Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation

Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation

1st Edition - July 20, 2018

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  • Editors: Sarper Sarp, Nidal Hilal
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780444639615
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444639622

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Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation focuses on the various types of membrane- based salinity gradient processes that can be applied for desalination. Topics cover salinity gradient processes for desalination, such as Forward Osmosis (FO) and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO), with chapters selected exclusively from a number of world-leading experts in various disciplines and from different continents. Sections include discussions on the theoretical and fundamental approaches to salinity gradient processes, various types of membrane materials and development, i.e., flat sheet and hollow fiber, various salinity water sources for an economically feasible process, and large-scale applications. Finally, the book focuses on economically feasible process optimization when both operational and capital costs are considered.

Key Features

  • Features specific details on salinity gradient techniques for various desalination applications of industrial and academic interest
  • Contains unique discussions on membrane development and process optimization that normally only appear briefly in research articles
  • Includes examples of internationally best practices for the evaluation of several system parameters, including thermodynamic optimization, high power density membrane development, and more
  • Discusses large-scale applications and provides examples of such implementations, such as Statkraft, Japanese Megaton, and Korean GMVP


Membrane and process development scientists/researchers involved in process development for low cost desalination and membrane preparation for salinity gradient applications in chemical engineering, environmental engineering, and material engineering worldwide. Also, engineering, Procurement and Construction companies, Membrane fabrication companies

Table of Contents

  • Section 1: Fundamentals of Salinity Gradient Processes
    1. Water Flux
    2. Reverse Salt Flux
    3. Internal and External Concentration Polarization
    4. Thermodynamics
    5. Draw Solute Selection

    Section 2: Membranes
    6. Flat Sheet Membranes
    7. Hollow Fiber Membranes
    8. Determining Structural Parameter (S)
    9. Membrane Modules for Large Scale Applications

    Section 3: Process Optimization
    10. Direct Desalination with Forward Osmosis
    11. Indirect Desalination with Forward Osmosis
    12. Low Salinity Pressure Retarded Osmosis
    13. High Salinity Pressure Retarded Osmosis
    14. Ultra-High Salinity Pressure Retarded Osmosis

    Section 4: Case Studies
    15. Oasys – Brine Concentrator (Forward Osmosis)
    16. Statcraft – Low Salinity Pressure Retarded Osmosis
    17. Megaton – High Salinity Pressure Retarded Osmosis
    18. GMVP – High Salinity Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Product details

  • No. of pages: 366
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2018
  • Published: July 20, 2018
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780444639615
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444639622

About the Editors

Sarper Sarp

Dr. Sarper Sarp is a Lecturer in Chemical Engineering at College of Engineering, Swansea University (United Kingdom). Dr. Sarp also a member of internationally acclaimed Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER) at Swansea University. His research interests include salinity gradient systems, micro-plastics in water sources, advanced oxidation processes, seawater pre-treatment, and solar desalination. Dr. Sarp is the author/co-author of over 25 peer-reviewed articles and 5 intellectual properties. He is also a member of the Editorial Board of Desalination Journal (Elsevier) and edited two special issues: Pressure Retarded Osmosis, and Desalination and Environment published by Desalination Journal, in early 2016.

Affiliations and Expertise

Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER), College of Engineering, Swansea University, UK

Nidal Hilal

Nidal Hilal
Professor Nidal Hilal is the Director and Founding Director of NYUAD Water Research Center at New York University-Abu Dhabi. His research interests lie broadly in the identification of innovative and cost-effective solutions within the fields of nano-water, membrane technology, and water treatment including desalination, colloid engineering and the nano-engineering applications of AFM. His internationally recognized research has led to the use of AFM in the development of new membranes with optimized properties for difficult separations. He has published 8 handbooks, 63 invited book chapters and around 500 articles in refereed scientific literature. He has chaired and delivered lectures at numerous international conferences. In 2005 he was awarded Doctor of Science (DSc) from the University of Wales and the Kuwait Prize for applied science “Water resources development”. He is also the Menelaus Medal Winner 2020 which is awarded by the Learned Society of Wales for excellence in engineering and technology. He is the Editor-in-Chief for the international journal Desalination. He sits on the editorial boards of a number of international journals, is an advisory board member of several multinational organizations and has served on/consulted for industry, government departments, research councils and universities on an international basis.

Affiliations and Expertise

NYUAD Water Research Center, New York University - Abu Dhabi Campus, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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