Memory - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121025700, 9780080536194


1st Edition

Authors: Elizabeth Ligon Bjork Robert Bjork
eBook ISBN: 9780080536194
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 9th September 1996
Page Count: 586
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Memory conveys the state of knowledge regarding human memory. This book is composed of seven parts beginning with a discussion on different memory structures and the processes that regulate the flow of information between those structures. A chapter follows on the distinction between explicit and implicit memory. Other chapters address the different aspects of storing information in long-term memory; how information in long-term memories is accessed; and the controlling and monitoring of such storage and retrieval processes. How memory capacities and characteristics vary as a function of individual differences and aging, as well as the implications of memory research for two real-world domains of strong interest: witness interrogation and testimony and the long-term retention of skills and knowledge, are also addressed. This handbook will be an important resource for students of human memory.

Table of Contents




Overview of Human Memory

1 Structures, Processes, and the Flow of Information

I. Structures

II. Processes

III. Flow of Control: A Tentative Account

IV. Conclusions

2 Conscious and Unconscious Forms of Memory

I. Illustrative Findings and Explanations

II. Types of Evidence

III. Critiques of Theories

IV. New Directions

V. Summary


Transient Memories

3 Sensory and Perceptual Storage: Data and Theory

I. Visual Sensory Store

II. Auditory Sensory Store

III. Changing Conceptions of Iconic Memory

IV. A Linear-Systems Approach to Persistence

V. Perceptual Memories

VI. Memory Stores and Information Processing


4 Short-Term/Working Memory

I. The Short-Term Activity Trace

II. The Machinery of Storage

III. The Interpretive Tools of Forgetting

IV. Retrieval from Short-Term/Working Memory

V. Do We Need Short-Term/Working Memory?


Storing Information in Long-Term Memory

5 Imagery and Visual-Spatial Representations

I. Imagery

II. Visual-Spatial Representations in Object Representations

III. Recognition of Faces

IV. Visual-Spatial Representations of Layouts

V. Concluding Remarks


6 Autobiographical Memory

I. Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories

II. The Autobiographical Memory Knowledge Base

III. Accessing the Autobiographical Knowledge Base: Memory "Retrieval"

IV. Autobiographical Memories across the Life Span

V. Neurological Impairments of Autobiographical Memory

VI. "Conclusions" Some Caveats


Accessing Information in Long-Term Memory

7 Retrieval Processes

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Studying Retrieval

III. Principles Governing Retrieval

IV. The Encoding/Retrieval Paradigm

V. Effects of Prior Retrieval

VI. Related Topics

VII. Conclusion


8 Interference and Inhibition in Memory Retrieval

I. Introduction

II. Basic Assumptions of Interference Research

III. Classical Approaches to Interference

IV. Interference in Episodic and Semantic Memory

V. Related Research Areas

VI. Summary and Conclusions


Monitoring and Controlling Our Memories

9 Distributing and Managing the Conditions of Encoding and Practice

I. Encoding Practice

II. Retrieval Practice

III. Theoretical Implications

IV. Educational Implications

V. Summary and Conclusions


10 Mnemonic Methods to Enhance Storage and Retrieval

I. Introduction

II. Taxonomy of Mnemonic Devices

III. Mnemonic Devices and Associative Networks

IV. Mnemonic Devices in Education

V. Conclusions

11 Metacognitive Processes

I. Problem Solving

II. Learning

III. Memory

IV. Cognitive Neuroscience of Monitoring and Control

V. Conclusion

Differences across Individuals

12 Individual Differences in Memory

I. Working Memory

II. Long-Term Memory

III. Expertise in Remembering

IV. Conclusion

13 Memory and Aging

I. Failures of Strategic Processing

II. Semantic Deficit Hypothesis

III. Spared Activation and Impaired Processing of Contextual Information

IV. Resource Deficit Hypothesis

V. Conclusion


Memory for Real-World Events and Information

14 Retrieval Processes and Witness Memory

I. Implications and Extensions of the Encoding Specificity Principle

II. When Do Interference Effects Occur and Why?

III. Attributing an Item to a Source

IV. Effortful and Strategic Retrieval Processes

V. Applied Research in Eyewitness Testimony

VI. Summary and Assessment


15 The Long-Term Retention of Training and Instruction

I. Methodological Issues

II. Procedural Reinstatement

III. Generalizability and Specificity of Training

IV. Contextual Interference

V. Part versus Whole Training and Training Order

VI. Automaticity

VII. Conclusions and Guidelines




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© Academic Press 1996
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

Elizabeth Ligon Bjork

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Robert Bjork

The Board of Scientific Affairs (BSA) has just named Robert Bjork and three others as 1998 APA Distinguished Scientist Lecturers. Bjork is also editor of Psychological Review, recipient of UCLA's Distinguished Teaching Award, and president-elect of the Western Psychological Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Ratings and Reviews