Mechanic and Dielectric Properties

Mechanic and Dielectric Properties

Advances in Research and Development

1st Edition - June 9, 1993

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  • Editor: Maurice Francombe
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483288925

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Mechanic and Dielectric Properties deals with the mechanical and dielectric properties of thin films. Topics covered range from the deposition and mechanical properties of superlattice thin films to the preparation of hard coatings by sputtering and arc evaporation. The use of thin films in microwave acoustics is also discussed, along with ferroelectric films for integrated electronics and the physics, chemistry, and technology of electrochromic tungsten-oxide-based thin films. Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an analysis of the growth, characterization, and mechanical behavior of films comprising multilayers primarily of metal and refractory metallic compound components. The next chapter reviews the mechanical properties of hard coatings prepared by sputtering and arc evaporation, together with the influence of multilayer and gradient structures, and of film crystallinity, crystal orientation, and morphology, on properties such as hardness, coating smoothness, and friction behavior. Subsequent chapters focus on the unique role played by piezoelectric films in signal processing devices utilizing bulk or surface acoustic waves; the properties and applications of ferroelectric films in integrated electronics; and the underlying physics and chemistry of electrochromic tungsten-oxide-based thin films. This book should be of interest to physicists.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    Deposition and Mechanical Properties of Superlattice Thin Films

    I. Introduction

    II. Deposition Techniques

    III. Characterization

    A. X-Ray Diffraction

    B. Transmission Electron Microscopy

    C. Other Techniques

    IV. Deposition Mechanisms, Structure, and Stability

    A. Crystal Structure and Lattice Relaxation

    B. Nucleation and Layer Morphology

    C. Interdiffusion

    D. Summary

    V. Mechanical Property Measurements

    A. Elastic Moduli and Constants

    B. Hardness and Yield Strength

    VI. Elastic Properties

    A. Experimental Results

    B. Theoretical Predictions

    VII. Mechanical Strength and Hardness

    A. Experimental Results

    B. Theoretical Predictions

    C. Comparison of Experiment and Theory

    VIII. Conclusions



    Hard Coatings Prepared by Sputtering and Arc Evaporation

    I. Introduction

    II. Deposition Techniques Based on Sputtering and Evaporation

    A. Effect of Particle Bombardment in Film Deposition Process

    B. Sputtering

    C. Evaporation

    D. Comparison of Reactive Magnetron Sputtering and Arc Evaporation Techniques

    III. Hard Coatings

    A. Physical Properties of Hard Materials

    B. Substrate/Coating Interface

    C. Bulk of the Coating Material

    D. Upper Layer of the Coating

    E. Multilayer and Gradient Coatings

    IV. Growth and Properties of Hard Coatings

    A. Chemical Composition

    B. Phase Composition

    C. Structure Zone Models

    D. Microstructure of TiN Films Grown under Ion Bombardment

    E. Crystalline Structure and Stress

    F. Preferred Orientation

    G. Surface Morphology

    H. Correlation Process/Microstructure/Properties

    V. Deposition Process

    A. Substrate Heating

    B. Surface Etching and Interface Formation

    C. Film Deposition

    D. Coating Uniformity

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    Thin Films in Microwave Acoustics

    I. Introduction

    II. Thin Film Materials — Growth and Characterization

    A. General Requirements

    B. Piezoelectric and Ferroelectric Films

    C. Other Film Materials

    III. Surface Wave Device Structures

    A. Basic Device Principles and Technology Survey

    B. SAW Attenuation in Thin Ferromagnetic Films

    C. Integrated Device Structures

    D. SAW-ACT

    IV. Bulk Wave Device Structures

    A. General Background

    B. Delay Lines

    C. High-Overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonators (HBAR)

    D. Film Bulk-Wave Acoustic Resonator (FBAR)

    V. Emerging Technology

    A. Thin-Film Materials Issues

    B. Acoustic Sensors

    C. Other Emerging Applications

    VI. Conclusions


    Ferroelectric Films for Integrated Electronics

    I. Introduction and Background

    II. Ferroelectric Film Materials

    A. Properties and Applications of Interest

    B. Film Deposition—General

    III. Growth and Applications—Examples

    A. PbTiO3 and Solid Solutions

    B. LiNbO3, LiTaO3, KNbO3, and KTaO3

    C. Bismuth Titanate, Bi4Ti3O12

    D. Polymers and Inorganic Fluorides

    E. Other Materials

    IV. Integrated Electronics Issues

    A. Materials Processing

    B. Interface and Stability Effects

    C. Integrated Device Structures

    V. Conclusions



    Electrochromic Tungsten-Oxide-Based Thin Films: Physics, Chemistry, and Technology

    I. Introduction

    II. Comments on W Oxide Bulk Crystals

    III. As-deposited Films: Structure and Composition

    A. Evaporated Films

    B. Sputter-deposited Films

    C. Films Made by Chemical and Electrochemical Techniques

    IV. Ion Intercalated Films: Electrochemical Characterization

    A. Diffusion Constants

    B. Electromotive Force

    C. Chronoamperometry

    D. Cyclic Voltammetry

    E. Impedance Spectrometry

    F. Beam Deflectometry

    V. Ion Intercalated Films: Physical Characterization

    A. Microbalance Studies

    B. Depth Profiling of Intercalated Species

    C. Electron- and X-ray Extinction

    D. Vibrational Spectroscopy

    E. Magnetic Resonance

    F. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    VI. Optical Properties

    A. Semiconductor Bandgaps

    B. As-deposited Films: Luminous and Near-infrared Properties

    C. Survey of Coloration Methods

    D. Ion Intercalated Films: Luminous and Near-infrared Properties

    E. Theoretical Models

    VII. Device Data

    A. Liquid Electrolyte

    B. Solid Inorganic Bulk-type Ion Conductor

    C. Solid Inorganic Thin Film Ion Conductor

    D. Polymer Electrolyte

    VIII. Summary and Conclusions


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 397
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1993
  • Published: June 9, 1993
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483288925

About the Editor

Maurice Francombe

Affiliations and Expertise

Georgia State University, Atlanta, U.S.A.

About the Serial Editor

John Vossen

Affiliations and Expertise

RCA Laboratories, Princeton, New Jersey

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