Mechanisms of Speech Recognition

Mechanisms of Speech Recognition

International Series in Natural Philosophy

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Author: W. A. Ainsworth
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483137926

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Description

Mechanisms of Speech Recognition explores the mechanisms underlying speech recognition. Topics covered include the auditory system, speech production, auditory psychophysics, speech synthesis and analysis, vowel and consonant recognition, and perception of prosodic features and of distorted speech. Automatic speech recognition and models of speech recognition are also given consideration. This volume consists of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of speech recognition, communication, and production. More specifically, it examines the way in which the organs of the vocal apparatus are employed to transform a message consisting of a string of linguistic units, such as words or phonemes, into a wave of continuous sounds which are recognized as speech. The auditory system and its parts are then described, from the ears to the organ of Corti and nerve cells. The chapters that follow focus on the behavior of the hearing system, the various techniques of analyzing speech sounds, and speech synthesizers such as vocoders. The mechanisms underlying the recognition of vowels and consonants are also described, along with the physical parameters of the speech wave which signal the prosody of an utterance, the effects of distortions in the speech wave on speech perception, and tools used in automatic speech recognition. The book concludes with an evaluation of models of speech recognition. This book will be of interest to phoneticians, linguists, physiologists, psychologists, and physicists.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Chapter 1. Speech Production

    Introduction

    Speech Communication

    Phonemes

    Vocal Apparatus

    Production of Vowels

    Diphthongs

    Nasals

    Semivowels

    Fricatives

    Plosives

    Affricates

    Conclusions

    Chapter 2. The Auditory System

    Outer Ear

    Middle Ear

    Inner Ear

    Organ of Corti

    Nerve Cells

    Pathways in the Auditory System

    Single unit Recording

    Frequency Selectivity of the Cochlea

    Units of the Lower Auditory System

    Lateral Suppression

    Multiple-Peak Stimuli

    Units in the Auditory Cortex

    Chapter 3. Auditory Psychophysics

    Threshold of Hearing

    Intensity Discrimination

    Frequency Thresholds

    Frequency Discrimination

    Pitch

    Loudness

    Critical Bands

    Perception of Duration

    Fatigue

    Masking

    Pulsation Thresholds

    Theories of Hearing

    Chapter 4. Speech Analysis

    Speech Waveforms

    Spectrum Analysis

    Sound Spectrograph

    Vowel Sounds

    Diphthongs

    Semivowels

    Nasals

    Fricatives

    Stop Consonants

    Affricates

    Co-Articulation

    Distinctive Features

    Contextual Constraints

    Statistics of Spoken English

    Chapter 5. Speech Synthesis

    Historical

    Vocoders

    Pattern Playback

    Formant Synthesizers

    Control of Speech Synthesizers

    Digital Synthesis

    Linear Predictive Coding

    Vocal Tract Synthesizers

    Speech Synthesis by Rule

    Transmission of Speech Signals

    Chapter 6. Vowel Recognition

    Dimensional Analysis

    Formant Frequency Estimation

    Formant Transitions

    Vowel Duration

    Vocal Tract Normalization

    Reliability of Vowel Perception

    Difference Limens for Vowels

    Chapter 7. Consonant Recognition

    Perception of Semivowels

    Perception of Stop Consonants

    Perception of Nasals

    Perception of Fricatives

    Categorical Perception

    Consonant Confusions

    Adaptation

    Hemispheric Specialization

    Bilateral Adaptation

    Chapter 8. Perception of Prosodic Features

    Perception of Fundamental Frequency

    Perception of Duration

    Stress

    Rhythm and Tempo

    Duration of Syllables

    Intonation

    Chapter 9. Perception of Distorted Speech

    Frequency Distortions

    Amplitude Distortions

    Time Distortions

    Masking of Speech

    Effect of Context

    Cocktail-Party Effect

    Verbal Transformation Effect

    Perception of Temporal Order

    Chapter 10. Automatic Speech Recognition

    Early Speech Recognizers

    Other forms of Pre-processing

    Some Problems

    Analogue Feature Recognition System

    Speaker-Independent Digit Recognition

    Continuous Speech Recognition

    Sources of Linguistic Knowledge

    Hierarchical Systems

    Top-Down Systems

    Heterarchical Systems

    Chapter 11. Models of Speech Perception

    Short-Term Auditory Memory

    Location of Speech Detector Mechanisms

    Motor Theory of Speech Perception

    Auditory Theory of Speech Perception

    Models from Automatic Speech Recognition

    Conclusions

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Other Titles in the Series


Product details

  • No. of pages: 152
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483137926

About the Author

W. A. Ainsworth

About the Editor

D. Ter Haar

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