Metabolism and Growth

Metabolism and Growth

1st Edition - January 1, 1960

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  • Editor: Talbot Waterman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143400

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Description

The Physiology of Crustacea, Volume I: Metabolism and Growth deals with the physiological aspects of metabolism and growth in hundreds of species and higher taxa of Crustacea. The book explores processes related to the morphology and development of crustaceans, from blood chemistry to feeding and nutrition, digestion, excretion, molting, autotomy, and regeneration. This volume is organized into 17 chapters and begins with an overview of crustacean biology and systematics as well as ontogeny and phylogeny. The book then discusses the metabolic requirements of crustacean respiration, the mechanisms of gas exchange, and respiratory transport. The next chapters focus on the biochemistry of animal pigments such as hemoglobin and melanin and the crustacean blood chemistry, blood flow, heart function, feeding mechanisms, and vitamin contents. The book also discusses the digestive system of crustaceans, along with osmotic and ionic regulation; the excretory system; the link between ecology and metabolism; and sex differentiation in Crustacea. This book is written primarily for biologists, physiologists, and zoologists, as well as advanced students and research workers who are interested in problems of comparative physiology.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors and Chapter List, Volume I

    Contributors and Chapter List, Volume II

    Preface

    Chapter 1. General Crustacean Biology

    I. Diagnostic Features of the Class

    II. Comparative Morphology

    A. Basic Type

    B. Advanced Types

    C. Extreme Types

    III. Development

    A. Embryonic

    B. Postembryonic

    IV. Ecology

    V. Systematics

    VI. Evolution

    References

    Chapter 2. Respiration

    I. Introduction

    II. Metabolic Requirements

    A. Substrate

    B. Metabolic Rate

    III. Mechanisms for Gas Exchange

    A. Respiratory Organs

    B. Ventilation

    IV. Respiratory Transport

    A. Techniques

    B. Oxygen Transport

    C. Carbon Dioxide transport

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3. Biochemistry of Pigments

    I. Introduction

    II. Hemoglobin and Related Pigments

    A. Introduction

    Β. Distribution

    C. General Properties

    D. Factors Controlling Formation

    E. Metabolism

    F. Function

    G. Comparison with Hemoglobin from Other Animal Groups

    III. Hemocyanins

    A. Definition and Distribution

    B. Physical and Chemical Properties

    C. Functions

    D. Comparison with Other Hemocyanins

    E. Unsolved Problems

    IV. Carotenoids

    A. Introduction

    B. Nature and Distribution

    C. Localization

    D. Specific Chromoproteins

    E. Metabolism

    F. Source of Astaxanthin

    G. Functions

    H. Comparison with Other Animal Groups

    V. Riboflavin and Derivatives

    A. Introduction

    B. Distribution

    C. Excretion

    VI. Pteridines

    A. Introduction

    B. Distribution

    C. Biosynthesis

    D. Function

    VII. Melanins

    A. Introduction

    B. Distribution

    C. Formation

    VIII. Ommochromes

    A. Introduction

    B. Distribution

    C. Function

    IX. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 4. Blood Chemistry

    I. Introduction

    II. Blood Constituents

    A. Inorganic Components

    B. Organic Composition

    III. Blood Cycles in Molting

    IV. Comparisons and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5. Circulation and Heart Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Circulatory System

    A. Blood Vessels

    B. Hemolymph

    C. Circulation

    III. Heart

    A. Structural

    B. Functional

    IV. Comparison with Other Circulatory Systems

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 6. Feeding and Nutrition

    I. Introduction

    II. Feeding

    A. Filter Feeders

    B. Scavengers and Vegetarians

    C. Predators

    D. Parasites

    III. Food Requirements

    A. Nature of Food

    B. Amount of Food

    IV. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 7. Vitamins

    I. Introduction

    II. Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    A. Vitamin A

    B. Vitamin D

    C. Vitamin Ε

    D. Vitamin Κ

    Ε. Essential Fatty Acids

    III. Water-Soluble Vitamins

    A. Thiamine

    B. Riboflavin

    C. Nicotinamide

    D. Pyridoxine

    E. Pantothenic Acid

    F. Choline

    G. Inositol

    H. Biotin

    I. p-Aminobenzoic Acid

    J. Vitamin B12

    K. Vitamin BT

    L. Vitamin C

    IV. Vitamins in Crustacean Physiology

    V. Crustacea as a Source of Vitamins for Predators

    VI. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8. Digestion and Metabolism

    I. Organization of the Digestive System

    A. Anatomy of the Alimentary Canal

    B. Hepatopancreas

    II. Digestion

    A. Mechanical Factors

    B. Chemical Factors

    C. Secretion

    D. Absorption

    III. Metabolism

    A. Composition of the Body

    B. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Muscle

    C. Energy Sources and Metabolite Interconversion

    D. Protein and Nitrogen Metabolism

    E. Various Metabolic Processes

    F. Hormonal Effects on Metabolism

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9. Osmotic and Ionic Regulation

    I. Introduction

    II. Osmotic Equilibrium

    A. Definition

    B. Occurrence in Group

    C. Mechanism of Ionic Regulation

    III. Osmotic Regulation

    A. Definition

    B. Marine and Brackish-Water Forms

    C. Fresh-Water Forms

    D. Other Cases

    IV. General and Comparative Considerations

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 10. Excretion

    I. Introduction

    II. Intermediary Metabolism of Nitrogen

    A. Nitrogen Metabolism

    B. Excretory Products

    III. Urine Formation

    A. Comparison of Blood and Urine

    Β. Flow Rates

    C. Mechanism of Production

    IV. Other Sites of Excretion

    A. Gills

    B. Digestive Glands and Gut

    C. Integument

    D. Nephrocytes and Nephrophagocytes

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. Terrestrial Adaptations

    I. Introduction

    II. Adaptive Problems and Their Solution

    A. Water Relations

    B. Respiration

    C. Temperature Requirements

    D. Locomotion

    III. Distribution within the Habitat

    A. Effects of Temperature and Humidity

    B. Orienting Mechanisms

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 12. Ecology and Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Geographic Variation

    A. Effect of Terrestrial Habitat

    B. Effect of Latitude

    III. Environmental Influences

    A. Temperature

    B. Osmotic Changes

    C. Respiratory Stress

    D. Special Environments

    E. Seasonal Stresses

    IV. Metabolic Effects of Parasites

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 13. Sex Determination

    I. Introduction

    II. Types of Reproduction

    III. Genetic Sex Determination

    A. Sex Chromosomes

    B. Monogeny

    C. Polyploidy 5 D. Influence of External Factors

    D. Influence of External Factors

    IV. Sexual Differentiation

    A. Sexual Dimorphism

    B. Parasitic Castration

    C. Control of Maleness by the Androgenic Gland

    D. Hormonal Control of Femaleness

    E. Influence of External Factors

    V. Intersexuality

    VI. Role of the X-Organ Sinus Gland and Complex and of the Y-Organ

    VII. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Integument and Exoskeleton

    I. Introduction

    II. Functional Morphology of the Skeleton

    A. Articulation and Arthrodial Membranes

    B. Apodemes and Tendons

    C. Endophragmal Skeleton

    D. Spines and Setae

    E. Other Modifications of the Cuticle

    III. Structure of the Cuticle

    A. Stratification and Other Microstructure

    B. Molecular Constituents and Organization

    C. Biochemical Components

    IV. Molting and Growth

    V. Permeability of the Cuticle

    VI. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 15. Molting and Its Control

    I. Introduction

    II. Intermolt Cycle

    A. Concept

    B. Classification

    C. Molt Initiation

    D. Proecdysis

    E. Ecdysis

    F. Postecdysis Stages

    III. Control of the Molting Cycle

    A. Proecdysis Initiation

    B. Other Activities Associated with Molting

    C. Molting Hormone Control of Nonmolting Activities

    D. Chemical Nature of Molt-Cycle Hormones

    E. Comparison of Crustacean and Insect Molt Control

    IV. Larval Molting and Metamorphosis

    V. Molting in Non-Decapod Crustaceans

    VI. Summary

    References

    Chapter 16. Relative Growth

    I. The Facts of Allometry

    A. Types of Relative Growth

    B. Relative Growth in Crustaceans

    C. Interpretation of the Allometric Relation

    II. Allometry and Variability

    A. Biometric Interpretation of Allometry

    B. Choice of a Reference Dimension

    C. Analysis of General and Special Growth Factors

    III. Various Examples of Allometric Analysis

    A. Gradients and Growth Centers

    B. Relative Growth and Sexuality

    C. Allometry and Taxonomy

    D. Allometry and Genetics

    IV. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 17. Autonomy and Regeneration

    I. Autotomy

    A. Introduction

    B. Occurrence of Autotomy

    C. The Process of Autotomy

    D. Value of Autotomy

    E. Comparison with Other Animals

    II. Regeneration

    A. Introduction

    B. Occurrence of Regeneration

    C. The Regeneration Process

    D. Factors Controlling Regeneration

    E. Comparison with Other Animals

    F. Conclusions

    References

    Author Index

    Systematic Index (Including Synonymy)

    Subject Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 688
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1960
  • Published: January 1, 1960
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323143400

About the Editor

Talbot Waterman

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