Medical Physiology

Medical Physiology

3rd Edition - March 29, 2016

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  • Authors: Walter Boron, Emile Boulpaep
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455733286
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455743773

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Description

For a comprehensive understanding of human physiology — from molecules to systems —turn to the latest edition of Medical Physiology. This updated textbook is known for its unparalleled depth of information, equipping students with a solid foundation for a future in medicine and healthcare, and providing clinical and research professionals with a reliable go-to reference. Complex concepts are presented in a clear, concise, and logically organized format to further facilitate understanding and retention.

Key Features

  • Clear, didactic illustrations visually present processes in a clear, concise manner that is easy to understand.
  • Intuitive organization and consistent writing style facilitates navigation and comprehension.
  • Takes a strong molecular and cellular approach that relates these concepts to human physiology and disease.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Video Table of Contents
  • Preface to the Third Edition
  • The eBook
  • Acknowledgments
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Target Audience
  • Content of the Textbook
  • Emphasis of the Textbook
  • Creating the Textbook
  • Special Features
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section I Introduction
  • 1 Foundations of Physiology
  • References
  • Section II Physiology of Cells and Molecules
  • 2 Functional Organization of the Cell
  • Structure of Biological Membranes
  • Function of Membrane Proteins
  • Cellular Organelles and the Cytoskeleton
  • Synthesis and Recycling of Membrane Proteins
  • Specialized Cell Types
  • References
  • 3 Signal Transduction
  • Mechanisms of Cellular Communication
  • Receptors That are Ion Channels
  • Receptors Coupled to G Proteins
  • Receptors That are Catalytic
  • Nuclear Receptors
  • References
  • 4 Regulation of Gene Expression
  • From Genes to Proteins
  • The Promoter and Regulatory Elements
  • Transcription Factors
  • Regulation of Inducible Gene Expression by Signal-Transduction Pathways
  • Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression
  • Post-Translational Regulation of Gene Expression
  • References
  • Glossary
  • 5 Transport of Solutes and Water
  • The Intracellular and Extracellular Fluids
  • Solute Transport Across Cell Membranes
  • Regulation of Intracellular Ion Concentrations
  • Water Transport and the Regulation of Cell Volume
  • Transport of Solutes and Water Across Epithelia
  • References
  • 6 Electrophysiology of the Cell Membrane
  • Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials
  • Electrical Model of a Cell Membrane
  • Molecular Physiology of Ion Channels
  • References
  • 7 Electrical Excitability and Action Potentials
  • Mechanisms of Nerve and Muscle Action Potentials
  • Physiology of Voltage-Gated Channels and Their Relatives
  • Propagation of Action Potentials
  • References
  • 8 Synaptic Transmission and the Neuromuscular Junction
  • Mechanisms of Synaptic Transmission
  • Synaptic Transmission at the Neuromuscular Junction
  • Toxins and Drugs Affecting Synaptic Transmission
  • References
  • 9 Cellular Physiology of Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Cardiac Muscle
  • Smooth Muscle
  • Diversity among Muscles
  • References
  • Section III The Nervous System
  • 10 Organization of the Nervous System
  • Cells of the Nervous System
  • Development of Neurons and Glial Cells
  • Subdivisions of the Nervous System
  • References
  • 11 The Neuronal Microenvironment
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid
  • Brain Extracellular Space
  • The Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Glial Cells
  • References
  • 12 Physiology of Neurons
  • Signal Conduction in Dendrites
  • Control of Spiking Patterns in the Soma
  • Axonal Conduction
  • References
  • 13 Synaptic Transmission in the Nervous System
  • Neuronal Synapses
  • Neurotransmitter Systems of the Brain
  • Reference
  • Fast Amino Acid–Mediated Synapses in the CNS
  • Plasticity of Central Synapses
  • References
  • 14 The Autonomic Nervous System
  • Organization of the Visceral Control System
  • Reference
  • Synaptic Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System
  • References
  • Central Nervous System Control of the Viscera
  • Reference
  • References
  • 15 Sensory Transduction
  • Chemoreception
  • Visual Transduction
  • References:
  • Vestibular and Auditory Transduction: Hair Cells
  • Somatic Sensory Receptors, Proprioception, and Pain
  • References
  • 16 Circuits of the Central Nervous System
  • Elements of Neural Circuits
  • Simple, Stereotyped Responses: Spinal Reflex Circuits
  • Rhythmic Activity: Central Pattern Generators
  • Spatial Representations: Sensory and Motor Maps in the Brain
  • Temporal Representations: Time-Measuring Circuits
  • References
  • Section IV The Cardiovascular System
  • 17 Organization of the Cardiovascular System
  • Elements of the Cardiovascular System
  • Hemodynamics
  • How Blood Flows
  • Origins of Pressure in the Circulation
  • How to Measure Blood Pressure, Blood Flow, and Cardiac Volumes
  • References
  • 18 Blood
  • Blood Composition
  • Blood Viscosity
  • Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis
  • References
  • 19 Arteries and Veins
  • Arterial Distribution and Venous Collection Systems
  • Elastic Properties of Blood Vessels
  • References
  • 20 The Microcirculation
  • Capillary Exchange of Solutes
  • References
  • Capillary Exchange of Water
  • Reference
  • References
  • Lymphatics
  • Regulation of the Microcirculation
  • References
  • 21 Cardiac Electrophysiology and the Electrocardiogram
  • Electrophysiology of Cardiac Cells
  • The Electrocardiogram
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias
  • References
  • 22 The Heart as a Pump
  • The Cardiac Cycle
  • Cardiac Dynamics
  • From Contractile Filaments to a Regulated Pump
  • References
  • 23 Regulation of Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output
  • Short-Term Regulation of Arterial Pressure
  • Regulation of Cardiac Output
  • Matching of Venous Return and Cardiac Output
  • Intermediate- and Long-Term Control of the Circulation
  • References
  • 24 Special Circulations
  • The Brain
  • The Heart
  • The Skeletal Muscle
  • The Splanchnic Organs
  • The Skin
  • References
  • 25 Integrated Control of the Cardiovascular System
  • Interaction among the Different Cardiovascular Control Systems
  • Response to Erect Posture
  • Responses to Acute Emotional Stress
  • Response to Exercise
  • Response to Hemorrhage
  • References
  • Section V The Respiratory System
  • 26 Organization of the Respiratory System
  • Comparative Physiology of Respiration
  • Organization of the Respiratory System in Humans
  • Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • References
  • 27 Mechanics of Ventilation
  • Static Properties of the Lung
  • Dynamic Properties of the Lung
  • References
  • 28 Acid-Base Physiology
  • pH and Buffers
  • Acid-Base Chemistry When Is the Only Buffer
  • Acid-Base Chemistry in the Presence of and Buffers—The Davenport Diagram
  • pH Regulation of Intracellular Fluid
  • References
  • 29 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
  • Carriage of O2
  • Carriage of CO2
  • References
  • 30 Gas Exchange in the Lungs
  • Diffusion of Gases
  • Diffusion and Perfusion Limitations on Gas Transport
  • References
  • 31 Ventilation and Perfusion of the Lungs
  • Ventilation
  • Perfusion of the Lung
  • Matching Ventilation and Perfusion
  • References
  • 32 Control of Ventilation
  • Overview of the Respiratory Control System
  • Neurons That Control Ventilation
  • Generation of the Respiratory Rhythm
  • Chemical Control of Ventilation
  • Modulation of Ventilatory Control
  • References
  • Section VI The Urinary System
  • 33 Organization of the Urinary System
  • Functional Anatomy of the Kidney
  • References
  • Main Elements of Renal Function
  • Reference
  • Measuring Renal Clearance and Transport
  • The Ureters and Bladder
  • References
  • 34 Glomerular Filtration and Renal Blood Flow
  • Glomerular Filtration
  • Renal Blood Flow
  • Control of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration
  • References
  • 35 Transport of Sodium and Chloride
  • Na+ and Cl− Transport by Different Segments of The Nephron
  • Na+ and Cl−, and Water Transport at the Cellular and Molecular Level
  • Regulation of Na+ and Cl− Transport
  • References
  • 36 Transport of Urea, Glucose, Phosphate, Calcium, Magnesium, and Organic Solutes
  • Urea
  • Glucose
  • Other Organic Solutes
  • Phosphate
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • References
  • 37 Transport of Potassium
  • Potassium Balance and the Overall Renal Handling of Potassium
  • Potassium Transport by Different Segments of the Nephron
  • Potassium Transport at the Cellular and Molecular Levels
  • Regulation of Renal Potassium Excretion
  • References
  • 38 Urine Concentration and Dilution
  • Water Balance and the Overall Renal Handling of Water
  • Water Transport by Different Segments of the Nephron
  • Generation of a Hyperosmotic Medulla and Urine
  • Regulation by Arginine Vasopressin
  • References
  • 39 Transport of Acids and Bases
  • Acid-Base Balance and the Overall Renal Handling of Acid
  • Acid-Base Transport by Different Segments of the Nephron
  • Acid-Base Transport at the Cellular and Molecular Levels
  • Regulation of Renal Acid Secretion
  • References
  • 40 Integration of Salt and Water Balance
  • Control of Extracellular Fluid Volume
  • Control of Water Content (Extracellular Osmolality)
  • References
  • Section VII The Gastrointestinal System
  • 41 Organization of the Gastrointestinal System
  • Overview of Digestive Processes
  • Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function
  • Gastrointestinal Motility
  • Reference
  • References
  • 42 Gastric Function
  • Functional Anatomy of the Stomach
  • Acid Secretion
  • Pepsinogen Secretion
  • Protection of the Gastric Surface Epithelium and Neutralization of Acid in the Duodenum
  • Filling and Emptying of the Stomach
  • References
  • 43 Pancreatic and Salivary Glands
  • Overview of Exocrine Gland Physiology
  • Pancreatic Acinar Cell
  • Pancreatic Duct Cell
  • Composition, Function, and Control of Pancreatic Secretion
  • Salivary Acinar Cell
  • Salivary Duct Cell
  • Composition, Function, and Control of Salivary Secretion
  • References
  • 44 Intestinal Fluid and Electrolyte Movement
  • Functional Anatomy
  • Overview of Fluid and Electrolyte Movement in the Intestines
  • Cellular Mechanisms of Na+ Absorption
  • Cellular Mechanisms of Cl− Absorption and Secretion
  • Cellular Mechanisms of K+ Absorption and Secretion
  • Regulation of Intestinal Ion Transport
  • References
  • 45 Nutrient Digestion and Absorption
  • Carbohydrate Digestion
  • Carbohydrate Absorption
  • Protein Digestion
  • Protein, Peptide, and Amino-Acid Absorption
  • Lipid Digestion
  • Lipid Absorption
  • Digestion and Absorption of Vitamins and Minerals
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • References
  • 46 Hepatobiliary Function
  • Overview of Liver Physiology
  • Functional Anatomy of the Liver and Biliary Tree
  • Uptake, Processing, and Secretion of Compounds by Hepatocytes
  • Bile Formation
  • Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids
  • The Liver as a Metabolic Organ
  • References
  • Section VIII The Endocrine System
  • 47 Organization of Endocrine Control
  • Principles of Endocrine Function
  • Peptide Hormones
  • Amine Hormones
  • Steroid and Thyroid Hormones
  • References
  • 48 Endocrine Regulation of Growth and Body Mass
  • Growth Hormone
  • Growth-Promoting Hormones
  • Regulation of Body Mass
  • References
  • 49 The Thyroid Gland
  • Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones
  • Action of Thyroid Hormones
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis
  • References
  • 50 The Adrenal Gland
  • The Adrenal Cortex: Cortisol
  • The Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone
  • The Adrenal Medulla
  • References
  • 51 The Endocrine Pancreas
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • References
  • 52 The Parathyroid Glands and Vitamin D
  • Calcium and Phosphate Balance
  • Physiology of Bone
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D
  • Calcitonin and Other Hormones
  • References
  • Section IX The Reproductive System
  • 53 Sexual Differentiation
  • Genetic Aspects of Sexual Differentiation
  • Differentiation of the Gonads
  • Development of the Accessory Sex Organs
  • Differentiation of the External Genitalia
  • Endocrine and Paracrine Control of Sexual Differentiation
  • Puberty
  • References
  • 54 The Male Reproductive System
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis
  • Testosterone
  • Biology of Spermatogenesis and Semen
  • Male Sex Act
  • References
  • 55 The Female Reproductive System
  • Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Control of the Menstrual Cycle
  • Ovarian Steroids
  • The Ovarian Cycle: Folliculogenesis, Ovulation, and Formation of the Corpus Luteum
  • The Endometrial Cycle
  • Female Sex Act
  • Menopause
  • References
  • 56 Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Lactation
  • Transport of Gametes and Fertilization
  • Implantation of the Developing Embryo
  • Physiology of the Placenta
  • The Maternal-Placental-Fetal Unit
  • Response of the Mother to Pregnancy
  • Parturition
  • Lactation
  • References
  • 57 Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
  • Biology of Fetal Growth
  • Development and Maturation of the Cardiopulmonary System
  • Cardiopulmonary Adjustments at Birth
  • Neonatal Physiology
  • References
  • Section X Physiology of Everyday Life
  • 58 Metabolism
  • Forms of Energy
  • Energy Balance
  • Energy Interconversion From Cycling between 6-Carbon and 3-Carbon Molecules
  • Energy Capture (Anabolism)
  • Energy Liberation (Catabolism)
  • Integrative Metabolism During Fasting
  • References
  • 59 Regulation of Body Temperature
  • Heat and Temperature: Advantages of Homeothermy
  • Modes of Heat Transfer
  • Active Regulation of Body Temperature by the Central Nervous System
  • Hypothermia, Hyperthermia, and Fever
  • References
  • 60 Exercise Physiology and Sports Science
  • Motor Units and Muscle Function
  • Conversion of Chemical Energy to Mechanical Work
  • Muscle Fatigue
  • Determinants of Maximal O2 Uptake and Consumption
  • Sweating
  • Endurance (Aerobic) Training
  • References
  • 61 Environmental Physiology
  • The Environment
  • Diving Physiology
  • High-Altitude Physiology
  • Flight and Space Physiology
  • References
  • 62 The Physiology of Aging
  • Concepts in Aging
  • Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Aging
  • Aging of the Human Physiological Systems
  • Aging Slowly
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1312
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2016
  • Published: March 29, 2016
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9781455733286
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781455743773

About the Authors

Walter Boron

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, David N and Inez Myers/Antonio Scarpa Chairman, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH

Emile Boulpaep

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT

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