Engineering, Science, Processing and Design

2nd Edition - October 12, 2009

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  • Authors: Michael Ashby, Hugh Shercliff, David Cebon
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080961552

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Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing and Design, Second Edition, was developed to guide material selection and understanding for a wide spectrum of engineering courses. The approach is systematic, leading from design requirements to a prescription for optimized material choice. This book presents the properties of materials, their origins, and the way they enter engineering design. The book begins by introducing some of the design-limiting properties: physical properties, mechanical properties, and functional properties. It then turns to the materials themselves, covering the families, the classes, and the members. It identifies six broad families of materials for design: metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, elastomers, and hybrids that combine the properties of two or more of the others. The book presents a design-led strategy for selecting materials and processes. It explains material properties such as yield and plasticity, and presents elastic solutions for common modes of loading. The remaining chapters cover topics such as the causes and prevention of material failure; cyclic loading; fail-safe design; and the processing of materials.

Key Features

* Design-led approach motivates and engages students in the study of materials science and engineering through real-life case studies and illustrative applications

* Highly visual full color graphics facilitate understanding of materials concepts and properties

* Chapters on materials selection and design are integrated with chapters on materials fundamentals, enabling students to see how specific fundamentals can be important to the design process

* Links with the Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES EduPack), the powerful materials selection software. See for information


  • "Guided Learning" sections on crystallography, phase diagrams and phase transformations enhance students’ learning of these key foundation topics
  • Revised and expanded chapters on durability, and processing for materials properties
  • More than 50 new worked examples placed throughout the text


Undergraduate materials, mechanical, chemical, civil & aeronautical engineering students taking courses in materials science & engineering, materials processing and engineering design.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Resources that accompany this book

    Chapter 1 Introduction: materials—history and character

    1.1 Materials, processes and choice

    1.2 Material properties

    1.3 Design-limiting properties

    1.4 Summary and conclusions

    1.5 Further reading

    1.6 Exercises

    Chapter 2 Family trees: organising materials and processes

    2.1 Introduction and synopsis

    2.2 Getting materials organised: the materials tree

    2.3 Organising processes: the process tree

    2.4 Process–property interaction

    2.5 Material property charts

    2.6 Computer-aided information management for materials and processes

    2.7 Summary and conclusions

    2.8 Further reading

    2.9 Exercises

    2.10 Exploring design using CES

    2.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 3 Strategic thinking: matching material to design

    3.1 Introduction and synopsis

    3.2 The design process

    3.3 Material and process information for design

    3.4 The strategy: translation, screening, ranking and documentation

    3.5 Examples of translation

    3.6 Summary and conclusions

    3.7 Further reading

    3.8 Exercises

    3.9 Exploring design using CES

    Chapter 4 Stiffness and weight: density and elastic moduli

    4.1 Introduction and synopsis

    4.2 Density, stress, strain and moduli

    4.3 The big picture: material property charts

    4.4 The science: what determines density and stiffness?

    4.5 Manipulating the modulus and density

    4.6 Summary and conclusions

    4.7 Further reading

    4.8 Exercises

    4.9 Exploring design with CES

    4.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Guided Learning Unit 1: simple ideas of crystallography

    Part 1: Introduction and synopsis

    Part 2: Crystal structures

    Part 3: Interstitial space

    Part 4: Describing planes

    Part 5: Describing directions

    Part 6: Ceramic crystals

    Part 7: Polymer crystals

    Chapter 5 Flex, sag and wobble: stiffness-limited design

    5.1 Introduction and synopsis

    5.2 Standard solutions to elastic problems

    5.3 Material indices for elastic design

    5.4 Plotting limits and indices on charts

    5.5 Case studies

    5.6 Summary and conclusions

    5.7 Further reading

    5.8 Exercises

    5.9 Exploring design with CES

    5.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 6 Beyond elasticity: plasticity, yielding and ductility

    6.1 Introduction and synopsis

    6.2 Strength, plastic work and ductility: definition and measurement

    6.3 The big picture: charts for yield strength

    6.4 Drilling down: strength and ductility

    6.5 Manipulating strength

    6.6 Summary and conclusions

    6.7 Further reading

    6.8 Exercises

    6.9 Exploring design with CES

    6.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 7 Bend and crush: strength-limited design

    7.1 Introduction and synopsis

    7.2 Standard solutions to plastic problems

    7.3 Material indices for yield-limited design

    7.4 Case studies

    7.5 Summary and conclusions

    7.6 Further reading

    7.7 Exercises

    7.8 Exploring design with CES

    Chapter 8 Fracture and fracture toughness

    8.1 Introduction and synopsis

    8.2 Strength and toughness

    8.3 The mechanics of fracture

    8.4 Material property charts for toughness

    8.5 Drilling down: the origins of toughness

    8.6 Manipulating properties: the strength–toughness trade-off

    8.7 Summary and conclusions

    8.8 Further reading

    8.9 Exercises

    8.10 Exploring design with CES

    8.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 9 Shake, rattle and roll: cyclic loading, damage and failure

    9.1 Introduction and synopsis

    9.2 Vibration and resonance: the damping coefficient

    9.3 Fatigue

    9.4 Charts for endurance limit

    9.5 Drilling down: the origins of damping and fatigue

    9.6 Manipulating resistance to fatigue

    9.7 Summary and conclusions

    9.8 Further reading

    9.9 Exercises

    9.10 Exploring design with CES

    Chapter 10 Keeping it all together: fracture-limited design

    10.1 Introduction and synopsis

    10.2 Standard solutions to fracture problems

    10.3 Material indices for fracture-safe design

    10.4 Case studies

    10.5 Summary and conclusions

    10.6 Further reading

    10.7 Exercises

    10.8 Exploring design with CES

    Chapter 11 Rub, slither and seize: friction and wear

    11.1 Introduction and synopsis

    11.2 Tribological properties

    11.3 Charting friction and wear

    11.4 The physics of friction and wear

    11.5 Design and selection: materials to manage friction and wear

    11.6 Summary and conclusions

    11.7 Further reading

    11.8 Exercises

    11.9 Exploring design with CES

    Chapter 12 Agitated atoms: materials and heat

    12.1 Introduction and synopsis

    12.2 Thermal properties: definition and measurement

    12.3 The big picture: thermal property charts

    12.4 Drilling down: the physics of thermal properties

    12.5 Manipulating thermal properties

    12.6 Design to exploit thermal properties

    12.7 Summary and conclusions

    12.8 Further reading

    12.9 Exercises

    12.10 Exploring design with CES

    12.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 13 Running hot: using materials at high temperatures

    13.1 Introduction and synopsis

    13.2 The temperature dependence of material properties

    13.3 Charts for creep behaviour

    13.4 The science: diffusion and creep

    13.5 Materials to resist creep

    13.6 Design to cope with creep

    13.7 Summary and conclusions

    13.8 Further reading

    13.9 Exercises

    13.10 Exploring design with CES

    13.11 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 14 Conductors, insulators and dielectrics

    14.1 Introduction and synopsis

    14.2 Conductors, insulators and dielectrics

    14.3 Charts for electrical properties

    14.4 Drilling down: the origins and manipulation of electrical properties

    14.5 Design: using the electrical properties of materials

    14.6 Summary and conclusions

    14.7 Further reading

    14.8 Exercises

    14.9 Exploring design with CES

    14.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 15 Magnetic materials

    15.1 Introduction and synopsis

    15.2 Magnetic properties: definition and measurement

    15.3 Charts for magnetic properties

    15.4 Drilling down: the physics and manipulation of magnetic properties

    15.5 Materials selection for magnetic design

    15.6 Summary and conclusions

    15.7 Further reading

    15.8 Exercises

    15.9 Exploring design with CES

    15.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 16 Materials for optical devices

    16.1 Introduction and synopsis

    16.2 The interaction of materials and radiation

    16.3 Charts for optical properties

    16.4 Drilling down: the physics and manipulation of optical properties

    16.5 Optical design

    16.6 Summary and conclusions

    16.7 Further reading

    16.8 Exercises

    16.9 Exploring design with CES

    16.10 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 17 Durability: oxidation, corrosion, degradation

    17.1 Introduction and synopsis

    17.2 Oxidation, flammability and photo-degradation

    17.3 Oxidation mechanisms

    17.4 Resistance to oxidation, burning and photo-degradation

    17.5 Corrosion: acids, alkalis, water and organic solvents

    17.6 Drilling down: mechanisms of corrosion

    17.7 Fighting corrosion

    17.8 Summary and conclusions

    17.9 Further reading and software

    17.10 Exercises

    17.11 Exploring design with CES

    17.12 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 18 Heat, beat, stick and polish: manufacturing processes

    18.1 Introduction and synopsis

    18.2 Process selection in design

    18.3 Process attributes: material compatibility

    18.4 Shaping processes: attributes and origins

    18.5 Joining processes: attributes and origins

    18.6 Surface treatment (finishing) processes: attributes and origins

    18.7 Estimating cost for shaping processes

    18.8 Computer-aided process selection

    18.9 Case studies

    18.10 Summary and conclusions

    18.11 Further reading

    18.12 Exercises

    18.13 Exploring design with CES

    18.14 Exploring the science with CES Elements

    Chapter 19 Follow the recipe: processing and properties

    19.1 Introduction and synopsis

    19.2 Processing for properties

    19.3 Microstructure of materials

    19.4 Microstructure evolution in processing

    19.5 Metals processing

    19.6 Non-metals processing

    19.7 Making hybrid materials

    19.8 Summary and conclusions

    19.9 Further reading

    19.10 Exercises

    19.11 Exploring design with CES

    Guided Learning Unit 2: Phase diagrams and phase transformations

    Introduction and synopsis

    Part 1: Key terminology

    Part 2: Simple phase diagrams, and how to read them

    Part 3: The iron-carbon diagram

    Part 4: Interpreting more complex phase diagrams

    Part 5: Phase transformations and microstructural evolution

    Part 6: Equilibrium solidification

    Part 7: Equilibrium solid-state phase changes

    Part 8: Non-equilibrium solid-state phase changes

    Chapter 20 Materials, processes and the environment

    20.1 Introduction and synopsis

    20.2 Material consumption and its growth

    20.3 The material life cycle and criteria for assessment

    20.4 Definitions and measurement: embodied energy, process energy and end of life potential

    20.5 Charts for embodied energy

    20.6 Design: selecting materials for eco-design

    20.7 Summary and conclusions

    20.8 Appendix: some useful quantities

    20.9 Further reading

    20.10 Exercises

    20.11 Exploring design with CES

    Appendix: Data for engineering materials


Product details

  • No. of pages: 672
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2009
  • Published: October 12, 2009
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080961552

About the Authors

Michael Ashby

Michael Ashby
Mike Ashby is one of the world’s foremost authorities on materials selection. He is sole or lead author of several of Elsevier’s top selling engineering textbooks, including Materials and Design: The Art and Science of Material Selection in Product Design, Materials Selection in Mechanical Design, Materials and the Environment, Materials and Sustainable Development, and Materials: Engineering, Science, Processing and Design. He is also co-author of the books Engineering Materials 1&2, and Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design.

Affiliations and Expertise

Royal Society Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cambridge, and Former Visiting Professor of Design at the Royal College of Art, London, UK

Hugh Shercliff

Hugh Shercliff
Hugh Shercliff is a Senior Lecturer in Materials in the Department of Engineering at the University of Cambridge. He is a co-author of Michael Ashby's Materials, Third Edition (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013), and a contributor on aluMATTER, an e-learning website for engineers and researchers sponsored by the European Aluminium Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer in Materials, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK

David Cebon

David Cebon is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Cambridge University in the UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK

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