Mechanisms of Speech Recognition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080203942, 9781483137926

Mechanisms of Speech Recognition

1st Edition

International Series in Natural Philosophy

Authors: W. A. Ainsworth
Editors: D. Ter Haar
eBook ISBN: 9781483137926
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 152
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Description

Mechanisms of Speech Recognition explores the mechanisms underlying speech recognition. Topics covered include the auditory system, speech production, auditory psychophysics, speech synthesis and analysis, vowel and consonant recognition, and perception of prosodic features and of distorted speech. Automatic speech recognition and models of speech recognition are also given consideration. This volume consists of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of speech recognition, communication, and production. More specifically, it examines the way in which the organs of the vocal apparatus are employed to transform a message consisting of a string of linguistic units, such as words or phonemes, into a wave of continuous sounds which are recognized as speech. The auditory system and its parts are then described, from the ears to the organ of Corti and nerve cells. The chapters that follow focus on the behavior of the hearing system, the various techniques of analyzing speech sounds, and speech synthesizers such as vocoders. The mechanisms underlying the recognition of vowels and consonants are also described, along with the physical parameters of the speech wave which signal the prosody of an utterance, the effects of distortions in the speech wave on speech perception, and tools used in automatic speech recognition. The book concludes with an evaluation of models of speech recognition. This book will be of interest to phoneticians, linguists, physiologists, psychologists, and physicists.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Chapter 1. Speech Production

Introduction

Speech Communication

Phonemes

Vocal Apparatus

Production of Vowels

Diphthongs

Nasals

Semivowels

Fricatives

Plosives

Affricates

Conclusions

Chapter 2. The Auditory System

Outer Ear

Middle Ear

Inner Ear

Organ of Corti

Nerve Cells

Pathways in the Auditory System

Single unit Recording

Frequency Selectivity of the Cochlea

Units of the Lower Auditory System

Lateral Suppression

Multiple-Peak Stimuli

Units in the Auditory Cortex

Chapter 3. Auditory Psychophysics

Threshold of Hearing

Intensity Discrimination

Frequency Thresholds

Frequency Discrimination

Pitch

Loudness

Critical Bands

Perception of Duration

Fatigue

Masking

Pulsation Thresholds

Theories of Hearing

Chapter 4. Speech Analysis

Speech Waveforms

Spectrum Analysis

Sound Spectrograph

Vowel Sounds

Diphthongs

Semivowels

Nasals

Fricatives

Stop Consonants

Affricates

Co-Articulation

Distinctive Features

Contextual Constraints

Statistics of Spoken English

Chapter 5. Speech Synthesis

Historical

Vocoders

Pattern Playback

Formant Synthesizers

Control of Speech Synthesizers

Digital Synthesis

Linear Predictive Coding

Vocal Tract Synthesizers

Speech Synthesis by Rule

Transmission of Speech Signals

Chapter 6. Vowel Recognition

Dimensional Analysis

Formant Frequency Estimation

Formant Transitions

Vowel Duration

Vocal Tract Normalization

Reliability of Vowel Perception

Difference Limens for Vowels

Chapter 7. Consonant Recognition

Perception of Semivowels

Perception of Stop Consonants

Perception of Nasals

Perception of Fricatives

Categorical Perception

Consonant Confusions

Adaptation

Hemispheric Specialization

Bilateral Adaptation

Chapter 8. Perception of Prosodic Features

Perception of Fundamental Frequency

Perception of Duration

Stress

Rhythm and Tempo

Duration of Syllables

Intonation

Chapter 9. Perception of Distorted Speech

Frequency Distortions

Amplitude Distortions

Time Distortions

Masking of Speech

Effect of Context

Cocktail-Party Effect

Verbal Transformation Effect

Perception of Temporal Order

Chapter 10. Automatic Speech Recognition

Early Speech Recognizers

Other forms of Pre-processing

Some Problems

Analogue Feature Recognition System

Speaker-Independent Digit Recognition

Continuous Speech Recognition

Sources of Linguistic Knowledge

Hierarchical Systems

Top-Down Systems

Heterarchical Systems

Chapter 11. Models of Speech Perception

Short-Term Auditory Memory

Location of Speech Detector Mechanisms

Motor Theory of Speech Perception

Auditory Theory of Speech Perception

Models from Automatic Speech Recognition

Conclusions

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Other Titles in the Series


Details

No. of pages:
152
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483137926

About the Author

W. A. Ainsworth

About the Editor

D. Ter Haar