Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128031025, 9780128031032

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators

1st Edition

Editors: Marcela Bolontrade Mariana García
eBook ISBN: 9780128031032
Paperback ISBN: 9780128031025
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th November 2016
Page Count: 642
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Description

Mesenchymal stromal/ stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous cell population with immunomodulating, tissue repairing, differentiating, migratory and angiogenic abilities, making them important tools for clinical and translational research. An understanding of the role of MSCs in modulating tumor growth provides a glimpse into their role in non-pathological tissue remodeling and potential regenerative tissue therapies.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators is a comprehensive source for the understanding of the role of MSCs as ubiquitous connective tissue cell components, which may have both direct and indirect effects on the tumor microenvironment and potential for regenerative therapeutics for various diseases. Using cancer as a model disease, this book explores the transformative role MSCs play in the recruitment of disease cells, cell repair and immunological defenses.

Key Features

  • Explores the biology of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and tissue related function
  • Discusses the bidirectional communication between tumor stroma and MSCs derived from bone
    marrow, from adipose tissue and from other tissue types
  • Provides in-depth analysis of the effects of MSCs on key processes that regulate disease progression,
    such as angiogenesis, metastatic potential, invasion, proliferation, tumor immune privileges

Readership

Stem cell biologists; cancer biologists; immunologists; clinical investigators and PI across biomedical research

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • 1. What Are Mesenchymal Stromal Cells? Origin and Discovery of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
    • Introduction
    • The Discovery of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Bone Marrow
    • How to Isolate Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
    • The Essential Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
    • The Biological Functions of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
    • Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Do Not Reside Exclusively in the Bone Marrow
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 2. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells From Adult Tissues
    • Introduction
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Bone Marrow
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Adipose Tissue
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Menstrual Blood
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Dental Pulp
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Skeletal Muscle
    • Conclusion
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 3. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells From Neonatal Tissues
    • Introduction
    • Development of Neonatal MSC Tissue Sources
    • Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells (P-MSCs)
    • Umbilical Cord Stroma Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UCS-MSCs)
    • Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UCB-MSCs)
    • Clinical Perspectives
    • Conclusion
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 4. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells
    • Introduction
    • Pluripotent Stem Cells
    • Biological Pathways Involved in Mesoderm Formation
    • Derivation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells From Pluripotent Stem Cells
    • Pluripotent-Derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Characterization
    • Experimental Therapy With PD-MSCs
    • Concluding Remarks and Future Directions
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 5. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells as Biological Factories
    • Introduction
    • MSCs as Factories of Active Soluble Molecules
    • MSCs as Factories of Extracellular Vesicles
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 6. MSC Recruitment From Distant and Local Tissues in Homeostasis and Tissue Remodeling
    • Introduction
    • MSC Distribution and Engraftment After Transplantation
    • Who Are the Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vivo?
    • A Model for the Action of Local MSCs (and Pericytes) During Tissue Repair
    • Strategies for the Use of MSCs to Treat Injuries
    • Conclusions and Remarks
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 7. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Trafficking and Homing
    • Introduction
    • MSC Migration, Homing, and Therapeutic Potential
    • MSCs and Tumor Microenvironment
    • Discrepancies in Pro/Antitumor Promoting Roles of MSC Homing to Tumors
    • Conclusion
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 8. Tumor-Secreted Factors That Induce Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Chemotaxis
    • Introduction
    • Peptide Signaling Molecules
    • Nitric Oxide: A Nonpeptide Signaling Molecule
    • Other Signaling Mechanisms
    • Hypoxic Tumor Microenvironment
    • Irradiated Tumor Microenvironment
    • Conclusions
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Recruitment by Gastrointestinal Carcinomas
    • Introduction
    • Cellular and Tissue Sources of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
    • Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Biodistribution upon Systemic Administration
    • Migratory Axis in Cancer
    • Mechanisms and Factors Involved in MSC Migration Toward Gastrointestinal Carcinomas
    • MSC Effect on Tumor Growth and Metastasis
    • MSCs for the Treatment of GIC
    • Conclusions
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 10. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Recruitment by Central Nervous System Tumors
    • Introduction
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Are Recruited Into Brain Tumors
    • Mechanisms Underlying Tropism of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells for Central Nervous System Tumors
    • The Role of Endogenous, Naturally Recruited Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Glioma Biology
    • Exogenous Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells as Therapeutic Delivery Vehicles of Antiglioma Agents
    • Conclusions and Prospects for Clinical Use of Bone Marrow-Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Glioma Therapy
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 11. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transition to Tumor-Associated Stromal Cells Contributes to Cancer Progression
    • Introduction
    • Origins of Tumor-Recruited Stroma
    • Tumor-Associated Fibroblasts
    • Cellular Origins of Tumor-Associated Stroma
    • Tumor-Associated Fibroblast Markers
    • Conclusion
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Tumor Angiogenesis
    • Introduction
    • MSCs in Normal and Neoplastic Microenvironments
    • Tumor Tropism of MSCs
    • MSCs Are Involved in Tumor Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis
    • Role of MSCs Residing in Tumors of Specific Organs: A Summary With Emphasis on the Angiogenic Modulation
    • Differential Effects of MSCs in Tumor Angiogenesis According to MSC Source and Culture Conditions
    • Molecular Mechanisms Involved in MSC-Mediated Tumor Angiogenesis
    • Antitumor Effects of MSCs
    • Conclusions
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 13. Role of MSCs in Antitumor Drug Resistance
    • Introduction
    • Resistance Mechanisms Revealed Upon Direct Contact With Tumor Cells
    • Mechanisms of Resistance Related to the Secretion of Soluble Factors
    • Increased Expression of Antiapoptotic Proteins
    • Effect of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells on Gene Expression
    • Discussion
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 14. Multifunctional Roles of Tumor-Associated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cancer Progression
    • Introduction
    • Biological Influences of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells on Cancer Cells
    • Multiple Forms of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell–Cancer Cell Crosstalk in Malignancy
    • Cancer Cell MSC Mimicry
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells as Cells-of-Origin for Sarcomas and Carcinomas
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Cancer Therapy
    • Conclusions
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Regulators of the Bone Marrow and Bone Components
    • General Concepts of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells
    • Hematopoiesis
    • Bone Marrow and Osteolineage Cells
    • MSCs and Other Stromal Cells
    • Different Functional Characteristics of Cells Residing in Different Bone Locations
    • The Hematopoietic Niche
    • Skeletal and Hematopoietic Stem Cell “Niches” in the Bone
    • Role of Osteoblasts and MSCs in the Osteoclastogenesis Process
    • Signaling Pathways That Govern Osteoblast Turnover
    • Osteoclasts and Bone Resorption
    • Osteoclasts in the Formation of the Hematopoietic Niche in the Bone Marrow/Bone
    • Morphologycal, Phenotypical, and Functional Characteristics of Bone Marrow MSCs: Importance in the Regulation of Osteogenesis, Osteoclastogenesis, and Bone Resorption Processes
    • Tumor Cell Interactions With the Bone Marrow/Bone Microenvironment: Premetastatic and Metastatic Niches
    • Bone Marrow/Bone Premetastatic Niche: Finding a “Fertile Soil” for Breast Cancer Cells. Importance of MSCs in Untreated Advanced Breast Cancer Patients
    • Concluding Remarks
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 16. The Bone Marrow Microenvironment as a Regulator of Tumor Dormancy
    • Introduction
    • Tumor Microenvironment as a Niche for Disseminated Tumor Cells
    • Clinical Relevance of Disseminated/Circulating Tumor Cells
    • Molecular Characteristics of Disseminated/Circulating Tumor Cells
    • Concept of Dormancy of Disseminated/Circulating Tumor Cells
    • Regulation of Cellular Dormancy by the Tumor Microenvironment
    • Role of Fibroblasts and Extracellular Matrix in Disseminated Tumor Cell Dormancy
    • Role of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Exosomes in Disseminated Tumor Cell Dormancy
    • Clinical Applications and Future Directions
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 17. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and the Tumor Immune System
    • Introduction
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: Overview
    • Polarization of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Immune Function
    • Overview of the Immune System
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Effect on the Immune System Modulation
    • Immune-Dependent Propagation of Tumors
    • The Interaction of Macrophages and Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells During Tumorigenesis
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Tumor Survival
    • Immunomodulation and Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Conclusions
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 18. The Inflammatory Environment and Its Effects on Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Introduction
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Their Microenvironment
    • Conclusion
    • Glossary
    • Abbreviations
  • 19. All Aboard: Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells as Cell Carriers for Virotherapy
    • Introduction
    • Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Therapeutic Uses of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell–Loadable Viruses
    • Loading of Virus on Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Current Research Progress With Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell-Loaded Viruses
    • Clinical Trials
    • Limitations of and Means to Improve Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Virotherapy
    • Conclusions
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 20. Engineered Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells for Cellular Therapies
    • Introduction
    • Engineering Strategies of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cell Modification
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 21. Extracellular Vesicles From Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Potential in Tumor Therapy
    • Introduction
    • Potential of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell’ Extracellular Vesicles in Tumor Treatment
    • Tumor Targeting: Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell Extracellular Vesicles in Drug Delivery Systems
    • The Future: EV-based Therapies in Clinical Development
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 22. Therapeutic Purposes and Risks of Ex Vivo Expanded Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Introduction
    • Clinical Application of Ex Vivo Expanded Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Risks of Ex Vivo Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Risks Related to Immunosuppression and Infection From Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Risks Related to Hypoimmunogenic Properties of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Risks Associated With the In Vivo Protumorigenic and Proangiogenic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells
    • Risks Related to Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell-Induced Chemoresistance
    • Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells as Cellular Vehicles for Tumor Targeting: Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Biodistribution and Long-term Safety of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: What Is the Fate of MSCs In Vivo?
    • Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives
    • Glossary
    • List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
  • 23. Concluding Remarks
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
642
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128031032
Paperback ISBN:
9780128031025

About the Editor

Marcela Bolontrade

Argentinian National Research Council (CONICET), Institute of Experimental Medicine and Biology (IBYME), Stem Cells Laboratory, Universidad Austral, Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Affiliations and Expertise

Instituto de Investigaciones en Medicina Traslacional (IIMT), CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Austral, Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Mariana García

Argentinian National Research Council (CONICET). Gene Therapy Laboratory, Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Austral, Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Affiliations and Expertise

Argentinian National Research Council (CONICET) and Gene Therapy Laboratory, Facultad de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Austral, Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Ratings and Reviews