Metabolism and Growth - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956286, 9780323143400

Metabolism and Growth

1st Edition

Editors: Talbot Waterman
eBook ISBN: 9780323143400
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1960
Page Count: 688
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Description

The Physiology of Crustacea, Volume I: Metabolism and Growth deals with the physiological aspects of metabolism and growth in hundreds of species and higher taxa of Crustacea. The book explores processes related to the morphology and development of crustaceans, from blood chemistry to feeding and nutrition, digestion, excretion, molting, autotomy, and regeneration. This volume is organized into 17 chapters and begins with an overview of crustacean biology and systematics as well as ontogeny and phylogeny. The book then discusses the metabolic requirements of crustacean respiration, the mechanisms of gas exchange, and respiratory transport. The next chapters focus on the biochemistry of animal pigments such as hemoglobin and melanin and the crustacean blood chemistry, blood flow, heart function, feeding mechanisms, and vitamin contents. The book also discusses the digestive system of crustaceans, along with osmotic and ionic regulation; the excretory system; the link between ecology and metabolism; and sex differentiation in Crustacea. This book is written primarily for biologists, physiologists, and zoologists, as well as advanced students and research workers who are interested in problems of comparative physiology.

Table of Contents


Contributors and Chapter List, Volume I

Contributors and Chapter List, Volume II

Preface

Chapter 1. General Crustacean Biology

I. Diagnostic Features of the Class

II. Comparative Morphology

A. Basic Type

B. Advanced Types

C. Extreme Types

III. Development

A. Embryonic

B. Postembryonic

IV. Ecology

V. Systematics

VI. Evolution

References

Chapter 2. Respiration

I. Introduction

II. Metabolic Requirements

A. Substrate

B. Metabolic Rate

III. Mechanisms for Gas Exchange

A. Respiratory Organs

B. Ventilation

IV. Respiratory Transport

A. Techniques

B. Oxygen Transport

C. Carbon Dioxide transport

V. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 3. Biochemistry of Pigments

I. Introduction

II. Hemoglobin and Related Pigments

A. Introduction

Β. Distribution

C. General Properties

D. Factors Controlling Formation

E. Metabolism

F. Function

G. Comparison with Hemoglobin from Other Animal Groups

III. Hemocyanins

A. Definition and Distribution

B. Physical and Chemical Properties

C. Functions

D. Comparison with Other Hemocyanins

E. Unsolved Problems

IV. Carotenoids

A. Introduction

B. Nature and Distribution

C. Localization

D. Specific Chromoproteins

E. Metabolism

F. Source of Astaxanthin

G. Functions

H. Comparison with Other Animal Groups

V. Riboflavin and Derivatives

A. Introduction

B. Distribution

C. Excretion

VI. Pteridines

A. Introduction

B. Distribution

C. Biosynthesis

D. Function

VII. Melanins

A. Introduction

B. Distribution

C. Formation

VIII. Ommochromes

A. Introduction

B. Distribution

C. Function

IX. Conclusions

References

Chapter 4. Blood Chemistry

I. Introduction

II. Blood Constituents

A. Inorganic Components

B. Organic Composition

III. Blood Cycles in Molting

IV. Comparisons and Conclusions

References

Chapter 5. Circulation and Heart Function

I. Introduction

II. Circulatory System

A. Blood Vessels

B. Hemolymph

C. Circulation

III. Heart

A. Structural

B. Functional

IV. Comparison with Other Circulatory Systems

V. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 6. Feeding and Nutrition

I. Introduction

II. Feeding

A. Filter Feeders

B. Scavengers and Vegetarians

C. Predators

D. Parasites

III. Food Requirements

A. Nature of Food

B. Amount of Food

IV. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 7. Vitamins

I. Introduction

II. Fat-Soluble Vitamins

A. Vitamin A

B. Vitamin D

C. Vitamin Ε

D. Vitamin Κ

Ε. Essential Fatty Acids

III. Water-Soluble Vitamins

A. Thiamine

B. Riboflavin

C. Nicotinamide

D. Pyridoxine

E. Pantothenic Acid

F. Choline

G. Inositol

H. Biotin

I. p-Aminobenzoic Acid

J. Vitamin B12

K. Vitamin BT

L. Vitamin C

IV. Vitamins in Crustacean Physiology

V. Crustacea as a Source of Vitamins for Predators

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 8. Digestion and Metabolism

I. Organization of the Digestive System

A. Anatomy of the Alimentary Canal

B. Hepatopancreas

II. Digestion

A. Mechanical Factors

B. Chemical Factors

C. Secretion

D. Absorption

III. Metabolism

A. Composition of the Body

B. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Muscle

C. Energy Sources and Metabolite Interconversion

D. Protein and Nitrogen Metabolism

E. Various Metabolic Processes

F. Hormonal Effects on Metabolism

IV. Conclusions

References

Chapter 9. Osmotic and Ionic Regulation

I. Introduction

II. Osmotic Equilibrium

A. Definition

B. Occurrence in Group

C. Mechanism of Ionic Regulation

III. Osmotic Regulation

A. Definition

B. Marine and Brackish-Water Forms

C. Fresh-Water Forms

D. Other Cases

IV. General and Comparative Considerations

V. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 10. Excretion

I. Introduction

II. Intermediary Metabolism of Nitrogen

A. Nitrogen Metabolism

B. Excretory Products

III. Urine Formation

A. Comparison of Blood and Urine

Β. Flow Rates

C. Mechanism of Production

IV. Other Sites of Excretion

A. Gills

B. Digestive Glands and Gut

C. Integument

D. Nephrocytes and Nephrophagocytes

V. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 11. Terrestrial Adaptations

I. Introduction

II. Adaptive Problems and Their Solution

A. Water Relations

B. Respiration

C. Temperature Requirements

D. Locomotion

III. Distribution within the Habitat

A. Effects of Temperature and Humidity

B. Orienting Mechanisms

IV. Conclusions

References

Chapter 12. Ecology and Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Geographic Variation

A. Effect of Terrestrial Habitat

B. Effect of Latitude

III. Environmental Influences

A. Temperature

B. Osmotic Changes

C. Respiratory Stress

D. Special Environments

E. Seasonal Stresses

IV. Metabolic Effects of Parasites

V. Conclusions

References

Chapter 13. Sex Determination

I. Introduction

II. Types of Reproduction

III. Genetic Sex Determination

A. Sex Chromosomes

B. Monogeny

C. Polyploidy 5 D. Influence of External Factors

D. Influence of External Factors

IV. Sexual Differentiation

A. Sexual Dimorphism

B. Parasitic Castration

C. Control of Maleness by the Androgenic Gland

D. Hormonal Control of Femaleness

E. Influence of External Factors

V. Intersexuality

VI. Role of the X-Organ Sinus Gland and Complex and of the Y-Organ

VII. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Integument and Exoskeleton

I. Introduction

II. Functional Morphology of the Skeleton

A. Articulation and Arthrodial Membranes

B. Apodemes and Tendons

C. Endophragmal Skeleton

D. Spines and Setae

E. Other Modifications of the Cuticle

III. Structure of the Cuticle

A. Stratification and Other Microstructure

B. Molecular Constituents and Organization

C. Biochemical Components

IV. Molting and Growth

V. Permeability of the Cuticle

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

Chapter 15. Molting and Its Control

I. Introduction

II. Intermolt Cycle

A. Concept

B. Classification

C. Molt Initiation

D. Proecdysis

E. Ecdysis

F. Postecdysis Stages

III. Control of the Molting Cycle

A. Proecdysis Initiation

B. Other Activities Associated with Molting

C. Molting Hormone Control of Nonmolting Activities

D. Chemical Nature of Molt-Cycle Hormones

E. Comparison of Crustacean and Insect Molt Control

IV. Larval Molting and Metamorphosis

V. Molting in Non-Decapod Crustaceans

VI. Summary

References

Chapter 16. Relative Growth

I. The Facts of Allometry

A. Types of Relative Growth

B. Relative Growth in Crustaceans

C. Interpretation of the Allometric Relation

II. Allometry and Variability

A. Biometric Interpretation of Allometry

B. Choice of a Reference Dimension

C. Analysis of General and Special Growth Factors

III. Various Examples of Allometric Analysis

A. Gradients and Growth Centers

B. Relative Growth and Sexuality

C. Allometry and Taxonomy

D. Allometry and Genetics

IV. Conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Autonomy and Regeneration

I. Autotomy

A. Introduction

B. Occurrence of Autotomy

C. The Process of Autotomy

D. Value of Autotomy

E. Comparison with Other Animals

II. Regeneration

A. Introduction

B. Occurrence of Regeneration

C. The Regeneration Process

D. Factors Controlling Regeneration

E. Comparison with Other Animals

F. Conclusions

References

Author Index

Systematic Index (Including Synonymy)

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
688
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1960
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323143400

About the Editor

Talbot Waterman