase

A. Occurrence

B. Substrates and Methods of Determination

C. Purification

D. Kinetics

E. Specificity

F. Distribution in Tissues

II. a-N-Acetylhexosaminidase

A. Occurrence

B. Methods of Determination

C. Kinetics

D. Specificity

Addendum

Chapter 43 Neuraminidases

I. Occurrence

II. Isolation, Purification, and Assay

III. Properties

A. Enzymic Properties

B. Physical Properties

C. Immunologie Properties



Chapter 44 Enzymes Degrading Glycosaminoglycans

I. Enzymes Degrading Chitin

II. The Action of Lysozyme

III. Enzymic Degradation of Hyaluronic Acid, Chondroitin, and Chondroitin Sulfates

A. Action of Hyaluronidases in Vitro

B. Action of Hyaluronidases in Vivo

C. The Mode of Action and Sources of Various Types of Hyaluronidases

D. Other Degrading Agents ihn Tissues

E. Enzyme Inhibitors

IV. Enzymic Degradation of Dermatan Sulfate

V. Enzymic Degradation of Heparan Sulfate and Heparin

VI. Enzymic Degradation of Keratan Sulfate

VII. The Action of ß-Glucuronidase On Glycosaminoglycans

Addendum

Chapter 45 Sulfatases of Glycosaminoglycans

I. Desulfation of Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans

A. Enzymes Attacking Chondroitin 4-Sulfate and Chondroitin 6-Sulfate

B. Enzymes Attacking Heparin and Heparan Sulfate

C. Enzymes Attacking Dermatan Sulfate

D. Enzymes Attacking Keratan Sulfate

E. General Comments

II. Desulfation of Sulfated N-Acetylhexosamines

A. The Specificity of The Enzyme

III. Enzymic Desulfation in Mammals

Addendum

Chapter 46 Activation and Inhibition of Enzymes by Polyanions Containing Amino Sugars

I. Activation

A. Glycosaminoglycans with Sulfate Groups

B. Glycosaminoglycans with Free Amino Groups

II. Inhibition

A. The General Type: Macroanionic Enzyme Inhibition

B. A Special Type: Activator Competitive Enzyme Inhibition

Chapter 47 Chemical and Physical Changes of Glycosaminoglycans and Glycoproteins Caused by Oxidation-Reduction Systems and Radiation

I. Oxidation-Reduction Systems

A. Glycosaminoglycans

B. Glycoproteins

II. Radiation

A. Glycosaminoglycans

B. Biological Systems

Chapter 48 Interaction of Polyanions with Blood Components

I. Nonspecific Protein-Polyanion Complexes

II. Specific Complexes Between Polyanions and Certain Proteins

A. Interaction of Macromolecular Polyanions with Serum Lipoproteins

B. Interaction of Polyanions with Fibrinogen

III . Interaction of Polyanions with Blood Components as Observed By Physiological Changes

A. Anticoagulant Activity of Heparin

B. Anticoagulant Activity of Other Polyanions

Chapter 49 Immunochemistry

I. Blood Group Substances

A. ?,?,?(?), and Lewis (Lea) Blood Group Substances

B. M,N, and Lutheran Blood Group Substances

C. I Blood Group Antigens

D. P Blood Group Substances

E. T Antigen

F. Blood Group Substances of Animal origin

G. Heterogenetic Infectious Mononucleosis Receptor

H. Blood Group Active Substances of Bacteria and Higher Plants

I. Blood Group Chimerism and Acquired Tolerance

J. Transient Acquisition of Blood Antigens By Human Erythrocytes

II . Hormones

A. Chorionic Gonadotropin

B. Thyroglobulin

III . Glycoproteins in Body Fluids

A. Urinary Glycoproteins and Related Virus Inhibitors

B. Plasma Glycoproteins

IV. Amyloid

V. Gangliosides and Related Lipids

VI. Glycoproteins of Hen Egg White

VII. Fertilizin and Antifertilizin

VIII. Microbial Polysaccharides

A. Gram-Positive Bacteria

B. Mycobacteria

C. Gram-Negative Bacteria

IX. Substances of Viruses and Rickettsiae with Potential Antigenicity

X. Fungi

XI. Protozoa

XII. Macromolecular Compounds without Known Antigenic Properties

XIII. Immunochemistry in Amino Sugar Research

Chapter 50 Interaction Between Glycoproteins and Viruses

I. Interaction Between Influenza Virus and Cellular Receptor

II. Soluble Glycoproteins As Receptor Analogues: Their Composition, Structure, Inhibitory Capacity, and Enzymatic Inactivation

III. The Mode of Action of Influenza Virus and RDE On Inhibitory and Noninhibitory Glycoproteins

A. Sialic Acid as Split Product

B. Characterization of The Viral and Vibrio Enzymes as A-Neuraminidases

IV. Definition in Structural Terms of A Glycoprotein Inhibiting Viral Hemagglutination

V. Association Between Some Other Viruses and Hexosamine-Containing Substances

VI. Inactivation of Hormonal Glycoproteins by Viral and Bacterial Neuraminidases

Addendum

Chapter 51 Interaction of Amino Sugars and Amino Sugar-Containing Macromolecules with Viruses, Cells, and Tissues

Introduction

I. Viral and Bacterial Growth

A. Viruses

B. Bacteria

II Pseudopodium Formation in Amoeba

III. Fertilization, Growth, and Wound Healing

A. Fertilization of Eggs

B. Tissue Growth

C. Wound Healing

IV. Animal Metabolism

A. General Metabolic Effects

B. Effect of Hexosamines On Alligators

V. Neoplastic Transformation and Growth

A. Cell Surface, Cohesion, and Mobility

B. Effect on Growth

Addendum

Bibliography and Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
534
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1966
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483257655

About the Editor

Endre A. Balazs

Roger W. Jeanloz