Meat Science - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780080307893, 9781483279565

Meat Science

4th Edition

Authors: R. A. Lawrie
eBook ISBN: 9781483279565
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1985
Page Count: 285
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Meat Science, Fourth Edition focuses on the science of meat, from the initiation of life in the meat animal to the absorption of its nutrients by the human consumer.

This edition updates the topics on hormonal control of reproduction and growth, pre-slaughter stress, modes of stunning and bleeding, refrigeration, eating quality, and consumer health. A section has been added on the electrical stimulation of carcasses post-mortem, emphasizing the differing susceptibility of individual muscles to cold shock on the one hand and to undergo conditioning changes on the other. The developments, such as the mechanical recovery of meat, its modification by high pressure, its reformation after controlled comminution, and incorporation with it of proteins from abattoir waste or non-meat sources are also elaborated in this book.

This publication is beneficial to students and individuals researching on the food science of meat.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1 Meat and Muscle

1.2 The Origin of Meat Animals

1.2.1. Sheep

1.2.2. Cattle

1.2.3. Pigs

1.3 Current Trends

2. Factors Influencing the Growth and Development of Meat Animals

2.1. General

2.2. Genetic Aspects

2.3. Environmental Physiology

2.4. Nutritional Aspects

2.4.1. Plane of Nutrition

2.4.2. Interaction with Other Species

2.4.3. Soils and Plant Growth

2.4.4. Trace Materials in Soils and Pastures

2.4.5. Unconventional Feed Sources

2.5. Exogenous Manipulation

2.5.1. Reproduction Control

2.5.2. Growth Control

3. The Structure and Growth of Muscle

3.1. The Proportion of Muscular Tissue in Sheep, Cattle and Pigs

3.2. Structure

3.2.1. Associated Connective Tissue

3.2.2. The Muscle Fiber

3.3 The Growth of Normal Muscle

3.3.1. Fundamental Basis of Protein Organization and Replication in Biological Tissues

3.2.2. General Origins of Tissues

3.3.3. Development of Muscular Tissue

3.4. Abnormal Growth and Development in Muscle

3.4.1. Genetic Aspects

3.4.2. Nutritional Aspects

3.4.3. Physiological Aspects

3.4.4. Various Extrinsic Aspects

4. Chemical and Biochemical Constitution of Muscle

4.1. General Chemical Aspects

4.1.1. Muscle Proteins

4.1.2. Intramuscular Fat

4.2. Biochemical Aspects

4.2.1. Muscle Function In Vivo

4.2.2. Post-mortem Glycolysis

4.2.3. Onset of Rigor Mortis

4.3. Factors reflected in Specialized Muscle Function and Constitution

4.3.1. Species

4.3.2. Breed

4.3.3. Sex

4.3.4. Age

4.3.5. Anatomical Location

4.3.6. Training and Exercise

4.3.7. Plane of Nutrition

4.3.8. Inter-animal Variability

5. The Conversion of Muscle to Meat

5.1 Pre-slaughter Handling

5.1.1. Moisture Loss

5.1.2. Glycogen Loss

5.2. Death of the Animal

5.2.1. Stunning and Bleeding

5.2.2. Dressing and Cutting

5.3. General Consequences of Circulatory Failure

5.4. Conditioning (Ageing)

5.4.1. Protein Denaturation

5.4.2. Proteolysis

5.4.3. Other Chemical Changes

6. The Spoilage of Meat by Infecting Organisms

6.1. Infection

6.1.1. Endogenous Infections

6.1.2. Exogenous Infections

6.2. Symptoms of Spoilage

6.3. Factors affecting the Growth of Meat-spoilage Micro-organisms

6.3.1. Temperature

6.3.2. Moisture and Osmotic Pressure

6.3.3. pH

6.3.4. Oxidation-reduction Potential

6.3.5. Atmosphere

6.4. Prophylaxis

6.4.1. Hygiene

6.4.2. Biological Control

6.4.3. Antibiotics

6.4.4. Ionizing Radiations

7. The Storage and Preservation of Meat I. Temperature Control

7.1. Refrigeration

7.1.1. Storage above the Freezing Point

7.1.2. Storage below the Freezing Point

7.2. Thermal Processing

7.2.1. Pasteurization

7.2.2. Sterilization

8. The Storage and Preservation of Meat II. Moisture Control

8.1. Dehydration

8.1.1. Biochemical Aspects

8.1.2. Physical Aspects

8.1.3. Organoleptic Aspects

8.2. Freeze Dehydration

8.2.1. Histological Aspects

8.2.2. Physical and Biochemical Aspects

8.2.3. Organoleptic Aspects

8.3. Curing

8.3.1. Wiltshire Cure and Variants

8.3.2. Biochemical Aspects

8.3.3. Organoleptic Aspects

8.3.4. Intermediate Moisture Meat

9. The Storage and Preservation of Meat III. Direct Microbial Inhibition

9.1. Ionizing Radiation

9.1.1. Chemical and Biochemical Aspects

9.1.2. Organoleptic Aspects

9.1.3. Radiation Pasteurization

9.2. Antibiotics

9.3. Chemical Preservatives

10. The Eating Quality of Meat

10.1. Color

10.1.1. The Quantity and Chemical Nature of Myoglobin

10.1.2. Discoloration

10.2. Water-holding Capacity and Juiciness

10.1.1. Uncooked Meat

10.1.2. Uncooked meat

10.3. Texture and Tenderness

10.3.1. Definition and Measurement

10.3.2. Pre-slaughter Factors

10.3.3. Post-slaughter Factors

10.3.4. Artificial Tenderizing

10.4. Odor and Taste

10.4.1. Definition and Nature

10.4.2. General Considerations

10.4.3. Variability in Odor and Taste

10.4.4. Undesirable Odor and Taste

11. Meat and Human Nutrition

11.1. Essential Nutrients

11.1.1. Amino Acids

11.1.2. Minerals

11.1.3. Vitamins

11.1.4. Fatty Acids

11.2. Toxins and Residues

11.3. Meat-eating and Health

12. Prefabricated Meat

12.1. Manipulation of Conventional Meat

12.1.1. Mechanically-recovered Meat

12.1.2. High Pressure Modification

12.1.3. Reformed meat

12.2. Non-meat Sources

12.3. Upgrading Abattoir Waste




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© Pergamon 1985
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About the Author

R. A. Lawrie

Ralston A. Lawrie was one of the world’s leading authorities on meat science. Formerly Emeritus Professor of Food Science in the University of Nottingham, he was also the founding editor of the journal Meat Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Nottingham, UK

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