Medical Microbiology

Medical Microbiology

9th Edition - March 10, 2020

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  • Authors: Patrick Murray, Ken Rosenthal, Michael Pfaller
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323673228
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323674508

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The foremost text in this complex and fast-changing field, Medical Microbiology, 9th Edition, provides concise, up-to-date, and understandable explanations of key concepts in medical microbiology, immunology, and the microbes that cause human disease. Clear, engaging coverage of basic principles, immunology, laboratory diagnosis, bacteriology, virology, mycology, and parasitology help you master the essentials of microbiology―effectively preparing you for your coursework, exams, and beyond.

Table of Contents

  • Instructions for online access
  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Dedication
  • Section 1. Introduction
  • 1. Introduction to Medical Microbiology
  • Historical Perspective
  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Parasites
  • Immunology
  • Diagnostic Microbiology
  • Microbiology and Immunology in the Clinic
  • Summary
  • 2. Human Microbiome in Health and Disease
  • Human Microbiome Project
  • Core Microbiome
  • Evolution of the Microbiome and Normal Flora
  • Role of the Microbiome in Disease
  • Diagnostics and Therapeutics
  • Probiotics
  • Perspective
  • 3. Sterilization, Disinfection, and Antisepsis
  • Sterilization
  • Disinfection
  • Antisepsis
  • Mechanisms of Action
  • Section 2. General Principles of Laboratory Diagnosis
  • 4. Microscopy and In Vitro Culture
  • Microscopy
  • In Vitro Culture
  • 5. Molecular Diagnosis
  • Nonamplified Nucleic Acid Probes
  • Nucleic Acid Analysis
  • Protein Analysis
  • 6. Serologic Diagnosis
  • Antibodies
  • Methods of Detection
  • Immunoassays for Cell-Associated Antigen (Immunohistology)
  • Immunoassays for Antibody and Soluble Antigen
  • Serology
  • Section 3. Basic Concepts in the Immune Response
  • 7. Elements of Host Protective Responses
  • Soluble Activators and Stimulators of Innate and Immune Functions
  • Cells of the Immune Response
  • 8. Innate Host Responses
  • Barriers to Infection
  • Soluble Components of Innate Responses
  • Cellular Components of Innate Responses
  • Activation of Innate Cellular Responses
  • Normal Flora–Associated Responses
  • Inflammation
  • Bridge to Antigen-Specific Immune Responses
  • 9. Antigen-Specific Immune Responses
  • Immunogens, Antigens, and Epitopes
  • T Cells
  • Cell-Surface Receptors of T Cells
  • Development of T Cells
  • Initiation of T-Cell Responses
  • Activation of CD4 T Cells and Their Response to Antigen
  • CD8 T Cells
  • INNATE T Cells
  • B Cells and Humoral Immunity
  • B cells
  • Immunoglobulin Types and Structures
  • Immunogenetics
  • Antibody Response
  • 10. Immune Responses to Infectious Agents
  • Antibacterial Responses
  • Antiviral Responses
  • Specific Immune Responses to Fungi
  • Specific Immune Responses to Parasites
  • Other Immune Responses
  • Immunopathogenesis
  • Autoimmune Responses
  • Immunodeficiency
  • 11. Antimicrobial Vaccines
  • Types of Immunizations
  • Immunization Programs
  • Section 4. Bacteriology
  • 12. Bacterial Classification, Structure, and Replication
  • Differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
  • Bacterial Classification
  • Bacterial Structure
  • Structure and Biosynthesis of the Major Components of the Bacterial Cell Wall
  • Cell Division
  • Spores
  • 13. Bacterial Metabolism and Genetics
  • Bacterial Metabolism
  • Human Bacterial Metabolism
  • Bacterial Genes and Expression
  • Bacterial Genetics
  • 14. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenesis
  • Entry into the Human Body
  • Colonization, Adhesion, and Invasion
  • Pathogenic Actions of Bacteria
  • Immunopathogenesis
  • Mechanisms for Escaping Host Defenses
  • Summary
  • 15. Role of Bacteria in Disease
  • 16. Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases
  • Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing
  • Bacterial Detection and Identification
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests
  • 17. Antibacterial Agents
  • Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis
  • Inhibition of Protein Synthesis
  • Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
  • Other Antibiotics
  • 18. Staphylococcus and Related Gram-Positive Cocci
  • Physiology and Structure
  • Pathogenesis and Immunity
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Diseases
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment, Prevention, and Control
  • 19. Streptococcus and Enterococcus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Other β-Hemolytic Streptococci
  • Viridans Streptococci
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Enterococcus
  • 20. Bacillus
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Bacillus cereus
  • 21. Listeria and Related Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  • 22. Mycobacterium and Related Acid-Fast Bacteria
  • • Physiology and Structure of Mycobacteria
  • • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
  • • Other Slow-Growing Mycobacteria
  • • Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria
  • • Nocardia
  • • Other Weakly Acid-Fast Bacteria
  • 23. Neisseria and Related Genera
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis
  • Other Neisseria Species
  • 24. Haemophilus and Related Bacteria
  • Haemophilus
  • 25. Enterobacteriaceae
  • General Properties
  • Escherichia coli
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Yersinia
  • Other Enterobacteriaceae
  • Other General Properties
  • 26. Vibrio and Related Bacteria
  • Vibrio
  • Aeromonas
  • 27. Pseudomonas and Related Bacteria
  • Pseudomonas
  • Burkholderia
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
  • Acinetobacter
  • Moraxella
  • 28. Campylobacter and Helicobacter
  • Campylobacter
  • Helicobacter
  • 29. Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Rods
  • Bartonella
  • Bordetella
  • Other Bordetella Species
  • Brucella
  • Cardiobacterium
  • Francisella
  • Legionella
  • Streptobacillus
  • 30. Clostridium
  • Clostridium difficile
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Clostridium tetani
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Other Clostridial Species
  • 31. Non–Spore-Forming Anaerobic Bacteria
  • Anaerobic Gram-Positive Cocci
  • Answers
  • Anaerobic Gram-Positive Rods
  • Anaerobic Gram-Negative Cocci
  • Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods
  • 32. Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira
  • Treponema
  • Borrelia
  • Leptospira
  • 33. Mycoplasma
  • Physiology and Structure
  • Pathogenesis and Immunity
  • Answers
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Diseases
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment, Prevention, and Control
  • 34. Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, and Related Bacteria
  • Rickettsiaceae
  • Anaplasmataceae
  • Coxiellaceae
  • 35. Chlamydia
  • Physiology and Structure
  • Section 5. Virology
  • 36. Viral Classification, Structure, and Replication
  • Classification
  • Virion Structure
  • Viral Replication
  • Viral Genetics
  • Viral Vectors for Therapy
  • 37. Mechanisms of Viral Pathogenesis
  • Basic Steps in Viral Disease
  • Infection of the Target Tissue
  • Viral Pathogenesis
  • Viral Disease
  • Epidemiology
  • Control of Viral Spread
  • 38. Role of Viruses in Disease
  • Viral Diseases
  • Chronic and Potentially Oncogenic Infections
  • Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
  • Congenital, Neonatal, and Perinatal Infections
  • 39. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Diseases
  • Specimen Collection
  • Cytology
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Viral Isolation and Growth
  • Detection of Viral Genetic Material
  • Detection of Viral Proteins
  • Viral Serology
  • 40. Antiviral Agents and Infection Control
  • Targets for Antiviral Drugs
  • Nucleoside Analogs
  • Nonnucleoside Polymerase Inhibitors
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Antiinfluenza Drugs
  • Immunomodulators
  • Infection Control
  • 41. Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses
  • Human Papillomaviruses
  • Polyomaviridae
  • 42. Adenoviruses
  • Structure and Replication
  • Pathogenesis and Immunity
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment, Prevention, and Control
  • Therapeutic Adenoviruses
  • 43. Human Herpesviruses
  • Structure of Herpesviruses
  • Herpesvirus Replication
  • Herpes Simplex Virus
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus
  • Epstein-Barr Virus
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7
  • Other Human Herpesviruses
  • 44. Poxviruses
  • Structure and Replication
  • Pathogenesis and Immunity
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • 45. Parvoviruses
  • Structure and Replication
  • Pathogenesis and Immunity
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment, Prevention, and Control
  • 46. Picornaviruses
  • Structure
  • Replication
  • Enteroviruses
  • Rhinoviruses
  • 47. Coronaviruses and Noroviruses
  • Coronaviruses
  • Noroviruses
  • Addendum to Chapter 47 Coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
  • 48. Paramyxoviruses
  • Structure and Replication
  • Measles Virus
  • Parainfluenza Viruses
  • Mumps Virus
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus
  • Human Metapneumovirus
  • Nipah and Hendra Viruses
  • 49. Orthomyxoviruses
  • Structure and Replication
  • Pathogenesis and Immunity
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment, Prevention, and Control
  • 50. Rhabdoviruses, Filoviruses, and Bornaviruses
  • Rhabdoviruses
  • Filoviruses
  • Borna Disease Virus
  • 51. Reoviruses
  • Structure
  • Replication
  • Rotaviruses
  • Orthoreoviruses (Mammalian Reoviruses)
  • Coltiviruses and Orbiviruses
  • 52. Togaviruses and Flaviviruses
  • Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses
  • Rubella Virus
  • 53. Bunyaviridae and Arenaviridae
  • Bunyaviridae
  • Arenaviruses
  • 54. Retroviruses
  • Classification
  • Structure
  • Replication
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus and Other Oncogenic Retroviruses
  • Endogenous Retroviruses
  • 55. Hepatitis Viruses
  • Hepatitis A Virus
  • Hepatitis B Virus
  • Hepatitis C and G Viruses
  • Hepatitis G Virus
  • Hepatitis D Virus
  • Hepatitis E Virus
  • 56. Prion Diseases
  • Structure and Physiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical Syndromes
  • Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Treatment, Prevention, and Control
  • Section 6. Mycology
  • 57. Fungal Classification, Structure, and Replication
  • The Importance of Fungi
  • Fungal Taxonomy, Structure, and Replication
  • Ascomycota (Ascomycetes)
  • Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
  • Glomerulomycota (Mucormycetes, formerly Zygomycetes)
  • Microspora (Microsporidia)
  • Classification of Human Mycoses
  • Summary
  • 58. Pathogenesis of Fungal Disease
  • Primary Fungal Pathogens
  • Opportunistic Pathogens
  • 59. Role of Fungi in Disease
  • 60. Laboratory Diagnosis of Fungal Disease
  • Clinical Recognition of Fungal Infections
  • Conventional Laboratory Diagnosis
  • Immunologic, Molecular, and Biochemical Markers for Direct Detection of Invasive Fungal Infections
  • 61. Antifungal Agents
  • Systemically Active Antifungal Agents
  • Topical Antifungal Agents
  • Investigational Antifungal Agents
  • Combinations of Antifungal Agents in the Treatment of Mycoses
  • Mechanisms of Resistance to Antifungal Agents
  • 62. Superficial and Cutaneous Mycoses
  • Superficial Mycoses
  • Cutaneous Mycoses
  • 63. Subcutaneous Mycoses
  • Lymphocutaneous Sporotrichosis
  • Chromoblastomycosis
  • Eumycotic Mycetoma
  • Subcutaneous Entomophthoromycosis
  • Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis
  • 64. Systemic Mycoses Caused by Dimorphic Fungi
  • Blastomycosis
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Emergomycosis and Adiaspiromycosis
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis
  • Talaromycosis (Penicilliosis) marneffei
  • 65. Opportunistic Mycoses
  • Candidiasis
  • Opportunistic Mycoses Caused by Cryptococcus Neoformans and Other Noncandidal Yeastlike Fungi
  • Microsporidia
  • Aspergillosis
  • Mucormycosis
  • Mycoses Caused by Other Hyaline Molds
  • Phaeohyphomycosis
  • Pneumocystosis
  • 66. Fungal and Fungal-Like Infections of Unusual or Uncertain Etiology
  • Adiaspiromycosis
  • Chlorellosis
  • Lacaziosis (Lobomycosis)
  • Protothecosis
  • Pythiosis Insidiosi
  • Lagenidiosis
  • Rhinosporidiosis
  • Section 7. Parasitology
  • 67. Parasitic Classification, Structure, and Replication
  • Importance of Parasites
  • Classification and Structure
  • Physiology and Replication
  • Summary
  • 68. Pathogenesis of Parasitic Diseases
  • Exposure and Entry
  • Adherence and Replication
  • Cell and Tissue Damage
  • Disruption, Evasion, and Inactivation of Host Defenses
  • 69. Role of Parasites in Disease
  • 70. Laboratory Diagnosis of Parasitic Disease
  • Parasite Life Cycle as an Aid in Diagnosis
  • General Diagnostic Considerations
  • Parasitic Infections of the Intestinal and Urogenital Tracts
  • Parasitic Infections of Blood and Tissue
  • Alternatives to Microscopy
  • 71. Antiparasitic Agents
  • Targets for Antiparasite Drug Action
  • Drug Resistance
  • Antiparasitic Agents
  • 72. Intestinal and Urogenital Protozoa
  • Amebae (Amoebozoa)
  • Ciliates (Metamonada [Formerly Flagellates] and Ciliophora)
  • Sporozoa (Apicomplexa)
  • 73. Blood and Tissue Protozoa
  • Plasmodium Species
  • Babesia Species
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Sarcocystis lindemanni
  • Free-Living Amebae
  • Leishmania
  • Trypanosomes
  • 74. Nematodes
  • Enterobius vermicularis
  • Ascaris lumbricoides
  • Toxocara and Baylisascaris
  • Trichuris trichiura
  • Hookworms
  • Strongyloides stercoralis
  • Trichinella spiralis
  • Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi
  • Loa loa
  • Mansonella Species
  • Onchocerca volvulus
  • Dirofilaria immitis
  • Dracunculus medinensis
  • 75. Trematodes
  • Fasciolopsis buski
  • Fasciola hepatica
  • Clonorchis sinensis
  • Paragonimus westermani
  • Schistosomes
  • 76. Cestodes
  • Taenia solium
  • Cysticercosis
  • Taenia saginata
  • Diphyllobothrium latum
  • Sparganosis
  • Echinococcus granulosus
  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • Hymenolepis nana
  • Hymenolepis diminuta
  • Dipylidium caninum
  • 77. Arthropods
  • Myriapoda
  • Crustacea
  • Pentastomida
  • Chelicerata (Arachnida)
  • Hexapoda (Insecta)
  • Answers
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 872
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: March 10, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323673228
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323674508

About the Authors

Patrick Murray

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Worldwide Director, Scientific Affairs, BD Diagnostics, Sparks; Adjunct Professor, Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; VP, IDS Medical Affairs, Microbiology, BD Life Sciences

Ken Rosenthal

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Immunology, Augusta University/University of Georgia Medical Partnership, Athens, GA.; Emeritus Professor, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio

Michael Pfaller

Affiliations and Expertise

Chief Medical Officer, T2 Biosystems, Lexington, Massachusetts, Professor Emeritus, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa

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