1st Edition - February 12, 1996

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  • Authors: Elizabeth Ligon Bjork, Robert Bjork
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080536194

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Memory conveys the state of knowledge regarding human memory. This book is composed of seven parts beginning with a discussion on different memory structures and the processes that regulate the flow of information between those structures. A chapter follows on the distinction between explicit and implicit memory. Other chapters address the different aspects of storing information in long-term memory; how information in long-term memories is accessed; and the controlling and monitoring of such storage and retrieval processes. How memory capacities and characteristics vary as a function of individual differences and aging, as well as the implications of memory research for two real-world domains of strong interest: witness interrogation and testimony and the long-term retention of skills and knowledge, are also addressed. This handbook will be an important resource for students of human memory.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors



    Overview of Human Memory

    1 Structures, Processes, and the Flow of Information

    I. Structures

    II. Processes

    III. Flow of Control: A Tentative Account

    IV. Conclusions

    2 Conscious and Unconscious Forms of Memory

    I. Illustrative Findings and Explanations

    II. Types of Evidence

    III. Critiques of Theories

    IV. New Directions

    V. Summary


    Transient Memories

    3 Sensory and Perceptual Storage: Data and Theory

    I. Visual Sensory Store

    II. Auditory Sensory Store

    III. Changing Conceptions of Iconic Memory

    IV. A Linear-Systems Approach to Persistence

    V. Perceptual Memories

    VI. Memory Stores and Information Processing


    4 Short-Term/Working Memory

    I. The Short-Term Activity Trace

    II. The Machinery of Storage

    III. The Interpretive Tools of Forgetting

    IV. Retrieval from Short-Term/Working Memory

    V. Do We Need Short-Term/Working Memory?


    Storing Information in Long-Term Memory

    5 Imagery and Visual-Spatial Representations

    I. Imagery

    II. Visual-Spatial Representations in Object Representations

    III. Recognition of Faces

    IV. Visual-Spatial Representations of Layouts

    V. Concluding Remarks


    6 Autobiographical Memory

    I. Characteristics of Autobiographical Memories

    II. The Autobiographical Memory Knowledge Base

    III. Accessing the Autobiographical Knowledge Base: Memory "Retrieval"

    IV. Autobiographical Memories across the Life Span

    V. Neurological Impairments of Autobiographical Memory

    VI. "Conclusions" Some Caveats


    Accessing Information in Long-Term Memory

    7 Retrieval Processes

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Studying Retrieval

    III. Principles Governing Retrieval

    IV. The Encoding/Retrieval Paradigm

    V. Effects of Prior Retrieval

    VI. Related Topics

    VII. Conclusion


    8 Interference and Inhibition in Memory Retrieval

    I. Introduction

    II. Basic Assumptions of Interference Research

    III. Classical Approaches to Interference

    IV. Interference in Episodic and Semantic Memory

    V. Related Research Areas

    VI. Summary and Conclusions


    Monitoring and Controlling Our Memories

    9 Distributing and Managing the Conditions of Encoding and Practice

    I. Encoding Practice

    II. Retrieval Practice

    III. Theoretical Implications

    IV. Educational Implications

    V. Summary and Conclusions


    10 Mnemonic Methods to Enhance Storage and Retrieval

    I. Introduction

    II. Taxonomy of Mnemonic Devices

    III. Mnemonic Devices and Associative Networks

    IV. Mnemonic Devices in Education

    V. Conclusions

    11 Metacognitive Processes

    I. Problem Solving

    II. Learning

    III. Memory

    IV. Cognitive Neuroscience of Monitoring and Control

    V. Conclusion

    Differences across Individuals

    12 Individual Differences in Memory

    I. Working Memory

    II. Long-Term Memory

    III. Expertise in Remembering

    IV. Conclusion

    13 Memory and Aging

    I. Failures of Strategic Processing

    II. Semantic Deficit Hypothesis

    III. Spared Activation and Impaired Processing of Contextual Information

    IV. Resource Deficit Hypothesis

    V. Conclusion


    Memory for Real-World Events and Information

    14 Retrieval Processes and Witness Memory

    I. Implications and Extensions of the Encoding Specificity Principle

    II. When Do Interference Effects Occur and Why?

    III. Attributing an Item to a Source

    IV. Effortful and Strategic Retrieval Processes

    V. Applied Research in Eyewitness Testimony

    VI. Summary and Assessment


    15 The Long-Term Retention of Training and Instruction

    I. Methodological Issues

    II. Procedural Reinstatement

    III. Generalizability and Specificity of Training

    IV. Contextual Interference

    V. Part versus Whole Training and Training Order

    VI. Automaticity

    VII. Conclusions and Guidelines



Product details

  • No. of pages: 586
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1996
  • Published: February 12, 1996
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080536194

About the Authors

Elizabeth Ligon Bjork

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Robert Bjork

The Board of Scientific Affairs (BSA) has just named Robert Bjork and three others as 1998 APA Distinguished Scientist Lecturers. Bjork is also editor of Psychological Review, recipient of UCLA's Distinguished Teaching Award, and president-elect of the Western Psychological Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

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