Membrane Technologies for Biorefining - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081004517, 9780081004524

Membrane Technologies for Biorefining

1st Edition

Editors: Alberto Figoli Alfredo Cassano Angelo Basile
eBook ISBN: 9780081004524
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081004517
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 22nd February 2016
Page Count: 520
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Membrane Technologies for Biorefining highlights the best practices needed for the efficient and environmentally-compatible separation techniques that are fundamental to the conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals for use as alternatives to petroleum refining.

Membrane technologies are increasingly of interest in biorefineries due to their modest energy consumption, low chemical requirements, and excellent separation efficiency. The book provides researchers in academia and industry with an authoritative overview of the different types of membranes and highlights the ways in which they can be applied in biorefineries for the production of chemicals and biofuels. Topics have been selected to highlight both the variety of raw materials treated in biorefineries and the range of biofuel and chemical end-products.

Key Features

  • Presents the first book to focus specifically on membrane technologies in biorefineries
  • Provides a comprehensive overview of the different types of membranes and highlight ways in which they can be applied in biorefineries for the production of chemicals and biofuels
  • Topics selected highlight both the variety of raw materials treated using membranes in biorefineries and the range of biofuel and chemical end-products


Research and development professionals in the membrane and biorefinery industries as well as postgraduate researchers in academia working on membranes and biorefineries

Table of Contents

  • Related titles
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  • Part One. Membrane processes and membrane preparation
    • 1. Advance membrane separation processes for biorefineries
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Lignocellulose biomass
      • 1.3. Second-generation bioethanol production
      • 1.4. Biodiesel
      • 1.5. Biogas
      • 1.6. Recovery of valuable chemical feedstock from waste biomass and biofuel production
      • 1.7. Biocatalytic membrane reactor and principals and application to biorefining
      • 1.8. Multiscale modeling of bioreactors aimed at second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses
      • 1.9. Future trends in biorefinery
      • 1.10. Conclusions
      • List of acronyms
    • 2. Polymeric membranes in biorefinery
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Preparation of polymeric membranes
      • 2.3. Application of polymeric membranes in biorefinery
      • 2.4. Conclusions and future challenges
      • List of acronyms
    • 3. Mixed-matrix membranes: Preparation and characterization for biorefining
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Preparation of mixed-matrix membranes
      • 3.3. Characterization of mixed-matrix membranes
      • 3.4. Mixed-matrix membranes in biorefinery processes
      • 3.5. Conclusion and future perspectives
      • List of symbols
      • List of acronyms
    • 4. Organic–inorganic composite membrane preparation and characterization for biorefining
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Inorganic–organic composite membranes
      • 4.3. Application in biorefineries
      • 4.4. Conclusion and future trends
      • List of acronyms
  • Part Two. Integrated membrane operations for the recovery of chemical feedstocks
    • 5. Membranes for lignin and hemicellulose recovery in pulp mills
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Raw materials for pulp production
      • 5.3. Pulping processes
      • 5.4. Sulphite pulping
      • 5.5. Kraft pulping
      • 5.6. Dissolving pulp
      • 5.7. Thermomechanical pulping
      • 5.8. Chemithermomechanical pulping
      • 5.9. Conclusions and future trends
      • List of acronyms
    • 6. Membranes for the recovery of organic acids from fermentation broths
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Clarification of fermentation broth using microfiltration and nanofiltration
      • 6.3. Electro-driven process for organic acid production
      • 6.4. Industrialization
      • 6.5. Some other classical types of integration of membrane process for organic acid recovery
      • 6.6. Challenges and perspective
      • 6.7. Conclusion and future trends
      • List of acronyms
    • 7. Recovery of polyphenols from olive mill wastewaters by membrane operations
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Valorization methods
      • 7.3. Integrated membrane processes
      • 7.4. Conclusions and future trends
      • List of acronyms
    • 8. Recovery of high-added-value compounds from food waste by membrane technology
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Separation of functional micromolecules and macromolecules from food waste
      • 8.3. Recovery of high-added-value compounds using ultrafiltration
      • 8.4. Recovery of high-added-value compounds by nanofiltration
      • 8.5. Economic framework of membrane technology for recovery of valuable solutes
      • 8.6. Conclusions and future trends
      • List of acronyms
  • Part Three. Integrated membrane operations for biofuel production
    • 9. Membranes for the removal of fermentation inhibitors from biofuel production
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Types of inhibitors
      • 9.3. Detoxification processes
      • 9.4. Membrane-based detoxification processes
      • 9.5. Conclusions and future directions
      • List of symbols
    • 10. Membranes for ethanol dehydration
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Hydrophilic pervaporation
      • 10.3. Pervaporation membranes
      • 10.4. Conclusions and future trends
      • List of symbols
      • List of acronyms
    • 11. Bio-oil production and upgrading: New challenges for membrane applications
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Thermal conversion of biomass to liquid
      • 11.3. Separation processes
      • 11.4. Membrane-based separation processes
      • 11.5. Bio-oil upgrading
      • 11.6. Conclusions and future trends
    • 12. Biodiesel production and purification using membrane technology
      • 12.1. Introduction
      • 12.2. Biodiesel production process
      • 12.3. Biodiesel purification by wet and dry washing
      • 12.4. Membrane separation processes for biodiesel purification
      • 12.5. Intensified process: membrane reactors
      • 12.6. Conclusions and future trends
    • 13. Algae harvesting
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Algae harvesting
      • 13.3. Membrane filtration: advantages and disadvantages
      • 13.4. Current membrane design
      • 13.5. Water and nutrient recycling
      • 13.6. Conclusion and future trends
  • Part Four. Membrane reactors
    • 14. Pervaporation membrane reactors: Biomass conversion into alcohols
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Production of bioalcohols
      • 14.3. Biobutanol
      • 14.4. Industrial processes
      • 14.5. Application of PV for bioalcohol production
      • 14.6. Current alternatives to membrane reactors
      • 14.7. Other applications of membrane PV reactors
      • 14.8. Conclusions and future trends
      • List of acronyms
    • 15. Membrane reactors for methanol synthesis from forest-derived feedstocks
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Biomass feedstocks
      • 15.3. Issues confronting biomass
      • 15.4. Biomass-to-energy conversion technologies
      • 15.5. Types of biomass gasifiers
      • 15.6. Methanol
      • 15.7. Synthesis gas-to-methanol conversion
      • 15.8. Conventional methanol synthesis reactor
      • 15.9. Process deficiencies and modifications
      • 15.10. Membrane technology
      • 15.11. Membrane reactor for methanol synthesis
      • 15.12. Parameters affecting methanol synthesis in a membrane reactor
      • 15.13. Economic evaluations
      • 15.14. Conclusion and future trends
    • 16. Hydrogen production from pyrolysis-derived bio-oil using membrane reactors
      • 16.1. Introduction
      • 16.2. Conventional methods for hydrogen production
      • 16.3. Major drawbacks of conventional methods
      • 16.4. Hydrogen production from pyrolysis-derived bio-oil
      • 16.5. Membrane technology
      • 16.6. Hydrogen-selective membrane materials
      • 16.7. Desired hydrogen-selective membrane material
      • 16.8. Membrane reactor configuration
      • 16.9. Factors affecting hydrogen production in a membrane reactor
      • 16.10. Conclusion and future trends
      • List of acronyms
    • 17. Membrane reactors for hydrogen production from biomass-derived oxygenates
      • 17.1. Introduction
      • 17.2. Different technologies of hydrogen production from biomass-derived oxygenates
      • 17.3. Membrane reactors for hydrogen production from biomass-derived oxygenates
      • 17.4. Conclusion and future trends
      • List of acronyms
    • 18. Biomethane production by biogas with polymeric membrane module
      • 18.1. Introduction
      • 18.2. Production of biomethane
      • 18.3. Applications of biomethane
      • 18.4. Conclusions and future trends
  • Index


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About the Editor

Alberto Figoli

Dr. Alberto Figoli obtained his PhD degree at Membrane Technology Group, Twente University (Enschede, The Netherlands) in 2001. He graduated in Food Science and Technology at the Agriculture University of Milan 1996. Since December 2001, he has a permanent position as Researcher at Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM-CNR) in Rende (CS), Italy.

He also had international experience in industrial research labs: about 1 year (1996) at Quest International Nederland B.V. (ICI), Process Research Group, Naarden (The Netherlands) on “Setting of a pilot plant for aromatic compounds extraction using the pervaporation (PV) membrane technology”; Secondment in 2010 and 2011 at GVS, SpA, Bologna, within the EU project “Implementation of Membrane Technology to Industry” (IMETI) on “Preparation and Characterisation of hybrid membranes for VOCs removal”.

He was granted for the “Short Term Mobility Programme” by CNR, in 2004 and 2005, at the “Environmental Protection Agency of United States (USEPA)”, Sustainable Technology Division, Cincinnati (USA) on “Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and aroma removal using a novel asymmetric membrane by pervaporation” nell’ambito dello “Short Term Mobility Programme” funded CNR.

He is responsible and involved in various National and International projects. He is also responsible, within the CNR organisation, for two research lines on membrane preparation and characterisation and on pervaporation (PV) applications.

He is author of more than 60 research papers in peer reviewed journals, several book chapters, a book, two patents and many oral presentations (also as invited lecture) in National and International Conferences and Workshops.

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute on Membrane Technology, Italian National Research Council, Italy

Alfredo Cassano

Alfredo Cassano is permanent researcher at the Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) since 2000. He received his degree in Biology at the University of Naples in 1995. His main activity and scientific interests are related to researches in the field of the membrane technology.

Since 1995, this activity has been carried out in the field of pressure-driven membrane processes and membrane contactors applied to wastewater treatments and agro-food productions. It has mainly concerned the study of integrated membrane operations for the recovery of water and high added value compounds and removal of undesirable compounds from wastewaters and agro-food productions, clarification and concentration of fruit juices, milk and wine, water purification.

He attended to many national and international conferences on membranes with both oral and poster presentations. He also presented, as invited speaker, lectures at courses on membrane operations. He is involved as scientific responsible or main investigator in different national and international projects.

Alfredo Cassano is co-author of more than 70 scientific papers published in international journals, two patents and four books on membrane science and technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, Institute on Membrane Technology, Italian National Research Council, Italy

Angelo Basile

Angelo Basile, a Chemical Engineer, is a senior Researcher at the ITM-CNR where is responsible of the researches related to both the ultra-pure hydrogen production and CO2 capture using Pd-based Membrane Reactors. Angelo Basile’s h-index is 42, with 258 document results, cited by 2279 documents and 4478 total citations in the subject area: Energy, Chemical Engineering, Materials Science, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Engineering ( – Feb. 15, 2018). Basile has 140 scientific papers in peer to peer journals and 230 papers in international congresses; editor/author of more than 40 scientific books and 100 chapters on international books on membrane science and technology; 6 Italian patents, 2 European patents and 5 worldwide patents. He is referee of 116 int. scientific journals and Member of the Editorial Board of 22 of them. Basile is also Editor associate of the Int. J. Hydrogen Energy and of the Asia-Pacific J. Chem. Eng., moreover Editor-in.-chief of the Int. J. Membrane Science & Technol. and Editor-in-chief of Membrane Processes (Applications), a section of the international journal Membranes: Basile also prepared 25 special issues on membrane science and technology for many international journals (IJHE, Chem Eng. J., Cat. Today, etc.). He participated to and was/is responsible of many national and international projects on membrane reactors and membrane science. Basile served as Director of the ITM-CNR during the period Dec. 2008 – May 2009. In the last years, he was tutor of 30 Thesis for master and Ph.D. students at the Chemical Engineering Department of the University of Calabria (Italy). From 2014, Basile is Full Professor of Chemical Engineering Processes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Researcher, Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM), Italian National Research Council (CNR), University of Calabria, Rende, Italy

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